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History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet. 









19 09. 

Copyright by 

Joseph F. Smith 





"AftOLO ft. Ucfc LltJHAm 







Letter of Willard Richards to Walker 521 

Brigham Young — Detailing Illness of the Prophet 522 

Current Events at Nauvoo.. 511 Meeting in Pittsburg 523 

The Thirty-eighth Vexatious Conference in Michigan 523 

Lawsuit 518 The Prophet's Altercation with 

Unwisdom of Elder Page 521 Bagby 524 

Political Debate, Hoge vs. 








The Prophet's Remarks at the Extracts from Journal of Elder 

Funeral of Judge Higbee... 529 Jonathan Dunham While 

The Prophet's Explanation of Engaged on an Exploration 

Election Day Troubles 531 in the Western Country 542 

Letter of J. Hall, Missouri, on Minutes of a Meeting of the 
the Recent Arrest and Trial Twelve in New York City... 550 

of the Prophet 538 Address of the Prophet — Sid- 
Editorial Comments of the ney Rigdon's Status — The 

Nauvoo Neighbor on the Priesthood Expounded 553 

Foregoing Letter 539 


This volume deals with the History of the Church from May 3, 1842, 
to 31st of August, 1843. It, therefore, covers a period of about sixteen 
months. The main external events may be set down as follows: First, 
exposure of the wickedness of John C. Bennett, and his departure from 
Nauvoo; (2) the charge against the Prophet Joseph of complicity in an 
attempted assassination of Ex-governor Lilburn W. Boggs, under whose 
celebrated exterminating order the body of the Church was driven from 
Missouri; (3) the attempt of the state of Missouri to extradite the 
Prophet from the state of Illinois, to be tried as an accessory before the 
fact to an assault on ex-Governor Boggs; (4) a second attempt on the 
part of Missouri to extradite the Prophet from the state of Illinois on 
the old charge of "murder, treason, burglary, arson, larceny, theft 
and stealing," first brought against him in the year 1838; (5) a prelim- 
inary prospecting of the West, doubtless with a view to the contem- 
plated removal of the Saints to the Kocky Mountains. 

Of events that relate more nearly to the Church as an organization 
there should be mentioned: (1) the introduction of the endowment cere- 
monies and enlarged instruction on the subject of baptism for the dead; 
(2) an extension of auxiliary organization by bringing into existence 
the Young Men's and Women's Society. 

Another item of great interest in this volume is the manifest develop- 
ment of the character and spiritual strength of the Prophet during this 
period. The trying experiences through which he passed seemed to dis- 
cover new qualities of soul power within him, and to emphasize those 
which he was known to have possessed. 

The doctrinal development of the period covered by this volume deals 
with several items which may be regarded as preliminary to that richer 
unfolding of philosophical thought to which the last year of the Proph- 
et's teaching was so largely devoted. Let us now consider these several 
items more in detail. 

Br. JoJin C. Bennett. 

At the first glance it may be difficult to comprehend how a character 
like John C. Bennett could find favor and place with the Church of 


Christ. There is a strong temptation, when the whole truth about this man 
is known, to regard him as an adventurer and a wicked man from the 
beginning. But those who had, perhaps, the best opportunity to know 
him held that his motives for coming to Nauvoo were honest, that hi<* 
intentions in life at that time were honorable, but that he fell into 
transgression and would not repent. Such were the views of John Taylor, 
who was closely associated with Bennett in affairs at Nauvoo (see foot 
note, pages 80 and SI this volume); and the Lord in the revelation 
given on the 19th of January, 1841, accepts of him and speaks approv- 
ingly of Bennett's love for the work: "And for his love he shall be 
great. * * * * * j k ave seen ^he wor k which he hath done, 
which I accept, if he continue, and will crown him with blessings 
and great glory." (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 124; 17.) 

It cannot be otherwise, then, but that John <J. Bennett in coming to 
the Saints did so out of love for the work, had a desire to work 
righteousness but was among those who failed — he did not "continue" 
in his right intentions. It is possible even for men whose lives are not 
above reproach to feel indignation at acts of injustice, such as was per- 
petrated upon the Latter-day Saints by the state of Missouri; and sure 
it is that John C. Bennett expressed himself very pronouncedly against 
the injustice suffered by the Church at the hands of the officers and 
people of that state, and he "proffered his military knowledge and 
prowess" to the Saints while the latter were yet in Missouri, but under- 
going expulsion. His proposal was to go to their assistance with all 
the forces he could raise in Illinois, as "his bosom swelled with indig- 
nation" at the treatment the Saints were receiving at the hands of the 
cruel and cowardly Missourians. That proffered service, however, was 
not accepted; doubtless because the Saints depended for vindication of 
their reputation, and redress of their wrongs upon the officers of the 
state and nation, rather than upon incensed persons, however sincere 
and well meaning, who offered their service to wage war upon their 
enemies. But after the Saints bagan gathering at Commerce, Bennett 
again expressed a desire to connect his fortunes with them. When he 
contemplated removing to Commerce, he held the position of quarter- 
master-general in the militia of the state of Illinois, a position he did 
not wish to resign. Indeed he expressed a desire to hold the position 
for a number of years. He was also a physician with an extensive prac- 
tice, and forwarded extracts to the Prophet from the Louisville Courier- 
Journal which gave evidence of high standing in his profession. Writ- 
ing of these things to Joseph, he said: 

I do not expect to resign my office of quartermaster-general of the 
state of Illinois, in the event of my removal to Commerce, unless you 
advise otherwise. I shall likewise expect to practice my profession, but 


at the same time your people shall have all the benefit of my speaking 
powers, and my untiring energies in behalf of the good and holy faith. 

In a communication following the one from which I make the above 
quotation he said : 

You are aware that at the time of your most bitter persecution, I 
was with you in feeling, and proffered you my military knowledge and 

While Joseph extended a hearty welcome to the Doctor to come to 
Commerce, he by no means held out any very flattering inducements to 
him, as may be seen by his letters in answer to Bennett's expressing 
his determination to join the Saints. The Prophet said: 

I have no doubt that you would be of great service to this community 
in practicing your profession, as well as those other abilities of which 
you are in possession. Though to devote your time and abilities in the 
cause of truth and a suffering people, may not be the means of exalting 
you in the eyes of this generation, or securing you the riches of this 
world, yet by so doing you may rely on the approval of Jehovah, "that 
blessing which maketh rich and addeth no sorrow." ****** 
Therefore, my general invitation is, let all who will come, come and 
partake of the poverty of Nauvoo, freely. I should be disposed to give 
you a special invitation to come as early as possible, believing you will 
be of great service to us. However, you must make your own arrange- 
ments according to your circumstances. Were it possible for you to 
come here this season to suffer affliction with the people of God, no one 
will be more pleased to give you a cordial welcome than myself. 

Surely this was frank enough, and ought to have dispelled from the 
Doctor's mind all thoughts of winning worldly fame, or gratifying vain 
ambition, by linking his fortunes with those of the Church of Jesus 
Christ. The whole course of the Prophet here outlined, and as further 
set forth in the parts of this volume dealing with the case of John C. 
Bennett, vindicates him and the Church from any complicity with the 
wickedness and vileness of that man. 

Bennett's attempted vindication of his course of procedure, and his 
defense against the action of the Church in exposing his wickedness 
and excommunicating him is, that from the beginning he came amongst 
the Saints as a spy, to become acquainted with their alleged treasonable 
designs against several of the western states, for the purpose of expos- 
ing them; all which is set forth in a note at pp, 79, 80 of this volume. 
All this was ridiculous; and the whole presentation of this view of the 
matter in his book under the pompous title, The History of the Saints; 
or An Expose of Joe Smith and Mormonism* convinced nobody, since 
Bennett's insincerity and putridity of mind is evidenced upon 

» Published in Boston, 1842. 


every page of his repulsive book. "The role of traitor," says H, 
H. Bancroft, in his history of Utah, dealing with John C. Bennett: — 

The role of traitor is not one which in any wise brings credit to the 
performer, either from one side or the other. However great the ser- 
vice he may render ns, we cannot but feel that he is false hearted and 
vile. Many of the apostates, though they may not have written books, 
declare that they joined the sect only to learn their secrets and then ex- 
pose them. These are the most contemptible of all. There may be 
cases, where a young or inexperienced person, through ignorance or 
susceptibility, has been carried away for a time contrary to the dictates 
of cooler judgment; but the statements of such persons are justly re- 
garded with more or less suspicion. Far better is it, far more honest 
and praiseworthy, for him who, having unwittingly made a mistake, 
seeks to rectify it, to go his way and say nothing about it; for if he 
talks of writing a book for the good of others, as a warning, and that 
they may avoid his errors, few will believe him. "If he has proved 
traitor once,' 7 they say, "he will deceive again; and if he is sincere, 
we cannot more than half believe him, for such an individual is never 
sure of himself." JohnC. Bennett, general, doctor, methodist preacher, 
and quack, is from his own showing a bad man. He devotes some fifty 
pages to the vindication of his character, which would not be necessary 
were he honest; other fifty are given to defaming his late worshipful 
patron Joseph Smith, which would never have been written were he 
true. When a man thrusts in your face three-score certificates of his 
good character, each signed by from one to a dozen persons, you may 
know that he is a very great rascal. Nor are we disappointed here. 
This author is a charlatan, pure and simple; such was he when he joined 
the Mormons, and before and after. We may credit him fully when he 
says, "I never believed in them or their doctrines; " although in a letter 
to Dr. Dyer, dated Nauvoo, Jan. 20, 1842, he declares: "My heart is 
filled with indignation, and my blood boils within me, when I contem- 
plate the vast injustice and cruelty which Missouri has meted out to the 
great philantnropist and devout Christian, General Joseph Smith, and 
his honest and faithful adherents." When, however, he affects patriot- 
ism and lofty devotion to the welfare of his fellow-men, pretending to 
have joined the society in order to frustrate "a daring and colossal 
scheme of rebellion and usurpation throughout the north-western states, 
. . . . a despotic military and religious empire, the head of which, 
as emperor and pope, was to be Joseph Smith," we know that the 
writer is well aware that it is all nonsense. Nor do we believe that he 
was induced to print his book "by a desire to expose the enormous in- 
iquities which have been perpetrated by one of the grossest and most 
infamous impostors that ever appeared upon the face of the earth." 
We have heard and are still hearing so mu^h of that kind of talk from 
some of the worst men in the community that it is becoming somewhat 
stale, and if the general really does not know better than this why he 
wrote his book, perhaps he will excuse me for telling him that it was, 
first, for notoriety; second, for money; and third, in order to make 
people think him a better and greater man than he is. When a man's 
ambition is pitched so low, it is a pity that he should not have the grati- 
fication of success. Bravely, then, the geueral proceeded to offer him- 
self on the altar of his country, "to overthrow the impostor and expose 


his iniquity" by "professing himself a convert to his doctrines;" for 
"the fruition of his hopeful project would, of course, have been pre- 
ceded by plunder, devastation, and bloodshed, and by all the countless 
horrors which invariably accompany civil war." We are still more im- 
pressed when we read: "I was quite aware of the danger I ran" — that 
of being kicked out of some back door — "but none of these things de- 
terred me." Without wasting more time and space upon the man, we 
are well enough prepared to place a proper estimate upon his state- 
ments, particularly when we take into account that, in May of the very 
year in which his book was published, he went before Alderman Wells 
and made affidavit that Joseph Smith was an honest, virtuous, sincere, 
high-minded, and patriotic man. He says himself that he solemnly 
swore to be true to the Mormons and not reveal their secrets, and now 
in breaking that oath he has the audacity to ask us to regard him as an 
honest and truthfnl man! In some measure, at least, the statements 
of such men as this, taken up by the press and people, and reiterated 
throughout the land, have given the Latter-day Saints a worse name 
than they deserve. Some of his charges are too coarse and filthy for 
repetition." * 

The only description I have seen of Dr. Bennett is given in the Essex 
County Washingtonian, published in Salem, Massachusetts, and that is 
contained in the issue of the fifteenth of September, 1842. According^ 
Ao that description/he was a man of about five feet nine inches high, j 
/ well formed, black nair sprinkled wjth gray, dark complexion, a rather / 
( thin face, and black restless eyes. 

Hejiflally died J in obscurity, and also, it is said, in poverty, (Cannon's 
Life of Jo^e7n~Smrth,"pT377). 

The Attempted Assassination of Ex- Governor Boggs 
of Missouri. 

When an attempt was made to assassinate ex-Governor Boggs of Mis- 
souri it was perhaps to be expected that suspicion would fall upon the 
Mormon people and upon the head of Joseph Smith especially. Surely 
Boggs had given sufficient provocation to that people to make it prob- 
able that some fanatic of their number might undertake in misguided 
zeal, the act of revenge; and surely there would not be wanting those 
who would say that Joseph Smith in nis capacity as Prophet had pre- 
dicted the violent taking off of the ex-governor. Joseph Smith, how- 
ever, in his communication to the Quincy Whig, in which appeared the 
first account of the rumored assassination of Boggs, promptly denied 
making the alleged prediction, and also denied any complicity whatso- 
ever in the wretched business. It is only just to his memory to say that 
in all the investigation had upon the subject, historically, or judicially, 
his denial is not controverted. Even in the case of Orrin Porter Rock- 

* Bancroft's History of Utah, pp. 150, 151 note. 


well who was charged directly with the attempted assassination and 
taken to Jackson county, Missouri, for trial, it had to be admitted that 
* 'there was not sufficient proof adduced against him to justify an in- 
dictment for shooting at ex-Governor Boggs, and the grand jury there- 
fore did not indict him for that offense.'' (Independent Expositor, Nile's 
Register, Sept. 30, 1843.) 

John C. Bennett labors hard to prove by statements alleged to have 
been made to him by the Prophet, and subsequently by Rockwell, that 
they were jointly guilty of this attempted assassination; but there is no 
weight of evidence iu his presentation of the case; nor is there any evi- 
dence that the Mormon people or the officials of the Mormon Church 
approved of revenge by acts of assassination. Bennett in his book "The 
History of the Saints," (p. 282) makes a quotation from the Nauvoo 
Wasp in which he charges editorial expressions of approval of the deed, 
as follows: 

The Nauvoo Wasp of May 28, A. D., 1842, a paper edited by William 
Smith, one of the Twelve Mormon Apostles, and brother of the Prophet, 
declared, ["Boggs is undoubtedly killed according to report, but]* Who 
did the Noble Deed remains to be found out." 

This, however, is not an editorial expression of the Wasp; but is 
found in a communication, on the editorial page, it is true, signed by a 
now unknown writer under the non cle plume, "Vortex," who is indig- 
nantly taking to task a correspodent in the Hawk Eye, a paper published 
in Keokuk, Iowa, for charging the supposed assassination of Boggs 
upon some Mormon. It is "Vortex" in the Wasp that refers to the then 
supposed assassination of Boggs as a "noble deed," not the editor. The 
editorial comment of the Wasp on this communication from "Vortex" 
is as follows: "We admit the foregoing communication to please our 
correspondent, not that we have any faith that any one has killed Gov- 
ernor Boggs. The last account we have received is that he is still liv- 
ing and likely to live." .On the same page of the Wasp is published 
Joseph Smith's denial of complicity in the then supposed assassination 
of Boggs and also the prediction of his violent death. 

The First Attempt of Missouri to Extradite the Prophet. 

That Joseph Smith should be accused of the crime of being accessory 
before the fact to the attempted assassination of ex-Governor 
Boggs, was perhaps to be expected as soon as a Mormon was 
charged with the assault. But that his extradition should be demanded 
by Missouri on the ground that he was "a fugitive from justice from 
that State" is something at which to be astonished, even when the 

* The words in brackets are in the Wasp communication, but not in Bennett's 
book. They are inserted here for clearness. 


action is by the officials of Missouri of the period of which I am writ- 
ing. For surely it must be a true principle of law — since it is a plain 
deduction from common sense principles — that the alleged fugitive from 
justice must be such in connection with and in consequence of the 
crime with which he is charged. It was matter of common knowledge 
both in Missouri and in Illinois, that Joseph Smith had not been in 
Missouri for more than three years preceding the assault upon Boggs, 
nor since the time of the assault; and that on the day the assault was 
made he was in attendance upon an officer's drill. Finally, then, he 
was not a fugitive from the State of Missouri in respect of this particu- 
lar crime, therefore not extraditable under such charge. If, theu, 
Joseph Smith had committed the crime of being accessory before the 
fact, to the assault upon Boggs at all, it must have been a crime com- 
mitted in the state of Illinois and not in the state of Missouri. There- 
fore he was not extraditable for the offense at all, but he must be tried, 
if tried at all, in the state where the crime was committed, viz., in Illi- 
nois. But if astonishment is due that even Missouri should make such 
palpable blunders in legal procedure in moving for the extradition of 
the Prophet, astonishment changes to amazement when Governor Car- 
lin of Illinois becomes a party to the attempted illegal extradition. The 
whole procedure up to the close of Carlin's administration (which went 
out of existence on the 8th of December 1842), warrants the conclusion 
that a conspiracy existed between the high state officials of both Mis- 
souri and Illinois against Joseph Smith, and that it was the intent of 
that conspiracy to encompass his destruction. When the Prophet and 
Orrin Porter Rockwell were arrested (8th of August, 1842) by the 
deputy sheriff of Adams county, they made no attempt to evade the 
officer, but immediately applied to the municipal court of Nauvoo for 
a writ of habeas corpus, which was granted, but the deputy sheriff re- 
fused to recognize the authority of the municipal court in this case, and 
leaving his prisoner in the hands of the city marshal, withdrew from 
Nauvoo. He returned two days later, however, determined to take the 
Prophet from Nauvoo and deliver him to the agents of the state of 
Missouri. The Prophet, however, avoided arrest and went into retire- 
ment, where he remained — with now and then an occasional appear- 
ance among the people — throughout the summer of 1842. In the early 
days of December, Governor Carlin's administration came to an end 
and Ford's began, and the Prophet at once petitioned the new executive 
to rescind Carlin's order for his arrest. Ford referred the matter to the 
judges of the Supreme Court, who were unanimously of the opinion 
that the requisition from Missouri was illegal, but advised that the mat- 
ter be settled in the courts rather than by executive action. The Gov- 
ernor suggested that if the Prophet found it necessary to repair to 


Springfield, the state capital, for a judicial investigation of his rights, 
he did not think there would be any disposition to use illegal violence 
against him; and the governor pledged himself to protect the Prophet if 
necessary with any amount of force from mob violence while assert- 
ing his rights before the courts, as well as when going to and return- 
ing from them. This advice was supplemented by the advice of his 
eminent counsel, Justin Bntterfield; also by his very dear and trusted 
friend, General James Adams. The Prophet accordingly submitted to 
arrest and immediately set out for Springfield with a company of his 

The matter once before the Circuit Court of the United States for 
the district of Illinois, Judge Pope presiding, the matter was soon dis- 
posed of by declaring the procedure of Missouri and the executive of 
Illinois, (Carlin) illegal, and ordering that the Prophet be discharged 
from his arrest, as set forth in detail in the body of this volume. 

The Second Attempt of Missouri to Extradite the Prophet. 

A second attempt of Missouri to drag the Prophet from the state of 
Illinois by extradition procedure, was even more infamous than the 
first. No sooner was Joseph released from arrest and departed from 
Springfield than John C. Bennett arrived there and wrote some of his 
friends in Nauvoo his intention to leave immediately for Missouri and 
obtain a new indictment by a grand jury on the old charge of * 'murder, 
treason, burglary, theft," etc., brought against the Prophet, Hyrum 
Smith, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt et al., in 1838, hoping that upon 
this charge he might succeed in getting out extradition papers on the 
ground that the Prophet was a fugitive from the justice of the state of 
Missouri. It will be remembered that a former attempt was made under 
this same charge, in June, 1841, when the Prophet was tried on writ 
of habeas corpus at Monmouth, Warren county, Illinois, before Judge 
Douglas and set at liberty. It was on this occasion that Esquire 0. 
H. Browning declared that to ask Joseph Smith "to go to Missouri for 
a trial was adding insult to injury" (Vol. IV, chapter XX). 

An indictment on these old charges was finally obtained, supposed- 
ly at the instance of Bennett and the Prophet's old Missouri enemies, 
at a special term of the Circuit Court of Daviess county, Missouri, on the 
5th of June, J 843. Governor Reynolds, of Missouri issued a requisi- 
sition on Governor Ford for Joseph Smith, and appointed J. H. Reyn- 
olds as agent of Missouri to receive the Prophet from the authorities 
of Illinois. The story of the arrest and the incidents thereto are given 
in great detail in the body of this volume, and need not be dwelt upon 
here. It will be sufficient to say that Joseph finally succeeded in bring- 


ing his captors to Nauvoo where he obtained a writ of habeas corpus 
from the municipal court of Nauvoo by which the validity of the pro- 
cedure of Missouri might be tested. When Joseph was on trial upon 
these same charges before Judge Douglas on a writ of habeas corpus in 
1841, the Monmouth court refused to enter into a consideration of the 
merits of the case, as the judge doubted whether on the writ of habeas 
corpus he had a right to go beyond the writ and inquire into the mer- 
its of the ease, but ordered the release of the prisoner on the ground of 
some defect in the writ under which he was held. The same point was 
avoided by Judge Pope in the hearing at Springfield on the charge 
against the Prophet for complicity in the assault upon ex-Governor 
Boggs. But the Nauvoo municipal court had no such scruples, and at 
once proceded to try the case exparte on its merits, and Hyrum Smith, 
P. P. Pratt, Brigham Young, Geo. W. Pitkin, Lyman Wight, and Sid- 
ney Rigdon were examined as witnesses. Their affidavits be- 
fore the court concerning events that happened to the Saints 
in Missouri, afford the most circumstantial, reliable and exhaustive data 
for the history of the Church while in that state. They will be found 
in the Appendix to Vol. Ill of this history. After hearing the testi- 
mony of these witnesses and the pleading of counsel the court ordered 
that Joseph Smith be released from the arrest and imprisonment of 
which he complained for want of substance in the warrant by which he 
was held, as well as upon the merits of the case. A copy of the proceed- 
ings before the municipal court at Nauvoo and all the papers connected 
with the case were immediately sent to Governor Ford, as also were 
affidavits from leading counsel and gentlemen from outside places. I 
may anticipate a little by saying that about a year later a jury in Lee 
county, Illinois, awarded $40.00 damages and costs against Wilson, a 
sheriff in the state of Illinois, and Reynolds, the Missouri agent, for 
false imprisonment and abuse of the Prophet, a verdict, which while it 
confirms the unlawful course of those officers, and the fact that their 
prisoner was abused, insults justice by awarding such an amount for 

At the time of the action by the municipal court of Nauvoo, ordering 
the Prophet's release from arrest, it was a question in Illinois whether 
said court had the authority to hear and determine writs of habeas 
corpus arising from arrests made by virtue of warrants issued by the 
courts of the state or of the governor, as in the foregoing case; or 
whether the clause in the city charter granting the right of issuing writs 
of habeas corpus was not confined to cases arising strictly from arrests 
made on account of the violation of some city ordinance. The clause in 
the charter, giving to the municipal court the power to issue writs of 
habeas corpus was as follows: 


The municipal court shall have power to grant writs of habeas corpus 
in all cases arising under the ordinances of the city council. 

And in addition there was the general welfare provision, which pro- 
vided that the 

City council shall have power and authority to make, ordain, establish 
and execute such ordinances not repugnant to the constitution of the 
United States or of this state, as they may deem necessary for the 
peace, benefit and safety of the inhabitants of said city. 

It was maintained on the part of those who believed that the municipal 
court had the right to issue writs of habeas corpus against process issued 
from the state courts that all the power there was in Illinois she gave to 
Nauvoo, and that the municipal court had all the power within the lim- 
its of the city that the state courts had, and that power was given by 
the same authority — the legislature. A number of lawyers of more or 
less prominence in the state professed to hold these views; but litrie 
reliance can be put in the support they bring to the case, since all of 
them were seeking political preferment, immediately or remotely, and 
would and did in their interpretation of the powers granted by the 
charter, favor that side of the controversy most likely to please the citi- 
zens of Nauvoo. Governor Ford, too, at the time, gave a tacit approval 
of the course taken by the municipal court in issuing the writ of habeas 
corpus j though he afterwards became very pronounced in his opposi- 
tion to the exercise of such powers. His acquiescence appears in this, 
that as soon as Joseph was liberated, sheriff Reynolds applied to Gov- 
ernor Ford foi sl posse to retake him, representing that the Prophet had 
been unlawfully taken out of his hands by the municipal court of Nauvoo: 
whereupon the governor refused to grant the petition. Subsequently the 
governor of Missouri asked Governor Ford to call out the militia to re- 
take Joseph, but this he also refused to do, and gave as a reason that "no 
process, officer, or authority of the state had been resisted or interfered 
with; " and recited how the prisoner had been released on habeas corpus 
by the municipal court of Nauvoo. The governor acted in this instance 
with perfect knowledge of what had taken place, for the petition and 
statement of Reynolds were in his possession, as were also complete 
copies of all the documents which contained the proceedings before the 
municipal court of Nauvoo; and in addition to these sources of informa- 
tion, the governor had dispatched a trusted secret agent, a Mr. Bray- 
man, to Nauvoo, who investigated the case and reported the result to 
him. It must be held, however, both as a matter of fact and of law, 
that the grant in the Nauvoo city charter was intended by the legisla- 
ture only to give power to the municipal court to issue writs of habeas 
corpus in cases of arrest for violation of city ordinances; and that giv- 


ing power to the municipal court to test the warrants or processes issued 
from the state courts was never contemplated by the legislature, and 
that the passage of any ordinance by the city council that would bring 
about or authorize any such unusual proceeding was an unwarranted 
assumption of power, utterly wrong in principle and consequenly sub- 
versive of government. But whatever opinion may be entertained on 
the legal point under consideration, there can be no question but what 
upon the broad principles of justice the Prophet Joseph ought to have 
been set free. The state of Missouri had no just claims upon him. He 
had been arrested and several times examined on these old charges now 
revived by the personal malice of John C. Bennett, and after being 
held a prisoner awaiting indictment and trial for five months in Mis- 
souri in the winter of 1838-9, so conscious were the officers of the state 
that they had no case against him, that they themselves connived at his 
escape. After such proceedings to demand that he be dragged again 
into Missouri, among his old enemies for a trial on these old and time- 
worn charges, was an outrage against every principle of justice, and 
was a course prompted solely by malice. 

Prospecting the West tvith a View to Removal of the 


It may be that what is here set down with reference to prospecting 
the west with a view to the ultimate removal of the Saints, can reach 
no higher from the data supplied by this volume than conjecture; but 
taken in connection with the well-known projects of the last year of the 
Prophet's life — upon which now our history, even in this volume, has 
entered — and the facts to which attention is called appear quite signifi- 
cant. These facts are: The Prophet's remarkable and well attested 
prediction of 6th of August, 1843, that the Saints would yet be driven 
to the Rocky mountains where they would become a great people (p. 
85 and note; ) the several visits of delegations of Pottawattamie Indian 
chiefs to the Prophet, the body of their people being then settled on the 
Missouri river nearly due west some three hundred miles from Nauvoo; 
the appointment of Elder Jonathan Dunham, a man of character and 
judgment, to visit this tribe of Indians, under the Pottawattamie guide 
Neotanah; and the incorporation of the journal of Elder Dunham with- 
in the narrative of the Prophet's autobiographical journal. The con- 
cluding paragraph of Dunham's journal expresses disappointment with 
his explorations,* the object of which since his journey covered some- 
thing like six hundred miles, and was attended by Indian guides both.: 

*"I have seen much delightful country, but the prospect for bee hunting is no 
as good as I could wish." 


coming and returning, was not "bee nunting;" but most probably 
prospecting a possible trail and locating resting places for the Saints 
when engaged in a great westward movement. 

Development of the Prophet's Character. 

During the trying events of the fifteen months of which this volume is a 
history, the nature of the Prophet underwent a remarkable development. 
There never was, of course, any doubt as to the physical courage of the 
Prophet. From boyhood he had been noted for his fearlessness under 
trying circumstances, but during the period here considered he was the 
constant object of assault, both by legal processes, under the leadership 
of cunning, malicious men, and the physical brutality of officials 
charged with the execution of the law; and both when facing the malic- 
iously skillful in their proceedings under the color of law, and the threats 
of physical force from brutal captors, the conduct of the Prophet was 
most admirable. Also in seclusion, when others were easily excited 
and manifested symptoms of panic under the ciruumstances of conflict- 
ing rumors of impending dangers, it is refreshing to see how calmly the 
Prophet keeps his balance and rightly judges the true status of many 
trying situations. But what is most pleasing to record of this period of 
enforced seclusion while avoiding his enemies, is the development of 
that tenderness of soul manifested in his reflections upon the friends 
who had stood by him from the commencement of his public career: for 
his father and mother, for his brother Alvin, for Emma, his wife, for his 
brother Hyrum, the Knights, who were his friends even before the Book 
of Mormon was translated, and especially for the friends who received 
him and ministered unto him during his retirement from public minis- 
try. No act of kindness seems to go unmentioned. No risk run for 
him that is not appreciated. Indeed he gathers much benefit from those 
trials, since their effect upon his nature seems to be a softening rather 
than a hardening influence; and the trials of life are always beneficial 
where they do not harden and brutalize men's souls; and every day 
under his trials the Prophet seems to have grown more tender-hearted, 
more universal in his sympathies; his moments of spiritual exaltation 
are superb. No one can read them and doubt that the inspiration of 
God was giving this man's spirit understanding. 

Doctrinal Development. 

The doctrinal development of the Church for the period covered by 
this volume covers a wide range of subjects; the Prophet's definition of 
the "Kingdom of God," meaning in its narrowest as in its broadest 
sense, the * 'government of God, whether represented by a single indi- 


vidual, an institution or a great and complex organization (p. 256); the 
keys by which angelic administrations may be known (p. 267); the vir- 
tue of Blood Atonement (p. 296); the physical nature of God, the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit (p. 323, 325, 426); the earth becoming aUrim 
and Thummim to those who shall inherit it in its glorified and perfected 
state; tne coming of the Son of Man; the persistence of acquired knowl- 
edge; the impossibility of being saved in ignorance (pp. 323-5). But 
the climax in doctrine as in moral daring is reached in this volume 
by the Prophet committing to writing the revelation on the eternity of 
the marriage covenant, and, under special circumstances and divine 
sanction the rightfulness, of a plurality of wives. As the time at which 
this revelation was given has been questioned, and also the author- 
ship of it, extended consideration is given to both these matters in the 
following treatise: 

The Time When the Revelation on the Eternity of the Mar- 
riage Covenant, Including a Plurality of Wives, 
Was Given, and its Authorship. 


Ihe Date of the Revelation. 

The date in the heading of the Revelation on the Eternity of the 
Marriage Covenant, Including: the Plurality of Wives, notes the time at 
which the revelation was committed to writing, not the time at which 
the principles set forth in the revelation were first made known to the 
Prophet. This is evident from the written revelation itself which dis- 
closes the fact that Joseph Smith was already in the relationship 
of plural marriage, as the following passage witnesses: 

"And let mine handmaid, Emma Smith, receive all those that 
have been given unto my servant Joseph, and who are virtuous and 
pure before me." 

There is indisputable evidence that the revelation making known this 
marriage law was given to the Prophet as early as 1831. In that year, 
and thence intermittently up to 1833, the Prophet was engaged in a re- 
vision of the English Bible text under the inspiration of God, Sidney 
Rigdon in the main acting as his scribe. As he began his revision with 
the Old Testament, he would be dealing with the age of the Patriarchs 
in 1831. He was doubtless struck with the favor in which the Lord held 
the several Bible Patriarchs of that period, notwithstanding they had a 
plurality of wives. What more natural than that he should inquire of the 
Lord at that time, when his mind must have been impressed with the 
fact _ Why , o Lord, didst Thou justify Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac 


and Jacob; as also Moses, David, and Solomon, in the matter of their 
having many wives and concubines (see opening paragraph of the 
Revelation)? In answer to that inquiry came the revelation, though 
not then committed to writing. 

Corroborative evidences of the fact of the revelation having been 
given thus early in the Prophet's career are to be found in the early 
charges against the Church about its belief in "polygamy.'' For 
example: When the Book of Doctrine and Covenants was presented to 
the several quorums of the priesthood of the Church for acceptance in 
the general assembly of that body, the 17th of August, 1835, an article 
on "Marriage" was presented by W. W. Phelps, which for many years 
was published in the Doctrine and Covenants. It was not a revelation, 
nor was it presented as such to the general assembly of the priesthood. 
It was an article, however, that represented the views of the assembly 
on the subject of marriage at that time, unenlightened as they were by 
the revelation already given to the Prophet on the subject. What the 
Prophet Joseph's connection was with this article cannot be learned. 
Whether he approved it or not is uncertain, since he was absent from 
Kirtland at the time of the general assembly of the priesthood which 
accepted it, on a visit to the Saints in Michigan (see History of the 
Church, Vol. I, pp. 243-53). 

In this article on marriage the following sentence occurs: 

"Inasmuch as this Church of Christ has been reproached with the 
crime of fornication and polygamy, we declare that we believe that one 
man should have one wife, and one woman but one husband, except in 
case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again.'* 

From this it is evident that as early at least as 1835 a charge of poly- 
gamy was made against the Church. Why was that the case unless the 
subject of "polygamy" had been mooted within the Church? Is it not 
evident that some one to whom the Prophet had confided the knowl- 
edge of the revelation he had received concerning the rightfulness of 
plural marriage — under certain circumstances — had unwisely made 
some statement concerning the matter? 

Again, in May, 1836, in Missouri, in a series of questions asked and 
answered through the Elders Journal, the following occurs: 

"Do the Mormons believe in having more wives than one?" 

To which the answer is given; 

"No, not at the same time." 

This again represents the belief of the Saints at that time, unen- 
lightened as they then were by the revelation received by their Prophet. 
But again, why this question unless there had been some agitation of the 
subject? Had some one before the time had come for making known 
this doctrine to the Church, again unwisely referred to the knowledge 


which had been revealed to the Prophet some seven years earlier? 

All these incidents blend together and make it clearly evident that 
the revelation on marriage was given long before the 12th of July, 1843. 
Doubtless as early as 1831. 

In addition to these indirect evidences is the direct testimony of the 
late Elder Orson Pratt, of the council of the Twelve Apostles. In 1878, 
in company with President Joseph F. Smith, Elder Pratt visited several 
states east of the Mississippi in the capacity of a missionary; and at 
Piano, Illinois, at a meeting of the so-called Reorganized Church of the 
Latter-day Saints, he was invited by the presiding officer, a Mr. Dille, 
and the meeting, to occupy the time, which he did. In his remarks, 
according to his own and his companion's report of the meeting— 

"Elder Pratt gave a plain, simple narration of his early experience in 
the Church, relating many interesting incidents connected with its rise; 
explained the circumstances under which several revelations were re- 
ceived by Joseph, the Prophet, and the manner in which he received 
them, he being present on several occasions of the kind. Declared [that] 
at such times Joseph used the Seerstone when inquiring of the Lord, and 
receiving revelation, but that he was so thoroughly endowed with the 
inspiration of the Almighty and the spirit of revelation that he often 
received them without any instrument, or other means than the oper-^ 
ation of the spirit upon his mind. Referred to the testimony which he 
received of the truth of the great latter-day work while yet a boy,. 
Testified that these things were not matiers of belief only with him,, 
bat of actual knowledge. He explained the circumstances connected 
with the coming forth of the revelation on plural marriage. Refuted 
the statement and belief of those present that Brigham Young was the 
author of that revelation; showed that Joseph Smith the Prophet had 
not only commenced the practice himself , and taught it to others, before 
President Young and the Twelve had returned from their mission in 
Europe, in 184L, but that Joseph actually received revelations upon 
that principle as early as 1831. Said: 'Lyman Johnson, who was very 
familiar with Joseph at this early date, Joseph living at his father's 
house, and who was also very intimate with me, we having traveled on 
several missions together, told me himself that Joseph had made known 
to him as early as 1831, that plural marriage was a correct principle. 
Joseph declared to Lyman that God had revealed it to him, but that 
the time had not come to teach or practice it in the Church, but that 
the time would come.' To this statement Elder Pratt bore his 
testimony. He cited several instances of Joseph haying had wives 
sealed to him, one at least as early as April 5th, 1841, which was some 
time prior to the return of the Twelve from England, Referred to his 
own trial in regard to this matter in Nauvoo, and said it was because he 


got his information from a wicked source, from those disaffected, but 

as soon as he learned the truth, he was satisfied. 

(Signed) " Orson Pratt, 
(Signed) "Joseph F. Smith." 

(The above is taken from a signed report of Elders Orson 
Pratt and Joseph F. Smith of the Council of the Twelve on the occasion 
of their visit to the East in 1878, and is to be found in the Millennial 
Star, Vol. 40, Nos. 49 and 50.) 

Relative to committing the revelation to writing on the 12th of July, 
1843, that can best be told by the man who wrote the revelation as the 
Prophet Joseph dictated it to him, William Ulayton; and the man who 
copied it the day following, Joseph Kingsbury; and from which copy 
the revelation was afterwards printed as it now stands in the current 
edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. In a sworn statement before 
John T. Caine, a notary public in Salt Lake City, on Fehurary 16th, 
1874, William Clayton said: 

"On the 7th of October, 1842, in the presence of Bishop Newel K. 
Whitney and his wife, Elizabeth Ann, President Joseph Smith ap- 
pointed me Temple Recorder, and also his private clerk, placing all 
records, books papers, etc., in my care, and requiring me to take 
charge of and preserve them, his closing words being, 'when I have 
any revelations to write, you are the one to write them.' * 
On the morning of the 12th of July, 1843; Joseph and Hyrum Smith 
came into the office in the upper story of the brick store, on the bank 
of the Mississippi river. They were talking on the subject of plural 
marriage. Hyrum said to Joseph, k If you will write the revelation on 
celestial marriaere, I will take it and read it to Emma, and I believe I 
can convince her of its truth, and you will hereafter have peace.' 
Joseph smiled and remarked, 'You do not know Emma as well as I do.' 
Hyrum repeated his opinion, and further remarked, 'The doctrine is so 
plain, I can convince any reasonable man or woman of its truth, purity 
and heavenly origin,' or words to that effect. Joseph then said, 'Well, 
I will write the revelation and we will see.' He then requested me to 
get paper and prepare to write. Hyrum very urgently requested 
Joseph to write the revelation by means of the Urim and Thummim, 
but Joseph in reply, said he did not need to, for he knew the revelation 
perfectly from beginning to end. 

"Joseph and Hyrum then sat down and Joseph commenced to dictate 
the revelation on celestial marriage, and I wrote it, sentence by sen- 
tence, as he dictated. After the whole was written, Joseph asked me 
to read it through, slowly and carefully, which I did, and he pronounced 
it correct. He then remarked that there was much more that he could 


write on the same subject, but what was written was sufficient for the 

"Hyrum then took the revelation to read to Emma. Joseph remained 
with me in the office until Hyrum returned. When he came back, Jos- 
eph asked him how he had succeeded. Hyrum replied thai he had never 
received a more severe talking to in his life, that Emma was very bitter 
and full of resentment and anger. 

"Joseph quietly remarked, *I told you you did not know Emma as 
well as I did.' Joseph then put the revelation in his pocket, and they 
both left the office. 

"The revelation was read to several of the authorities during the day. 
Towards evening Bishop Newel K. Whitney asked Joseph if he had any 
objections to his taking a cnpy of the revelation; Joseph replied that 
he had not, and handed it to him. It was carefully copied the following 
day by Joseph C. Kingsbury. Two or three days after the revelation 
was written Joseph related to me and several others that Emma had so /?£' 
teased, and urgently entreated him for the privilege of destroying it, 
that he became so wear3 T of her teasing, and to get rid of her annoyance, 
he told her she might destroy it and she had done so, hut he had con- 
sented to her wish in this matter to pacify her, realizing that he knew 
the revelation perfectly, and could rewrite it at any time if necessary. 

"The copy made by Joseph C. Kingsbury is a true and correct copy 
of the original in every respect. The copy was carefully preserved by 
Bishop Whitney, and but few knew of its existence until the temporary 
location of the Camps of Israel at Winter Quarters, on the Missouri 
River, in 1846. 

aecfl "Wm. Clayton. 

'Salt Lake City, Feb. 16th, 1874." 

On May 22, 1886, Joseph C. Kingsbury made the following statement 
before Charles W. Stayner, a notary public, in Salt Lake City: 

"In reference to the affidavit of Elder William Clayton, on the sub- 
ject of the celestial order of patriarchal marriage, published in the 
Deseret Evening Neivs of May 20th, 1886, and particularly as to the state- 
ment made therein concerning myself, as having copied the original rev- 
elation written by Brother Clayton at the dictation of the Prophet Jos- 
eph, I will say that Bishop Newel K. Whitney, handed me the revela- 
tion above referred to either on the day it was written or the day fol- 
lowing, and stating what it was, asked me to take a copy of it. I did 
so, and then read my copy of it to Bishop Whitney, we compared it 
with the original which he held in his hand while I read to him. When 

had finished reading, Bishop Whitney pronunced the copy correct, 
and Hyrum Smith coming into the room at the time to fetch the original, 
Bishop Whitney handed it to him. I will also state that this copy, as 


also the original are identically the same as that published in the present 
edition [1886] of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants. 

"I will add that I also knew that the Prophet Joseph Smith had mar- 
ried other women besides his first wife, Emma; I was well aware of the 
fact of nis having married Sarah Ann Whitney, the eldest daughter of 
Bishop Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Ann Whitney, his wife. 
And the Prophet Joseph told me personally that he had married other 
women, in accordance with the revealed will of God, and spoke con- 
cerning the principle as being a command of God for holy purposes. 
(Signed) "Joseph C. Kingsbury." 

Authorship oj the Revelation. 

In addition to the testimony of these affidavits as to the authorship 
of the revelation, and many more on file in the Church Historian's of- 
fice, equally positive and unimpeachable, which might be quoted, there 
is another sort of evidence as to the authorship, not before used, so far 
as I know, to which I desire to appeal, and which if* even more certain 
and convincing on this subject than the testimony of any affidavit by 
whomsoever given. I refer to the internal evidence that Joseph Smith, 
under the inspiration of God, of course, is the author of it. The reve- 
lation carries with it so many characteristics of his style found in other 
revelations given through him, that to doubt his authorship of it is im- 
possible. Let us consider these characteristics. 

1. Ihe Bevelation Was Given in Answer to the Prophet 1 s Inquiry — 
A Characteristic of Nearly All His Bevelations. 

The revelation was given in answer to the Prophet's inquiries upon 
one branch of the subject of which it treats, viz., the justification of 
some of the Bible Patriarchs and Prophets in having a plurality of 
wives. It is so generally the case that the revelations the Prophet re- 
ceived came in response to inquiries either by himself or by those who 
sought to learn their duty or to know some truth, that such inquiries 
may be considered as a condition precedent to his receiving revelations; 
at any rate it is plainly a characteristic of the whole volume of revela- 
tions which Joseph Smith gave to the world. 

The Prophet's first revelation, the one respecting the errancy of 
the religious world, accompanied as it was by a full view of God the 
Father, and God the Son, was received in answer to a most earnest in- 
quiry to know what course he should pursue in the midst of the religious 
confusion then existing — which church should he join. (History of the 
Church, Vol. I, chapt. 1,) 

The first of that series of meetings with the angel Moroni, which 


finally resulted in the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, was brought 
about through the Prophet asking for a spiritual manifestation from the 
Lord, that he might know of his "state and standing before Him." 
(History of the Church, Vol. I, chapt. 2). 

The series of revelations given during the time the Book of Mormon 
was in course of translation were chiefly given in response to inquiries 
on the part of the persons who came to the Prophet seeking to know 
the will of the Lord with reference to the relationship they should as- 
sume towards the work then coming forth. See Doc. and Cov., Sec. 10; 
History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 23, also pp. 28-33, 36, 45, 48, 49, 51, 
53. These revelations are found in the Doc. and Cov., Sec. 3, 4, 5, G, 
7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 1G, 17.) 

The revelation authorizing the organization of the Church and out- 
lining that organization and some of the fundamental doctrines of the 
Church (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 20), was given in answer to most earnest 
inquiry as to how the Prophet and his associates should proceed with 
the work of organization. "We had for some time made this matter a 
subject of humble prayer," writes the Prophet, "and at length we got 
together in the chamber of Mr. Whitmer's house, in order more par- 
ticularly to seek of the Lord what we now so earnestly desired; and 
here to our unspeakable satisfaction, did we realize the truth of the 
Savior's promise, 'ask, and it shall be given you; seek, anr 1 ye shall 
find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you 1 — for we had not long been 
engaged in solemn and fervent prayer, when the word of the Lord came 
to us in the chamber." (History of the Church, chapt. 7.) Then fol- 
lows the revelation on Church organization and doctrine. 

I may say that all the great revelations of the Church, as well as those 
which might be regarded as merely personal, were received in response 
to earnest inquiries of the Lord. Thus the revelation which in 1831 
was regarded as making known the moral law of the Gospel was re- 
ceived after earnest inquiry. (History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 148; 
Doc. and Cov., Sec. 42, par. 3.) So also the great revelation on priest- 
hood. (History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 287; Doc. and Cov., Sec. 84.) 
The great revelation on the order of the priesthood and the relations of 
the quorums to each other was given in response to a formal and very 
earnest petitition on the part of the quorum of the Twelve Apostles. 
(History of the Church, Vol.11, pp. 219, 220; Doc. and Cov., Sec. 107.) 
So also as to the revelation on tithing and the disposition of it. (Doc. 
and Cov., Sec. 119, 120; History of the Church, Vol. Ill, p. 44.) So the 
great revelation setting in order the affairs of the Church at Nauvoo, 
given January 19, 1841. " Your prayers are acceptable before me," 
said the Lord to the Prophet, "and in answer to them I say unto you," 
then continues that great revelation. (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 124: 2.) In 


fact, to particularize no further, it may be said that by far the greater 
number of the revelations received by the Prophet were in response to 
his petitions and inquiries of the Lord; and therefore the fact that this 
revelation on marriage was given in response to inquiries by the 
Prophet, to know why the Lord justified the worthy patriarchs named, 
and some of the prophets, in their plural marriage relations, is char- 
acteristic of practically all the revelations received by him. 

^. It Possesses the Characteristic of Frankness in Beproving the Prophet. 

Another characteristic of the Prophet Joseph's revelations is the 
frankness with which the Prophet himself is reproved for his follies and 
transgressions of the counsels of the Lord. He is never shielded; never 
justified when he steps aside from the path direct; reproof, chastise- 
ment and warnings are administered to him. *God in these revelations 
deah with him indeed as with a son whom he loves, if it be true— and 
we have warrant of holy writ that it is — that God chasteneth whom he 
loveth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. (Heb. 12: 6-8.) 
The following quotations from the revelations will illustrate what I 
mean. The Lord thus reproved the Prophet in 1829: "And behold^ 
how oft you have transgressed the commandments and the laws of God, 
and have gone on in the persuasions of men. * * * * Yoi. should 
not have feared man more than God. * * * * Thou wast chosen 
to do the work of the Lord, but because of transgression, if thou art 
not aware, thou wilt fall. * * * Repent. * * * Except thou 
do this, thou shalt be delivered up and become as other men, and haye 
no more gift. * * * Thou hast suffered the counsel of thy director 
to be trampled upon from the beginning. (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 3.) 

Again in 1829 this: "I command you my servant Joseph to repent 
and walk more uprightly before me, and yield to the persuasions of men 
no more. (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 5.) 

This was said of the Prophet in a revelation given in 1830: "After 
it was truly manifested unto this first elder (Joseph Smith) that he had 
received a remission of his sins, he was entangled again in the vanities 
of the world. But after repenting and huoibling himself sincerely, 
through faith, God ministered unto him by an holy angel," etc. that is, 
took him again into divine favor. (See Doc. and Cov., Sec. 20.) 

Again in 1830: "Thou art not excusable in thy transgressions; 
nevertheless, go thy way and sin no more." (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 24.) 

In 1831 this was said of the Prophet: "There are those who have 
sought occasion against him without cause; nevertheless he has sinned, 
but verily I say unto you, I the Lord, forgive sins unto those who con- 
fess their sins before me and ask forgiveness, who have not sinned unto 
death." (Doc. and Coy., Sec. 64.) 


In 1833, this: " Verily, I say unto you, my son, thy sins are forgiven 
thee t according to thy petition, for thy prayers, and the prayers of thy 
brethren, have come up into my ears." (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 90.) 

In the same year this: " Verily, I say unto Joseph Smith, Jr., you 
have not kept the commandments, and must needs stand rebuked be- 
fore the Lord." (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 93.) 

In 1841 this was said to the Prophet: "Verily thus saith the Lord 
unto you my servant Joseph Smith, I am well pleased with your offer- 
ing and acknowledgments, which you have made, for unto this end 
have I raised you up, that I might show forth my wisdom through the 
weak things of the earth.' 1 (Doc. and Cov., Sec. 124.) 

It is but iu harmony then with the whole course of God with this man 
that in this revelation on marriage his sins should be referred too. It 
is particularly Joseph Smith-like that it should be done, and it is done: 
"Let my handmaid forgive my servant Joseph his trespasses; and then 
shall she be forgiven her trespasses wherein she has trespassed against 
me> ***** -x- k et no Qne ^ therefore, set on my servant Jos- 
eph; for I will justify him; for he shall do the sacrifice which I require 
at his hands, for his transgressions, saith the Lord your God.'' (Doc. 
and Cov., Sec. 132: 56-60). 

Thus it will appear that all the frankness with which the Prophet 
was reproved in other revelations is manifested in this revelation on 
marriage; and hence, to the extent of that characteristic, identifies this 
revelation on the marriage covenant with the other revelations received 
by the Prophet. 

3. The Evidence of the Largeness of Mange in the Eevelation on Marriage. 

The next characteristic to be noted is the largeness of range in 
this revelation so characteristic of(all, the Prophet's revelations. His 
main inquiry was why God justified the ancient patriarchs in having 
many wives. The answer went far beyond the inquiry, and there was 
given to the Prophet a new marriage law, so far transcending the con- 
ceptions of men coucerning marriage, as the thoughts of God transcend 
the thoughts of men on all subjects. The marriage covenant must be 
an eternal one, not marriage "until death does you part.'' The mar- 
riage relation will exist in heaven. Pro-creation within the marriage 
covenant of man is to be an eternal, creative power. It shall people 
the increasing heavens as it has the multiplying worlds with offspring 
of the Sons of God. It is to be of the things that shall not pass away, 
but a means of perpetuating the lives and all their purifying, and up- 
lifting relationships. And the power to establish these relationships is 
in the Priesthood of God, the keys of which were restored through Jos- 
eph Smith. 


4. The Evidence of Identical Phraseology in This and Other Revelations. 

The recurrence and peculiar use of certain phrases to be found in 
both this revelation on Marriage and the other revelations given out by 
Joseph Smith, establish clearly the authorship to be the same. Such, 
for example, as the peculiar use of "mine" instead of ''my.'' In the 
revelation on marriage we have this: ' 'Behold! mine house is a house 
of order" (v. 8) ; "If a man be called of my Father, * * * by mine 
own voice," etc., (v. 59). "Through the medium of mine anointed, 
whom I have appointed," etc., (v. 7); and are sealed * * * ac- 
cording to mine appointment (v. 26); and let mine handmaid Emma 
Smith, (v. 54); "verily I say, let mine handmaid forgive my servant 
Joseph," etc., (v. 56). 

Let these expressions be compared with the following phrases from 
various revelations: "Behold this is mine authority and the authority of 
my servants'' (Doc. and Cov. sec. 1: 6); "They have strayed from mine 
ordinances (v. 15); "that mine everlasting covenant be established," 
etc., (v. 22); "shall all be fulfilled, whether by mine own voice or the 
voice of my servants" (v. 38); "it is meet unto you to know even as 
mine apostles" (sec. 19:8); "ye are called to bring to pass the gather- 
ing of mine elect for mine elect hear my voice" (sec. 29: 7); "it hath 
gone forth * * * that mine apostles, the Twelve," etc. ( /. 12); 
"it is the workmanship of mine hand" (v. 25); "Michael, mine arch- 
angel, shall sound his trump" (v. 26); "through faith on the name of 
mine Only Begotten Son" (v. 42); "from the foundation of the world 
through mine Only Begotten'' (v. 46) ; "according to mine own plea- 
sure" (v. 4S). And so on throughout the revelations this phrase oc- 
curs. It is used eight times in the revelation on marriage and runs 
through nearly all the revelations sometimes fewer, sometimes more 
than this. In section 101 it occurs eleven times, in section 103 six 
times. But it is always used sufficiently to make it a characteristic of 
the revelations received by Joseph Smith. 

(2) The phrase "as touching," is used several times in this revela- 
tion on marriage; "a* touching the principle and doctrine, "etc., (v. 1); 
"will answer thee as touching this matter" (v. 2); "and as touching 
Abraham and his seed" (v. 30) ; "as touching the law of the priesthood,'' 
etc., (v. 5). The same expression is found in Sec. 42 — "As ye * * * 
are agreed as touching this one thing" (v. 3). Also in the Book of 
Mormon: "He spake as touching all things concerning my people." 

(3) Such phrases as "I am the Lord thy God, and will answer thee," 
etc., are frequent in this revelation. The above is in verse 2; then 
again, "I am the Lord thy God, and will give unto thee the law,'' etc., 
(v. 28); "I am the Lord thy God, and I gave unto thee an appoint- 
ment (v. 40); the same in verse 57; indeed it comes in almost as a re- 


train of poetic emphasis at about equal distances throughout the revela- 
tion, giving them in places almost rhythmic effect. This will be found 
characteristic of several other revelations, notably section 1: The Lord 
speaking of His servants says: ''I, the Lord, have commanded them" 
(v. 5); "Wherefore I, the Lord, knowing the calamity which should 
comfi," etc., (v. 17); "for, I, the Lord, cannot look upon sin," etc., 
(v. 31.) 

So also in slightly different form the peculiarity will be found in sec- 
tion 1*2: "Behold, I am God and give heed, etc, (v. 2); "behold, I 
speak unto you," etc., (v. 7); "behold, I am the light and life of the 
world," etc., (v. 9), Also in section 29: "Thus did I the Lord God 
appoint unto man" (v. 43); "wherefore I, the Lord God, will send 
forth flies" (v. 18); "wherefore I, the Lord God, caused that he 
should be cast out,"' (v. 41); "and thus did I, the Lord God, appoint 
unto man the days," etc., (v. 43). Again in section 50: "Behold, I, 
the Lord, have looked upon you" (v. 4); wherefore I, the Lord, ask you 
this question" (v. 13). Also section 52; "Behold, thus saith the Lord 
unto tne Elders," etc., (v. 1); "I, the Lord, will make known unto 
you" (v. 2); "behold I, the Lord, will hasten the city," etc., (v. 43.) 

The peculiar use of "none other," in place of "no other," and of 
"none" instead of "no one," is an expression both in the revelation on 
marriage and a number of other revelations about which there is no 
question of the authorship being Joseph Smith's. In the revelation on 
marriage we have this: "Abraham * * * abode in my law, as 
Isaac also, and Jacob did none other things than that which they were 
commanded; and because they did none other things than that which 
they were commanded, they have entered into their exaltation (v. 37). 
In section 43 we have the same phrase: "There is none other appointed 
unto you,'' etc., (v.3); "I say unto you that none else shall be appointed 
unto this gift" (v. 4); also in Section GI, the following: "It shall be 
said in days to come that none is able to go up to the land" (v. 16); 
also Section 82, "and none doeth good, for all have gone out of the way 
(v. 6); and they * * * shall find none inheritance in that day," 
etc., (Sec. 85:9). 

The use of the plural "Gods 7 ' in the revelation on marriage and 
in other revelations, tends to prove common authorship. In the revela- 
tion on marriage we have the following: "And henceforth are not Gods, 
but are angels of God forever and ever" (v. 17) ; "it cannot be received 
there because the angels and the Gods are appointed there, by whom 
they cannot pass" etc. (v. 18); "then shall they be Gods because they 
have no end; then shall they be Gods because they have all power 
(v. 20) ; and sit upon thrones, and are not angels, but are Gods 
(v. 36); in the revelation called the Vision, Doc. and Cov. Sec. 76, 
which revelation was given in February, 1832, and first published in 


the Eveneng and Morning Star of July, 1833, (vol. 1, number 2, p. 28) 
occurs the following: "And are priests of the most high, * * * 
wherefore, as it is written, they are Gods even the Sons of God (v. 58) 
also in Sec. 121; "Nothing shall be witbhheld, whether there be one 
God or many Gods, they shall be manifest (v. 28); according to that 
which was ordained in the midst of the Council of the Eternal God of 
all other Gods, before this world was" (v. 32). 

The phrase, "My house is a house of order," is used in the revelation 
on marriage (v. 18), also in Doc. and Cov., section 88, the phrase 
occurs, "a house of glory, a house of order, a house of God' 7 (v. 119) ; 
"this shall be the order of the house of the presidency" (v. 128). 

In closing the revelation on marriage the paragraph reads as fol- 
lows: "And now, as pertaining to this law, verily, verily I say unto 
you, I will reveal more unto you hereafter; therefore let this suffice for 
the present Behold, I am Alpha and Omega. Amen." This is some- 
what characteristic of the closing of a number of revelations in the 
Doctrine and Covenants. The revelation in section 60 closes with — 
'Behold, this is sufficient for you * * * the residue hereafter. 
Even so. Amen." Section 84 closes, "I am Alpha and Omega, the be- 
ginning and the end. Amen" (v. 120). Section 94 closes: 
"And now I give you no more at this time (v. 17). Section 95 closes "Let 
the higher part of the inner court be dedicated unto me for the school of 
mine apostles, saith Son Ahman; or in other words, Alphus, or in 
other words, Omegus, even Jesus Christ your Lord.- Amen" (v. 17). 

In other revelations the expression Alpha and Omega comes in the 
body of the revelation as for instance in section 45, "Verily I say unto 
you that I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the lisrht 
aud life of the world" (v. 7). The same phraseology is used in the 
body of section 63, v. GO. 

In section 19 it opens the revelation, "I am Alpha and Omega, 
Christ the Lord, yea even I am He, the beginning and the end, the Ke- 
deemer of the world" (v. 1). "Behold, and hearken unto the voice of 
Him who has all power, who is from everlasting to everlasting, even 
Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end" (section 61, v. 1). 

Other revelations close in the same impressive manner and with,the 
somewhat equivalent expressions in English, instead of the use of the 
Greek terms, Alpha and Omega. Thus section 18 closes: "Behold, L 
Jesus Christ, your Lord and your God and your Redeemer by the power 
of my spirit have spoken it" (v. 47). Section 1 ends, "For behold and 
lo, the Lord is God and the Spirit beareth record, and the record is true, 
and the truth abideth forever and ever. Amen" (v. 39). 

The same occurs in section 75 and 14; but whether the phrase occurs 
in the opening of the revelation or the middle of it, or in the closing 
paragraph, it occurs with sufficient frequency to be noted as a peculiar- 


ity of the Prophet's phraseology, and aids in the identification of his 
inspired style. 

The term "forgiveness of sin" occurs in the revelation on mar- 
riage as follows: "Behold, I have seen your sacrifices [Joseph's], and 
will forgive all your sins." This is both a principle and phraseology 
frequent in the revelations, as an example, section 64: "There are 
those who have sought occasion against him (Joseph) without cause; 
nevertheless he has sinned, but verily I say unto you, I, the Lord, for- 
give sins unto those who confess their sins before me" (v. 7). Let the 
spirit of this be compared with the following from the revelation on 
marriage: "Let no one, therefore, set on my servant Joseph, for I will 
justify him, for he shall do the sacrifices which I require at his hands 
for his transgressions, saith the Lord your God'' (v. GO). "Again, verily 
I say, let mine handmaid forgive my servant Joseph his trespasses, and 
then shall she be forgiven her trespasses wherein she has trespassed 
against me" (v. 56). 

In the revelation on marriage occurs the following phraseology: 
"Verily, verily, I sav unto you, that whatsoever you seal on earth, 
shall be sealed in heaven; and whatsoever you bind on earth, in my 
name, and by my word, saith the Lord, it shall be eternally bound in 
the heavens'' (v. 46). The same phraseology is used in section 124 in 
speaking of Hyrum Smith, who was appointed to hold the keys of the 
patriarchal blessings upon the heads of God's people; namely, "Whoso- 
ever he blesses shall be blessed, and whosoever he curses shall be 
cursed; and whatsoever he shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; 
and whatsoever he shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven" 
(v. 93). In section 128 the same phraseology is used in describing the 
power of the priesthood (v, 8). And again in v. 10, quoting it from the 
New Testament. (Matt. 16: 18, 19). 

lu verse 26 on the revelation on marriage, this phraseology is found: 
"They shall be destroyed in the flesh and shall be delivered unto the 
bufferings of Satan, unto the day of redemption, saith the Lord God." 
The same phraseology occurs in section 82. "The soul that sins * * * 
shall be delivered over to the buffeting of Satan until the day of re- 
demption" (v. 21). The same phraseology occurs in section 78, v. 12; 
section 104, v. 9, 10. In the revelation on marriage this passage 
occurs: "I give unto my servant Joseph, that he shall be made ruler 
over many things, for he hath been faithful over a few things.'' Section 
117 practically the some phraseology occurs with reference to William 
Marks, "Let my servant, William Marks, be faithful over a few things, 
and he shall be a ruler over many." 

Again it is said: "and if they commit no murder, wherein they shed 
Innocent blood — yet they shall come forth in the first resurrection and 


enter into their exaltation; but they shall be destroyed in the flesh, and 
shall be delivered unto the bufferings of Satan unto the day of redemp- 
tion, saith the Lord God (v. 26). "The blasphemy against the Holy 
Ghost, which shall not be forgiven in the world, nor out of the world 
is in that ye commit murder, wherein ye shed innocent blood, and as- 
sent unto my death after ye have received my new and everlasting 
covenant (v. 27). That is to say, the doctrine is here set forth that the 
murderer hath not eternal life abiding in him (I Jno. 1: 15). There is 
no forgiveness for him in this world or in the world to come. The same 
idea is to be found in other revelations of Joseph Smith. Notably in 
section 42: "Behold, I speak unto the Church. Thou shalt not kill; 
and he that kills shall not have forgiveness in this world nor in the 
world to come" (v. 18); "if any persons among you shall kill, they shall 
be delivered up and dealt with according to the law of the land; for re- 
member, that he hath no forgiveness" (v. 79); then again and in con- 
nection with breaking covenant, note the following expression: ".And 
this is all according to the oath and covenant of the priesthood. * 
But whoso breaketh this covenant, after he hath received it, and alto- 
gether turned therefrom, shall not have forgiveness in this world or 
in the world to come (v. 39-40.) 

The expression "new and everlasting covenant" (v. 4) occurs several 
times in the revelation on marriage: "as pertaining to the new and 
everlasting covenant it was instituted," etc. (v. 6); "if a man marry a 
wife ***** by the new and everlasting covenant, and it is 
sealed, etc. (v. 19). The phrase occurs a number of other times in the 
revelation, viz., in verses 26, 27, 41 and 42. It occurs also in many 
other revelations bv Joseph Smith: In section 1 — "That mine everlast- 
ing covenant might be established" (v. 22); "this is a new and ever 
lasting covenant" (Sec. 22, 1); *'I have sent mine everlasting cove 
nant into the world" (Sec. 45: 9); same in Sec. 49, 9; 66, 2; 76, 101; 
78: 11, and in at least a score of other sections 

o. The Evidence of Recurrence of Principles in the Revelation on Mar- 
riage That are Found in Other Revelations Through Joseph Smith. 

Principles that appear in previous revelations reappear in this revela- 
tion on marriage: for example, it is said in Sec. 130: "There is a law 
irrevocably decreed in heaven, before the foundations of this world, 
upon which all blessings are predicated; and when we obtain any bless- 
ing from God it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicat- 
ed." In Sec. 88, occurs the following: "All kingdoms have a law 
given: and there are many kingdoms; and unto every kingdom is given 
a law; and unto every law there are certain bounds also and conditions. 
All beings who abide not in those conditions are not justified,* 1 verse 


36 to 38, Id the revelation on marriage this doctrine is set forth in the 
following passage: "No one can reject this covenant and be permitted to 
enter into my glory; for all who will have a blessing at my hands shall 
abide the law which was appointed for that blessing, and the conditions 
thereof, as were instituted from before the foundation of the world. 
********* ^ n( j w -]j j appoint unto you, saith the 
Lord, except it be by law. even as I and my Father ordained unto you, 
before the world was! ***********j am th e 
Lord thy God, and will give unto thee the law of my Holy Priesthood, 
as was ordained by me, and my Father, before the world was," verses 
1, 5, 11, 28. The identity of the principle is complete, and tends to 
establish identity of authorship. 

6. The Evidence of the Particularization of Ideas. 

In the revelation on marriage there is a singularity of expression, 
which, for wan\, of a better term, I will call a particularization of ideas, 
thatis decidedly peculiar to the Prophet, for example: "And verily I say 
unto you, that the conditions of this law are these: All covenants, con- 
tracts, bonds, obligations, oaths, vows, performances, connections, as- 
sociations, or expectations, that are not made, and entered into, and 
sealed, by the Holy Spirit of promise, of him who is anointed, both 
as well for time and for all eternity, and that too most holy, by revela- 
tion and commandment through the medium of mine anointed, whom I 
have appointed on the earth to hold this power, (and I have appointed 
unto my servant Joseph to hold this power in the last days, and there 
is never but one on the earth, at a time, on whom this power and the 
keys of this Priesthood are conferred,) are of no efficacy, virtue or 
force, in and after the resurrection from the dead; for all contracts 
that are not made unto this end, have an end when men are dead- 
* * * * ^ n( j everything that is in the world, whether it be ordained 
of men, by thrones, or principalities, or powers, or things of name, 
whatsoever they may be, that are not by me, or by my word, saith the 
Lord, shall be thrown down, and shall not remain after men are dead, 
neither in nor after the resurrection, saith the Lord your God! " (verses 

A similar particularization of things is found in verses 15, 18, 19, 2G, 
30, 59, 61, of the revelation on marriage. 

With the above quoted passage compare the folio wiug: " Whoso re- 
ceiveth you receiveth me, and the same will feed you, and clothe you 
and give you money. And he who feeds you, or clothes you or gives 
you money, shall in no wise loose his reward: And he that doeth not 
these thinsrs is not my disciple; by this you may know my disciples. 
He that receiveth you not, go away from him alone by yourselves, and 


cleanse your feet even with water, pure water, whether in heat or in 
cold, and bear testimony of it unto your Father which is in heaven, and 
return not again unto that man. And in whatsoever village or city ye 
enter, do likewise. Nevertheless, search diligently and spare not; and 
wo unto that house, or that village or city that rejecteth you, or your 
words, or your testimony concerning me. Wo, I say again, unto that 
house, or that village or city that rejecteth you, or your words, or your 
testimony of me." Sec. 81: 89-95. Similar passages of particulariza- 
tionfrequently occur in other revelations. The following is a notable 

"All thrones and dominions, principalities and powers, shall be re- 
vealed and set forth upon all who have endured valiantly for the Gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ; and also if there be bounds set to the neavens or 
to the seas; or to the dry land, or to the sun, moon, or stars; all the 
times of their revolutions; all the appointed days, months and years, 
and all the days of their months and years, and all their glories, laws 
and set times, shall be revealed in the days of the dispensation of the 
fullness of times, according to that which was ordained in the midst of 
the council of the eternal God of all other Gods, before the world was" 
(Doc. and Cov., Sec. 121: 29-31). 

7. Hie Evidences of Identity in Grandeur of Style. 

One other pecularity in the inspired style of the Prophet is seen in a 
certain growing grandeur in statement, by means of repetitions — repe- 
titions, too, that make a paragraph fairly scintillate with prismatic hues 
as well as giving to it a crescendo of emphasis: for example, in speaking 
of the glory that shall come to those who keep covenant with the Lord, 
it is written in this revelation on marriage: 

"And they shall pass by the angels, and the Gods which are set there, 
to their exaltation and glory in all things, as hath been sealed upon 
their heads, which glory shall be a fullness and a continuation of the 
seeds for ever and ever. 

Then shall they be Gods, because they have no end; 

Therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlasting, because they 

Then shall they be above all, because all things are subject unto 

Then shall they be Gods, because they have all power, and the angels 
are subject unto them" * (verses 19-21). 

With this compare the following: 

* I have taken liberty of placing the lines in poetic form, to which they so readily 
lend themselves, that they may be the more readily compared with the verses from 
another revelation which follows from Doc. and Cov., sec. 84. 


"The power and authority of the Higher or Melchisedek, Priesthood, 
is to hold the keys of all the spiritual blessings of the Church — to have 
the privilege of receiving the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven — to 
have the heavens opened unto them — to commune with the general as- 
sembly and church of the first born, and to enjoy the communion and 
presence of God the Father, and Jesus the Mediator of the new cove- 
nant" (Sec. 107: 18, 19). Also this: 

"And if thou shouldst be cast into the pit, or into the hands of mur- 
derers, and the sentence of death passed upon thee; if thou be cast into 
the deep; if the billowing surge conspire against thee; if fierce winds 
become thine enemy; if the heavens gather blackness, and all the ele- 
ments combine to hedge up the way; and above all, if the very jaws of 
hell shall gape open the mouth wide after thee, know thou, my son, that 
all these things shall give thee experience, and shall be for thy good. 
The Son of Man hath descended below them all; art thou greater than 

And as covering both the two last peculiarities — particularization of 
things and a growing grandeur in statement by repetition, consider the 
following passage: 

"I the Almighty have laid my hands upon the nations, to scourge 
them for their wickedness: and plagues shall go forth, and they shall 
not be taken from the earth until I have completed my work which shall 
be cut short in righteousness, until all shall know me, who remain, 
even from the least unto the greatest, and shall be filled with the knowl- 
edge of the Lord, and shall see eye to eye, and shall lift up their voice, 
and with the voice together sing this new song, saying — 

The Lord hath brought again Zion; 
The Lord hath redeemed His people, Israel, 
According to the election of grace, 
Which was brought to pass by the faith 
And covenant of their fathers. 

The Lord hath redeemed His people, 
And Satan is bound and time is no longer: 
The Lord hath gathered all things in one: 
The Lord hath brought down Zion from above. 
The Lord hath brought up Zion from beneath. 

The earth hath travailed. and brought forth her strength: 
And truth is established in her bowels: 
And the heavens have smiled upon her: 
And she is clothed with the glory of her God: 
For He stands in the midst of His people: 

Glory, and honor, and power, and might, 

Be ascribed to our God; for He is full of mercy, 

Justice, grace and truth, and peace, 

For ever and ever. Amen. 


It should be remarked, in conclusion, that these peculiarities of scope, 
structure, phraseology, re-appearance of principles, texture of compo- 
sition and the like, which identify this revelation on marriage as the 
composition of Joseph Smith (under the inspiration of the Lord, of 
course) are not forced into the revelation. Its composition gives no 
evidence of being a conglomerate of Joseph Smith's thought-gems held 
together by some one else's clay. It is all of one piece, it is not patch 
work. Unity above all things is characteristic of it. Words, phrases, 
sentences, ideas all blend together, preserving strict unity of style and 
that style Joseph Smith's. No one else could have written it. The 
literary peculiarities of that revelation as readily proclaim it to be Jo- 
seph Smith's composition to those familiar with his literary style, as the 
contour of his face, the form of his features, the color of his hair and 
eyes, the tint of his complexion, the intonation of his voice, together with 
his form and bearing would reveal his physical personality to those who 
familiarly knew him in life. There will be no doubt whatever as to 
Joseph Smith being the author of it in the minds of those who will give 
it literary analysis. Whatever has come of it, or whatever may come 
of it in the future, Joseph Smith is the author of that revelation, and is 
responsible before God and the world for the introduciion of that mar- 
riage law into the Church — the law that contemplates marriage as an 
eternal union, and the rightfulness of a plurality of wives under certain 
conditions and divine sanctions, when permissible under the laws of 
the land and the law of the Church. 



Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. 

VOL. V. 











Tuesday, May 5, 1842, — Passed the day mostly with 
my family. _ 

Wednesday, 4. — I spent the day in the tipper part of the 
store, that is in my private office (so called because in that 
room I keep my sacred writings, translate ancient rec- 
ords, and receive revelations) and in my general business 
office, or lodge room (that is where the Ma- , 

. ,, n inauguration 

sonic fraternity meet occasionally, for want of of Endowment 
a better place) in council with General James 
Adams, of Springfield, Patriarch Hyrum Smith, Bishops 
Newel K. Whitney and George Miller, and President 


Brigham Young and Elders Heber C. Kimball and Wil- 
lard Richards, instructing them in the principles and order 
of the Priesthood, attending to washings, anointings, en- 
dowments and the communication of keys pertaining to the 
Aaronic Priesthood, and so on to the highest order of the 
Melchisedek Priesthood, setting forth the order pertaining 
to the Ancient of Days, and all those plans and principles 
by which any one is enabled to secure the fullness of those 
blessings which have been prepared for the Church of the 
First Born, and come up and abide in the presence of the 
Eloheim in the eternal worlds. In this council was insti- 
tuted the ancient order of things for the first time in these 
last days. And the communications I made to this coun- 
cil were of things spiritual, and to be received only by the 
spiritual minded: and there was nothing made known to 
these men but what will be made known to all the Saints 
of the last days, so soon as they are prepared to receive, 
and a proper place is prepared to communicate them, 
even to the weakest of the Saints; therefore let the Saints 
be diligent in building the Temple, and all houses 
which they have been, or shall hereafter be, commanded 
of God to build; and wait their time with patience in all 
meekness, faith, perseverance unto the end, knowing 
assuredly that all these things referred to in this council 
are always governed by the principle of revelation.* 
Thursday, 5.— General Adams started for Springfield, 

* This is the Prophet's account of the introduction of the Endowment ceremonies 
*n this dispensation, and is the foundation of the sacred ritual of the temples. 
There has been some controversies as to the time when these ceremonies wer e 
introduced into the Church. A sect styling itself the "Re -organized Church," even 
goes so far as to claim that these ceremonies were not introduced into the Church by 
the Prophet Joseph Smith at all, but on the contrary claim that they had their 
origin with Brigham Young and the Apostles who followed him in the migration 
from Xauvoo to Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah. The evidence, however, against 
such claims, is overwhelming. First, the statement of the Prophet in the tex* 
above. Second, a previous allusion to the same thing in his remarks at Nauvoo, on 
the 6th of January, 1842. (See History of the Church, Vol. IV. p. 492.) Third, 
the same ceremonies are referred to in the Revelation of Jan. 19, 1841, in which 
washings, anointings, conversations, statutes, judgments, etc., are explicitly 
referred to. (History of the Church, Vol. IV, p. 277.) In addition to this evi- 


and the remainder of the council of yesterday continued 
their meeting at the same place, and myself and Brother 
Hyrum received in turn from the others, the same that I 
had communicated to them the day previous. 

The city of Hamburg, the commercial emporium of Ger- 
many, was destroyed by fire, about this time. 

Friday, 6. — I attended the Legion officers' drill in the 
morning, and visited Lyman Wight, who was sick. 
* Saturday, 7. — 

Legion History. 

The Nauvoo Legion was on parade by virtue of an order of the 25th 
of January, 1842, and was reviewed by Lieutenant-General Joseph 
Smith, who commanded through the day. One year since, the Legion 
consisted of six companies; today of twenty-six companies, amounting 
to about two thousand troops. 

The consolidated staff of the Legion with their ladies, partook of a 
sumptuous dinner at the house of the commander-in-chief, between 
one and three o'clock, p. m. The weather was very fine. 

In the afternoon the Legion was separated into cohorts, and fought an 
animated sham battle; the first cohort under the command of General 
Wilson Law, the second under General Charles C. Kich. At the close 
of the parade, Lieutenant-Genera] Joseph Smith delivered a most ani- 
mated and appropriate address, in which he remarked "that his soul 
was never better satisfied than on this occasion. " Such was the 
curious and interesting excitement which prevailed at the time, in the 
surrounding country, about the Legion, that Judge Douglas adjourned 
the circuit court, then in session at Carthage, and came with some of 
the principal lawyers, to see the splendid military parade of the Legion; 
upon notice of which beine: given to General Smith, he immediately 
invited them to partake of the repast prepared as above. 

dence also, Ebenezer Robinson, associate editor of the Times and Seasons when 
that periodical was founded by Don Carlos Smith and himself, and who at the 
death of Don Carlos Smith, 1841, became editor-in-chief of that periodical, and so 
continued until the 15th of March, 1842 — declares that such ceremonies as are 
alluded to in the text were inaugurated by special action of the Prophet as early as 
1843. Mr. Robinson subsequently left the Church, but when in 1890, the aforesaid 
self-styled "Re-organized Church" persisted in claiming that Joseph Smith the 
Prophet did not inaugurate these Temple ceremonies, he published an article in the 
magazine he was then conducting, called The Return, in which he bears emphatic 
testimony to the effect above stated, namely,that all these ceremonies were introduced 
into the Church by the Prophet Joseph Smith at least as early as 1843. [See The 
Beturn, Vol. II, No. 4, p. 252. J 


In addition to this quotation, I would remark that the 
day passed very harmoniously, without drunkenness, noise 
or confusion. There was an immense congregation of 
g n ai joh spectators, and many distinguished strangers 
c. Bennett's expressed much satisfaction. But one thing 
I will notice : I was solicited by General Ben- 
nett to take command of the first cohort during the sham 
battle; this I declined. General Bennett next requested 
me to take my station in the rear of the cavalry, without 
my staff, during the engagement; but this was counter- 
acted by Captain A. P. Rockwood, commander of my life 
guards, who kept close to my side, and I chose my own 
position. And if General Bennett's true feelings toward 
me are not made manifest to the world in a vary short 
time, then it may be possible that the gentle breathings of 
that Spirit, which whispered me on parade, that there was 
mischief concealed in that sham battle, were false; a short 
time will determine the point. Let John C. Bennett 
answer at the day of judgment, "Why did you request 
me to command one of the cohorts, and also to take my 
position without my staff, during the sham battle, on the 
7th of May, 1842, where my life might have been the for- 
feit, and no man have known who did the deed? 

The following diagram shows the position in which the 
Legion was drawn up : 

A.D. 1342J 


Lieutenant-General Joseph Smith, Staff, Guard, 
and Ladies on horseback. 

Band of Music. 

Major-General J. C. Bennett and Staff. 











tr 1 






3 5-* £ 

Q o g 


B. 5 ° 

5- CD CO 

tr 2 ^ 


A violent shock of an earthquake is reported to have been 
experienced at the island of St. Domingo, at twenty min- 
utes past seven, p. m. It was also felt at St. Marc, Gon- 
aives, and Cape Haytien, and at various Eanh uake 
places from Port-au-Prince, to the base of the in st. Domin- 
Rocky Mountains, comprising a distance of 
1,500 miles. At Santiago de Cuba the cathedral and sev- 
eral extensive buildings were prostrated. About ten 
thousand persons were killed at Cape Haytien. 


Sunday, 8. — Attended meeting at the grove, and heard 
Elder Rigdon preach. 

After meeting many persons were baptized, some in the 
font, others in the river. 

Eighty persons killed and as many wounded, by an 
accident on the Paris and Versailles railroad, the car- 
riages being consumed by fire, and their passengers 
roasted alive. 

Monday, 9. — Spent the day with my family. 

Tuesday, 10. — Transacted a variety of business at the 
store, printing office, &c. 

By letter from Elder Levi Richards, dated at Liverpool, 
we learn that the work is progressing in the 
Engia^d. rk in nort h of England, namely, Carlisle, Bramp- 
ton, Burnstones, Alstone, and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, where he has been laboring for a few weeks. 

Wednesday, 11. — Called with my clerk at Brother 
Joseph W. Coolidge's to examine a new cabinet for the 
Temple Recorder's office; also called at Bishop Knight's; 
dictated several letters and other items of a business 

Thursday, 12. — Dictated a letter to Elder Rigdon con- 
cerning certain difficulties, or surmises which existed and 
attended the meeting of the Female Relief Society, the house 
being filled to overflowing. There was a heavy thunder- 
storm at the close of the meeting. 

Friday, 13. — Received a letter from Sidney Rigdon in 
reply to mine of yesterday. 

Spent most of the day in my garden and with my 

Dictated the following letter to Horace R.Hotchkiss, Esq. 

The FropheVs Letter to Horace JR. Hotchkiss. — Explaining why the Former 
'had taken Advantage of the Bankrupt Lazv. 
Dear Sir — I proceed without delay to give a hasty reply to yours of 
the 12th ultimo, just received. My engagements will not admit of a 
lengthy datail of events and circumstances which have transpired to 
bring about that state of things which now exists in this place, as be- 


fore you receive this you will probably be apprised of the failure of 
myself and brethren to execute our designs in paying off our contracts, 
or in other words, that we have been compelled to pay our debts by 
the most popular method; that is by petitioning for the privilege of 
general bankruptcy, a principle so popular at the present moment 
throughout the Union. 

A pressure of business has been sufficient excuse for not giving you 
earlier notice, although it could have been of no real use to you, yet I 
wish you to understand our intentions to you and your company, and 
why we have taken the course we have. You are aware, sir, in 
some measure of the embarrassment under which we have labored 
through the influence of mobs and designing men, and the disadvan- 
tageous circumstances under which we have been compelled to con- 
tract debts in order to our existence, both as individuals and as a 
society, and it is on account ,of this as well as a pressure on us for debts 
absolutely unjust in themselves, that we have been compelled to resort 
to the course we have [taken] to make a general settlement, and this we » 
deferred to the last moment, hoping that something would turn in 
our favor, so that we might be saved the painful necessity of resorting 
to such measures, to accomplish which, justice demanded a very different 
course from those who are justly our debtors, but demanded in vain. 

We have been compelled to the course we have pursued, and you are 
aware, sir, that all have to fare alike in such cases* But, sir, you have 
one, yea, two things to comfort you; our faith, intention and good 
feeling remain the same to all our creditors, and to none more than 
yourself; and secondly, there is property sufficent in the inventory to 
pay every debt, and some to spare, according to the testimony of our 
solicitors, and the good judgment of others; and if the court will 
allow us some one for assignee, who will do justice to the cause, we 
confidently believe that yourself and all others will get their compensa- 
tion in full, and we have enough left for one loaf more for each of our fam- 
ilies. Yes, and I have no doubt you will yet, and in a short enabled 
to have your pay in full, in the way I have before proposed, or some 
other equally advantageous, but money is out of sight, it might as 
well be out of mind, for it cannot be had. 

Rest assured, dear sir, that no influence or exertion I can yet make 
shall be wanting to give you satisfaction, and liquidate your claims, but 
for a little season you are aware that all proceedings are staid; but I 
will seek the earliest moment to acquaint you with anything new in 
this matter. 

I remain, sir, with sentiments of respect, your friend and well- 

Joseph Smith. 


|| In the evening I walked with Elder Richards to the 
interview P ost °^ ce ^ an d h a( * an interview with Elder 
m it don Sidney ^S^ on ? concerning certain evil reports put in 
circulation by Francis M. Higbee, about some 
of Elder Eigdon's family, and others; much apparent 
satisfaction was manifested at the conversation, by Elder 
Rigdon; and Elder Richards returned with me to my 

Saturday, 14. — I attended city council iu the morning, 
and advocated strongly the necessity of some active 
Moral lm- measures being taken to suppress houses and 
provement of acts of infamy in the city ; for the protection 
of the innocent and virtuous, and the good of 
public morals ; showing clearly that there were certain 
characters in the place, who were disposed to corrupt the 
morals and chastity of our citizens, and that houses of 
infamy did exist, upon which a city ordinance concern- 
ing brothels and disorderly characters was passed, to pro- 
hibit such things. It was published in this day's Wasp. 

I also spoke at length for the repeal of the ordinance of 
the city licensing merchants, hawkers, taverns, and 
ordinaries, desiring that this might be a free people, and 
enjoy equal rights and privileges, and the ordinances 
were repealed. 

After council, I worked in my garden, walked out in 
the city, and borrowed two sovereigns to make a pay- 

Brother Amos Fielding arrived from Liverpool. 

It was reported in Nauvoo, that ex-Grovernor Boggs of 
Missouri had been shot. 

I granted the petition of J. B. Nicholson, and about 
seventy other members of the Church in 
fzation ?o r r gau " Philadelphia, for the organization of a branch 
lulhodzed a of the Church in the north part of the city, 
dated April 2 2nd, and my doings were sanc- 
tioned by the Twelve, who at the same time silenced 


Elder Benjamin "Winchester for not following counsel. 

Sunday, 15. — Attended meeting at the stand. 

News of the attempted assassination of Governor Boggs 
was confirmed by general report, and was mentioned on 
the stand. 

A general conference was held in the new Corn Ex- 
change, Manchester, England, President Par- 
ley P. Pratt presiding. There were present at ference in 0I 
the opening of the conference, High Priests, England - 
14; Elders, 50; Priests, 64; Teachers, 37; Deacons, 8. 
The representation of the Church was as follows : 

Manchester Conference represented by Charles Miller, consists of 
1,531 members, 3G Elders, 79 Priests, 50 Teachers, 19 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Manchester, Duckinfield, Bolton, Stockport, 
Pendlebury, Whitefield, Heatons, Eccles, Oldham, Rochdale, Leeds, 
Radcliffe, Bridge and Blakely. 

Liverpool Conference, represented by John Greenhow, consists of 
570 members, 23 Elders, 2G Priests, 21 Teachers, 10 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Liverpool, Warrington and Newton, St. 
Helens, Isle of Man, Wales, and York. 

Preston Conference, represented by Elder Struthars, consists of 
665 members, 16 Elders, 22 Priests, 15 Teachers, 3 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Preston, Penworthen, Long-ton, Southport, 
Farrington, Hunter's Hill, Kendal, Brigsteer, Holme, Lancaster, and 
Euxton Birth. 

Clitheroe Conference represented by Thomas Ward, consists of 325 
members, 15 Elders, 23 Priests, 17 Teachers, 6 Deacons, and includes 
the branches of Clitheroe, Chatburn, Waddington, Downham, Black- 
burn, Burnley, Accrington, Ribchester, Chaidgley, and Grindleton. 

London Conference, represented by Lorenzo Snow, consists of 400 
members, 14 Elders, 32 Priests, 7 Teachers, 8 Deacons, and includes 
the branches of London, Woolwich, Bedford, Wybosson, Thorucut, 
Honeydon, Irchester, and Waddon. 

Macclesfield Conference, represented by James Galley, consists of 
238 members, 8 Elders, 23 Priests, 14 Teachers, 9 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Macclesfield, Congleton, Bollington, Middle- 
wich, North wich and Plumbley. 

Birmingham Conference, represented by J. Riley, consists of 309 
members, 11 Elders, 18 Priests, 12 Teachers, 5 Deacons, and includes 


the branches of Birmingham, Great's Green, West Broomwich,01dbury, 
Allchurch, Dudley, Wolverhampton, and Ashby Wolds. 

Staffordshire Conference, represented by Alfred Cordon, consists of 
507 members, 25 Elders, 54 Priests, 23 Teachers, 14 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Hanley, Burslem, Stoke, Newcastle, Baddaley 
Edge, Bradley Green, Knutton Heath, Lane End, Audlem, Prees, Tun- 
stall, Leek, Longport, Tittensor Heath, Doncaster, Sheffield and 

Garway Conference, represented by John Needham, consists of 197 
members, 2 Elders, 12 Priests, 7 Teachers, 2 Deacons, and includes the 
branches of Garway, Abergavenny, Monmouth, Keven, Orcop, and 

Cheltenham Conference, represented by Theodore Curtis, consists of 
540 members, 8 Elders, 22 Priests, 12 Teachers, 4 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Newbury Hill, Rock Hill, Earl's Common, 
Pinvin, Dounton Beaucamp, Edge Hills, Little Dean, Woodside, Pon- 
sett, Killcott, Frogsmarsh, Red Marley, Bran Green, Apperley, Deer- 
hurst, Cheltenham, Norton, and Bristol. 

Froom's Hill Conference, represented by William Kay, consists of 
1,101 members, 24 Elders, 56 Priests, 24 Teachers, 12 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Moor End's Cross, Ridgway Cross, Dun's Close, 
Old Storridge, Broomyard's Downs, Clifton, Widbourn, Brinesteed, 
Woofren Common, Ashfield, Malvern Hill, Palle House, Callwell, 
Ledbury, Shaken Hill, Lugwardine, Marden, Bushbank, Leominster, 
Ball Gate, Coom's Move, Stoke's Lane, Froom's Hill, Stanley Hill, 
Easthampton, and Worcester Broad Heath. 

Edinburgh Conference, represented by George D. Watt, consists of 
271 members, 13 Elders, 19 Priests, 7 Teachers, 3 Deacons, and 
includes the branches of Edinburgh, Wemyss, and Sterling. 

Glasgow Conference represented by John McAuley, consists of 564 
members, 22 Elders, 30 Priests, 26 Teachers, 15 Deacons, and includes 
the branches of Glasgow, Thorny Bank, Shaw, Toll Cross, Airdrie, 
Renfrew, Paisley, Johnson, Bridge of Weir, Kilbirnie, Bonshill, 
Greenock, Brechenney, Nelson, Campsie and Ayr. 

Brampton Conference, represented by Richard Benson, consists of 
171 members, 6 Elders, 11 Priests, 7 Teachers, 2 Deacons, and includes 
the branches of Carlisle, Brampton, Alston, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Irish Conference, represented by David Wilkie, consists of 71 mem- 
bers, 1 Elder, 1 "Priest, 2 Teachers, 1 Deacon, and includes the 
branches of Hillsborough, and Crawfoot's Burn. 

Bradford and York, represented by Henry Cuerden, consists of 54 
members, 1 Elder, 4 Priests. 2 Teachers, 1 Deacon. 

Total connected with the Church at the present time, in England, 


Ireland, and Scotland, members, 7JH4^ Elders, 220, Priests, 421; 
Teachers, 110. 

Monday, 16.— 1 was transacting business at the store 
until 10 o'clock a. m. Then at home. In the afternoon 
at the printing office, in council with Brothers Young, 
Kimball and Richards and others. 

I published in this day's Times and Seasons the follow- 
ing facsimile from the Book of Abraham.* 

Several of the most widely circulated papers are begin- 
ning to exhibit "Mormonism" in its true 
light. The first out of a facsimile from the fhf^ss?* 
Book of Abraham, has been republished both 
in the New York Herald and in the Dollar Week Bos- 
Ionian, as well as in the Boston Daily Ledger, edited by Mr. 
Bartlett ; together with the translation from the Book of 

Tuesday, 17.— I was about home, and at the office 
through the day. In the evening went to Brother John 
Snyder's to see Clark Leal, of Fountain Green, concern- 
ing a quarter section of land. 

Affidavit of John C, Bennett. 

State of Illinois, city of Nauvoo, personally appeared before me, 
Daniel H. Wells, an Alderman of the said city of Nauvoo, John C. 
Bennett, who being duly sworn, according to law, desposeth and say- 
eth, that he was never taught anything in the least contrary to the 
strictest principles of the Gospel, or of virtue or of the laws of God or 
man, under any circumstances, or upon any occasion, either directly or 
indirectly, in word or deed, by Joseph Smith, and that he never knew 
the said Smith to countenance any improper conduct whatever either in 
public or private ; and that he never did teach to me in private that an 
illegal, illicit intercourse with females, was under any circumstance 
justifiable, and that I never knew him to so teach others. 

John C. Bennett. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 17th day of May, A. 
D. 1842. Daniel H. Wells, Alderman. 

* The facsimile referred to will be found on page 523 of Vol. IV of this History, 
where it is published in connection with an explanation of the various figures on 
the plate and preceding the Prophet's translation of the* Book of Abraham, taken 
from the Times and Seasons. 


John 0. Bennett resigned the office of mayor of 

Wednesday , IS. — Rode on horseback, accompanied by 
Dr. Richards and Clark Leal, to John Benbow's, and 
searched out the N. E. quarter of section 15, 6 N. 8 W. 
and contracted for the refusal of the same, at three dol- 
lars per acre; dined at Brother Benbow's, visited Brother 
Sayer's, &c, which, with business at the different offices, 
closed the day. 

There was a general representation of the branches in 
the Eastern States, at a conference of the Church at New 

Thursday , 19. — It rained, and I was at home until one 
o'clock; when I attended a special session of the city 
Resignation council. John C. Beunett having discovered 
of Bennett as ^^ j^jg whoredoms and abominations were fast 


of Nauvoo. coming to light, and that the indignation of 
an insulted and abused people were rising rapidly against 
him, thought best to make a virtue of necessity, and try 
to make it appear that he was innocent, by- resigning his 
office of mayor, which the council most gladly accepted; 
and Joseph Smith was elected mayor of the city of Nau- 
voo by the council, and Hyrum Smith vice-mayor. 

While the election was going forward, I received and 
wrote the following revelation : 


Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph, by the 
voice of my Spirit, Hiram Kimball has been insinuating evil, and form- 
ing evil opinions against you, with others; and it* he continue in them, 
he and they shall be accursed, for I am the Lord thy God, and will stand 
by thee and bless thee. Amen. 

This I threw across the room to Hiram Kimball, one of 
the councillors. After the election, I spoke at some length 
concerning the evil reports which were abroad in the city 
concerning myself, and the necessity of counteracting the 


designs of our enemies, establishing a night watch, &c, 
whereupon the council resolved that the mayor be author- 
ized to establish a night watch, and control the same. 

William Smith was elected councilor in place of Joseph 
Smith, elected mayor; George A. Smith councilor, in place 
of Hugh McFall, removed from the city. 

On account of the reports in circulation in the city this 
day, concerning the ex-mayor, and to quiet the public 
mind, before the council closed, I asked John C. Bennett 
if he had aught against me, when Dr. Bennett arose, be- 
fore the council and a house filled with spectators, and 
replied : 

Statement of John C. Bennett before the City Council. 

I know what I am about, and the heads of the Church know what 
they are about, I expect; I have no difficulty with the heads of the 
Church. I publicly avow that any one who has said that I have stated 
that General Joseph Smith has given me authority to hold illicit inter- 
course with women is a liar in the face of God. Those who have said 
it are damned liars; they are infernal liars. He never either in public 
or private gave me any such authority or license, and any person who 
states it is a scoundrel and a liar. I have heard it said, that I would 
become a second Avard, by withdrawing from the Church, and that I 
was at variance with the heads, and would use an influence against 
them, because I resigned the office of mayor. This is false, I have no 
difficulty with the heads of the Church, and I intend to continue with 
you, and hope the time may come when I may be restored to full confi- 
dence, fellowship, and my former standing in the Church, and that my 
conduct may be such as to warrant my restoration, and should the fime 
ever come that I may have the opportunity to test my faith, it will then 
be known whether I am a traitor or true man. 

I then said to him, "Will you please state definitely 
whether you know anything against my character, either 
in public or private?" General Bennett replied, "I do 
not. In all my intercourse with General Smith, in public 
and in private, he has been strictly virtuous." 

I then made some pertinent remarks before the council, 
concerning those who had been guilty of circulating false 
leports, &c, and said: 


Let one twelve months see if Brother Joseph is not 
called for, to go to every part of the city to keep them out 
of their graves ; and I turn the keys upon them from this 
hour, if they will not repent and stop their lyings and sur- 
misings, let God curse them, and let their tongues cleave 
to the roofs of their mouths. 

Friday, 20. — Charges having been preferred against 
Robert D. Foster, by Samuel H. Smith before a special 
charge council, for abusive language towards Samuel 

Robe?? dfos- ^. Smith; also for abusing the marshal of 
ter - the city, I spent the day in council, and such 

was the proof against Foster, I had considerable labor to 
get him clear, even after his confession, which I desired 
to do, hoping he would amend. 

Saturday, 21. — I spent the day with the High Council 
of Nauvoo, investigating the case of Robert D. Foster, 
Chauncey L. Higbee and others. 

Sunday ,22.-1 spent the day mostly at home . In looking 
at the papers, I discovered the following in the Quincy 


Lilburn W. Boggs, late governor of Missouri, was assassinated at his 
residence in Independence, Missouri, by an unknown hand, on the 6th 
instant. He was sitting in a room by himself, when some person dis- 
charged a pistol loaded with buckshot, through an adjoining window, 
three of the shots took effect in his head, one of which penetrated the 
brain. His son, a boy, hearing the report of the pistol, ran into the 
room in which his father was seated, and found him in a helpless situ- 
ation, upon which he gave the alarm. Footprints were found beneath 
the window, and the pistol which gave the fatal shot. The governor was 
alive on the seventh, but no hopes are entertained of his recovery. A 
man was suspected, and is probably arrested before this. There are 
several rumors in circulation in regard to the horrid affair; one of 
which throws the crime upon the Mormons, from the fact, we suppose, 
that Mr. Boggs was governor at the time, and in no small decree in- 
strumental in driving them from the state. Smith, too, the Mormon 
Prophet, as we understand, prophesied, a year or so ago, his death by 


violent means. Hence, there is plenty of foundation for rumor. The 
citizens of Independence had offered a reward of $500 for the mur- 

I went to the editor's office, and inserted the following 
in the Wasp: 

Nauvoo, Illinois, May 22, 1842. 
Mr. Bartlett: 

Dear Sir: — In your paper (the Qaincy Whig) of the 21st instant, 
you have done me manifest injustice in ascribing to me a prediction of 
the demise of Lilburn W. Boggs, Esq., ex-governor of Missouri, by vio- 
lent hands. Boggs was a candidate for the state senate, and, I pre- 
sume, fell by the hand of a political opponent, with "his hands and 
face yet dripping with the blood of murder; " but he died not through 
my instrumentality. My hands are clean, and my heart pure, from the 
blood of all men. I am tired of the misrepresentation, calumny and 
detraction, heaped upon me by wicked men; and desire and claim, only 
those principles guaranteed to all men by the Constitution and laws of 
the United States and of Illinois. Will you do me the justice to publish 
this communication? and oblige, 

Yours respectfully, 

[Sighed] Joseph Smith. 

An Epistle of the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints in Nauvoo, to the Saints scattered abroad, Greeting: 

Dear Brethren: — Inasmuch as the Lord hath spoken, and the com- 
mandment hath gone forth for the gathering together of His people 
from Babylon, that "they partake not of her sins, and receive not of 
her plagues; n it seemeth, "good unto us, and also to the Holy Ghost" 
to write somewhat for your instruction, in obeying that commandment. 
That you have no need that we exhort you to the observance of this 
commandment, is evident; for you yourselves know that this is that 
which was spoken by the Lord, in the parable of the tares of the field, 
who promised, that in the harvest he would say to the servant "gather 
the wheat into my barn; " the signs of the times proclaim this — the end 
of the world; and thus admonish us to the performance of this duty. 
"Yet notwithstanding the Spirit testifieth of these things, and you de- 
sire with great anxiety to gather with the Saints; yet are many of you 
hindered even to this day;" so that to will to obey the commandment 
is present; but how to perform, you find not. Feeling, therefore, the 


responsibility binding on you to observe the statutes and commandments 
of the Lord, and living in the midst of a generation that are ignorant 
of what the mind of the Lord is concerning His people, and of the things 
that belong to their peace; we are well aware of the embarrassments 
under which many of you labor in endeavoring to obey the laws per- 
taining to your salvation. It is then no marvel that in this day when 
darkness covers the earth, and gross darkness the people, that this gen- 
eration who know not the day of their visitation, nor the dispensation 
of the fullness of times in which they live, should mock at the gather- 
ing together of the Saints for salvatiou, as did the antediluvians at the 
mighty work of righteous Noah, in building an ark in the midst of the 
land, for the salvation of his home by water; seeing then that such 
"blindness hath happened to the Gentile world, which to them is an 
evident token of perdition, but to you of salvation," and that of God, 
think it not strange that you should have to pass through the like afflic- 
tions which all your brethren the saints in all ages have done before 
you; to be reviled, persecuted, and hated of all men, for the name of 
Christ and the Gospel's sake, is the portion which all saints have had 
to partake, who have gone before you. You then can expect no better 
things than that there be men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning 
the truth, who will evil entreat you, and unjustly despoil you of your 
property and embarrass you in pecuniary matters, and render it the 
more difficult to obey the command to gather with the Saints; pretend- 
ing to do God's service, '* whose judgment now lingereth not, and their 
damnation slumbereth not." 

But, brethren, with all these considerations before you, in relation to 
your afflictions; we think it expedient to admonish you, that you bear, 
and forbear, as becometh Saints, and having done all that is lawful and 
right, to obtain justice of those that injure you, wherein you come short 
of obtaining it, commit the residue to the just judgment of God, and 
shake off the dust of your feet as a testimony of having done so. 

Finally, brethren, as it is reported unto us, that there be some who 
have not done that which is lawful and right, but have designedly done 
injury to their neighbor or creditor by fraud, or otherwise, thinking to 
find protection with us in such iniquity; let all such be warned and 
certified, that with them we have no fellowship, when known to be such, 
until all reasonable measures are taken to make just restitution to those 
unjustly injured. Now, therefore, let this epistle be read in all the 
branches of the Church, as testimony, that as representatives thereof, 
we have taken righteousness for the girdle of your loins, and faithful- 
ness for the girdle of our reins, "and that for Zion's sake we will not 
rest; and for Jerusalem's sake we will not hold our peace, until the 


righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation there- 
of, as a lamp that burneth." 

Your brethren and servants in the kingdom and patience of Jesus. 

William Marks, } 
Austin Cowles, > Presidents. 
Charles C. Rich, ) 
James Allred, 
Elias Higbee, 
George W. Harris, 
Aaron Johnson, 
William Huntington, Sen., 
Henry G. Sherwood, 
Samuel E. Bent, 
Lewis D. Wilson, 
David Fullmer, 
Thomas Grover, 
Newel Knight, 
Leonard Soby. 
Attest: Hosea Stout, Clerk. 
May 22, 1842. 




Monday, May 23, 1842. — I called a special session of 
the city council, at which Diurick B. Huntington was 
elected coroner of the city of Nauvoo. 

Tuesday, 24. — Chauncey L. Higbee was cut off from 

the Church by the High Council, for unchaste and un- 

virtuous conduct towards certain females, and 

The Fall of , . ' 

chauncey l. for teaching it was right, if kept secret, &c. 


He was also put under $200 bonds to keep the 
peace, on my complaint against him for slander, before 
Ebenezer Robinson, justice of the peace. 

Wednesday , 25. — 1 spent the day in counseling the 
Bishops, and assisting them to expose iniquity. 

Notice was this day given to John C. Bennett, that the 
First Presidency, Twelve, and Bishops had withdrawn 
fellowship from him, and were about to publish him in 
the paper, but on his humbling himself, and begging we 
would spare him from the paper, for his mother's sake, 
the notice was withdrawn from the paper. 

Thursday, 26. — This forenoon I attended a meeting of 

nearly a hundred of the brethren in the Lodge Room, to 

whom John C. Bennett acknowledged his 

Confessions . 

of John c. wicked and licentious conduct toward cer- 
tain females in Nauvoo, and that he was 
worthy of the severest chastisements, and cried like a 


child, and begged that he might be spared, in any possi- 
ble way ; so deep was his apparent sense of his guilt and 
unfitness for respectable society; so deeply did he feign, 
or really feel contrition for the moment, that he was for- 
given still. I plead for mercy for him. 

At one p. m. I attended a large and respectable meeting 
of the citizens of Nauvoo, near the Temple, 

_ _ _ _ J _ ' . _ n The Prophet's 

and addressed them on the principles of gov- Political a«i- 
ernment, at considerable length, showing that 
I did not intend to vote the Whig or Democratic ticket as 
such, but would go for those who would support good 
order, &c. 

The meeting nominated candidates for senators, repre- 
sentatives, and other officers, and expressed their entire 
disapprobation of the Quincy Whig, relative to my being 
concerned against Governor Boggs. 

I met with the Ladies' Relief Society, and gave them a 
short address; a synopsis was reported by Miss E. R. 

Address oj the Prophet to the Relief Society. 

President Joseph Smith read the 14th chapter of Ezekiel — -said the 
Lord had declared by the Prophet, that the people should each one 
stand for himself, and depend on no man or men in that state of 
corruption of the Jewish church — that righteous persons could only de- 
liver their own souls — applied it to the present state of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — said if the people departed from the 
Lord, they must fall — that they were depending on the Prophet, hence 
were darkened in their minds, in consequence of neglecting the duties 
devolving upon themselves, envious towards the innocent, while they 
afflict the virtuous with their shafts of envy. 

There is another error which ope as a door for the adversary to en- 
ter. As females possess refined feelings and sensitiveness, they are 
also subject to overmuch zeal, which must ever prove dangerous, and 
cause them to be rigid in a religious capacity — [they] should be armed 
with mercy, notwithstanding the iniquity among us. 

Said he had been instrumental in bringing iniquity to light — it was a 
melancholy thought and awful that so many should place themselves 
under the condemnation of the devil, and going to perdition. With 


deep feeling he said that they are fellow mortals, we loved them once, 
shall we not encourage them to reformation 1 ? We have not Tyet] forgiven 
them seventy times seven, as our Savior directed; perhaps we have not 
forgiven them once. There is now a day of salvation to such as repent 
and reform; — and they who repent not should be cast out from this 
society; yet we should woo them to return to God, lest they escape 
not the damnation of hell! Where there is a mountain top, there is also 
a valley — we should act in all things on a proper medium to every im- 
mortal spirit. Notwithstanding the unworthy are among us, the virtu- 
ous should not, from self importance, grieve and oppress needlessly, 
those unfortunate ones — even these should be encouraged to hereafter 
live to be honored by this society, who are the best portions of the com- 
munity. Said he had two things to recommend to the members of this 
society, to put a double watch over the tongue : no organized body can 
exist without this at all. All organized bodies have their peculiar evils, 
weaknesses and difficulties, the object is to make those not so good re- 
form and return to the path of virtue that they may be numbered with 
the good, and even hold the keys of power, which will influence to vir- 
tue and goodness — should chasten and reprove, and keep it all in silence, 
not even mention them again; then you will be established in power, 
virtue, and holiness, and the wrath of God will be turned away. 

I have one request to make of the President and members of the 
society, that you search yourselves — the tongue is an unruly member — 
hold your tongues about things of no moment — a little tale will set the 
world on fire. At this time, the truth on the guilty should not be told 
openly, strange as this may seem, yet this is policy. We must use pre- 
caution in bringing sinners to justice, lest in exposing these heinous 
sins we draw the indignation of a Gentile world upon us (and, to their 
imagination, justly too). It is necessary to hold an influence in the 
world, and thus spare ourselves an extermination; and also accomplish our 
end in spreading the Gospel, or holiness, in the earth. If we were 
brought to desolation, the disobedient would find no help. There are 
some who are obedient, yet men cannot steady the ark — my arm cannot 
do it — God must steady it. To the iniquitous show yourselves merciful. 

I am advised by some of the heads of the Church to tell the Relief 
Society to be virtuous, but to save the Church from desolation and the 
sword; beware, be still, be prudent, repent,. reform, but do it fii a way 
not to destroy all around you. I do not want to cloak iniquity — all 
things contrary to the will of God, should be cast from us, but don't do 
more hurt than good, with your tongues — be pure in heart. Jesus de- 
signs to save the people out of their sins. Said Jesus, "Ye shall do the 
work, which ye see me do." These are the graud key- words for the 
society to act upon. If I were not in your midst to aid and counsel you, 


the devil would overcome you. I want the innocent to go free — rather 
spare ten iniquitous among you, than condemn one innocent one. "Fret 
not thyself because of evil doers." God will see to it. 

Friday, 27. — Had an attack of a bilious nature, stayed 
at home, took some medicine. 

Saturday j 28. — Convalescent. Walked to the store with 
Emma, transacted some business in the city. At eight 
in the evening, called at the printing office, with the night 
watch, to see the Wasp. 

Violent shocks of earthquakes were experienced in 
Greece about this time. 

The High Council were in session, as they had been from 
day to day through the week, investigating charges against 
various individuals for unvirtuous conduct, committed 
through the teachings and influence of John C. Bennett; 
several were cutoff, and some were forgiven on confession. 

Sunday, 29.— 1 was at home; and about the city en- 
gaged in counselling the brethren, &c, and also on Mon- 
day and Tuesday, the 30th, and 31st. 

Wednesday , June 1. — I attended a political meeting in 
the grove, for the nomination of county officers, for the 
county at large, in which I concurred, with the exception 
of the candidate for the sheriffalty, and spoke in favor of 
the proceedings. 

A general conference was held in the Exchange, Man- 
chester, England, Elder Parley P. Pratt, presiding, at 
which 16 conferences were represented, comprising 7,514 
members, 220 Elders, 421 Priests, and 110 Teachers. 

Thursday, 2. — Eode out with Brother Bowen and my 
clerk, and sold lot 1 in block 143. 

The State of Michigan repudiated its debt for $2,350,- 

Friday, 3. — In the forenoon I rode out in the city, and 
sold to Brother Harmer lot 1 in block 123, and in the after- 
noon rode to Brother John Benbow's, on horseback, ac- 
companied by Emma and others. 


Saturday, 4. — At the printing office in the morning, and 
heard letters read from Grand Master Jonas, Dr. King and 
Mr. Helme, concerning John C. Bennett's expulsion from 
the Masonic Lodge in Ohio. 

In the afternoon paid E. B. Nourn $505 for land bought 
of Hugh McFall, and settled with the heirs of Edward 
Lawrence at my house, assisted by Newel K. Whitney and 
my clerk. 

Sunday, 5. — I preached this morning to a large con- 
gregation. The subject matter of my discourse was drawn 
Discoureby froni 32nd and 33rd chapters of Ezekiel, 
the prophet, wherein it was shown that old Pharaoh was 
comforted and greatly rejoiced that he was honored as 
a kind of king devil over those uncircumcised nations that 
go down to hell for rejecting the word of the Lord, not- 
withstanding His mighty miracles, and fighting the Saints; 
the whole exhibited as a pattern to this generation, and 
the nations now rolling in splendor over the globe, if they 
do not repent, that they shall go down to the pit also and 
be rejoiced over, and ruled over by old Pharaoh, king- 
devil of mobocrats, miracle-rejecters, Saint- killers, hypo- 
critical priests, and all other fit subjects to fester in their 
own infamy. 

Monday y 6. — 1 rode on the prairie to view some land, 
accompanied by Brother Yearsley and my clerk ; dined at 
Brother Lot's, and returned home; when I approved of 
a series of resolutions passed by a court martial of the 
Nauvoo Legion. 

Tuesday, 7. — Sold David D. Yearsley a quarter sec- 
tion of land. Quite* a snowstorm is reported in many 
parts of the New England and Middle States. 

' 'Wednesday, 8. — I was about home. Sent Dr. Rich- 
ards to Carthage on business. On his return, old Charley, 
while on a gallop, struck his knees and breast instead of 
nis feet, fell in the street, and rolled over in an instant, 
and che doctor narrowly escaped with his life. It was a 


trick of the devil to kill my clerk. Similar attacks have 
been made on myself of late, and Satan is seeking our de- 
struction on every hand. 

Thursday, 9. — At home, and about the neighborhood, 
attending to domestic affairs, and the business of the 

Minutes of Meeting of the Female Belief Society, at the Grove, Nauvoo, 
June £, 1842, (Reported by Miss E. R, Snow.) 

President Joseph Smith opened the meeting by prayer, and then ad- 
dressed the congregation on the design of the institution. Said it is no 
matter how fast the society increases, if all the members are virtuous; 
that we must be as particular with regard to the character of members 
now, as when the society was first started; that sometimes persons wish 
to crowd themselves into a society of this kind when they do not intend 
to pursue the ways of purity and righteousness, as if the society would 
be a shelter to them in their iniquity. 

He said that henceforth no person shall be admitted, but by present- 
ing regular petitions, signed by two or three members in good standing 
in the society, and whoever comes in must be of good report. 

Objections having been previously made against Mahala Overton, 
they were now removed; after which President Joseph Smith continued 
his address; said he was going to preach mercy. Suppose that Jesus 
Christ and holy angels should object to us on frivolous things, what 
would become of us? We must be merciful to one another, and over- 
look small things. 

Respecting the reception of Sister Overton, President Joseph Smith 
said: It grieves me that there is no fuller fellowship; if one member 
suffer all feel it; by union of feeling we obtain power with God. Christ 
said He came to call sinners to repentance, to save them. Christ was 
condemned by the self-righteous Jews because He took sinners into His 
society; He took them upon the principle that they repented of their 
sins. It is the object of this society to reform persons, not to take those 
that are corrupt and foster them in their wickedness; but if they re- 
pent, we are bound to take them, and by kindness sanctifv and cleanse 
them from all unrighteousness by our influence in watcning over them. 
Nothing will have such influence over people as the fear of being dis- 
fellowshzped by so goodly a society as this. Then take Sister Overton, 
as Jesus received sinners into His bosom. Sister Overton, in the name 
of the Lord, I now make you free. Nothing is so much calculated to 
lead people to forsake sin as to take them by the hand, and watch over 


them with tenderness. When persons manifest the least kindness and 
love to me, what power it has over my mind, while the opposite 
course has a tendency to harrow up all the harsh feelings and depress 
the human mind. 

It is one evidence that men are unacquainted with the principles of 
godliness to behold the contraction of affectionate feelings and lack of 
charity in the w.orld. The power and glory of godliness is spread out 
on a broad principle to throw out the mantle of charity. God does not 
look on sin with allowance, but when men have sinned, there must be 
allowance made for them. 

All the religious world is boasting of righteousness: it is the doctrine 
of the devil to retard the human mind, and hinder our progress, by fill- 
ing us with self -righteousness. The nearer we get to our heavenly 
Father, the more we are disposed to look with compassion on perishing 
souls; we feel that we want to take them upon our shoulders, and cast 
their sins behind our backs. My talk is intended for all this society; 
if you would have God have mercy on you, have mercy on one another. 

President Smith then referred them to tne conduct of the Savior, when 
He was taken and crucified, &c. 

He then made a promise in the name of the Lord, saying that that 
soul who has righteousness enough to ask God in the secret place for 
life, every day of their lives, shall live to three score years and ten. 
We must walk uprightly all the day long. How glorious are the 
principles of righteousness! We are full of "selfishness; the devil 
flatters us that we are very righteous, when we are feeding on the faults 
of others. We can only live by worshiping our God; all must do it for 
themselves; none can do it for another. How mild the Savior dealt 
with Peter, saying, "When thou art converted, strengthen thy breth- 
ren." At another time, He said to him, "Lovest thou me"?" and hav- 
ing received Peter's reply, He said, "Feed my sheep." If the sisters 
loved the Lord, let them feed the sheep, and not destroy them. How 
oft have wise men and women sought to dictate Brother Joseph by say- 
ing, "0, if I were Brother Joseph, I would do this and that; 1 ' but if 
they were in Brother Joseph's shoes they would find that men or women 
could not be compelled into the kingdom of God. but must be dealt with 
in long-suffering, and at last we shall save them. The way to keep all 
the Saints together, and keep the work rolling, is to wait with 
all long-suffering, till God shall bring such characters to justice. There 
should be no license for sin, but mercy should go hand in hand with re- 

Sisters of the society, shall there be strife among you? I will not 
aave it. You must repent, and get the love of God. Away with self- 
righteousness. The best measure or principle to bring the poor to re- 


pentance is to administer to their wants. The Ladies' Relief Society is 
not only to relieve the poor, but to save souls. 

President Smith then said that he would give a lot of land to the 
society by deeding to the treasurer, that the society may build houses 
for the poor. He also said he would give a house, frame not finished, 
and that Brother Cahoon will move it on to the aforesaid lot, and the 
society can pay him by giving orders on the store; that it was a good 
plan to set those to work who are owing widows, and thus make an 
offset, &c. 

Friday, 10. — Went to Brother Hibbard's with my 
clerk, to purchase some land. 

Saturday, 11.- — Presided in city council. Council re- 
solved to publish the city charter, ordinances of the city 
council, and Nauvoo Legion, before the first day of next 
July. Also resolved that the bond given by William 
Marks, binding him to make a deed for the land pur- 
chased of him for a burying ground, for the use of the 
city, be put on record in the office for the registry of deeds 
in the city of Nauvoo. 

Riots and mobs are multiplying in the land. • 

Sunday, 12. — Mostly at home. Called at the printing 
office for some papers. 

Monday, 13. — Attended a general council in the lodge 
room to devise ways and means to furnish the poor with 
labor. Many of the English Saints have conditions of 
gathered to Nauvoo, most of whom are un- f^tstnNau- 
acquainted with any kind of labor, except v0 °- 
spinning, weaving, &c. ; and having no factories in this 
place, they are troubled to know what to do. Those who 
have funds have more generally neglected to gather, and 
left the poor to build up the city and the kingdom of God 
in these last days. 

Tuesday, 14. — Rode to the big mound on the La Harpe 
road, accompanied by Emma, Hiram Kimball, and Dr. 
Richards, and pui chased a three-quarter section of land 
of Kimball, including the mound. 

The Twelve — namely, President Brigham Young, Heber 


C. Kimball, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, and Willard 
Bichards, Bishop George Miller, and Hiram Clark, of the 
High Priest's quorum, in council at the printing office. 
Voted that Hiram Clark go immediately to 
sent toEng- England, take a letter to gather means of the 
churches to go on his journey and take charge 
of the emigration in England, instead of Amos Fielding ; 
also collect means for building the Temple, purchase 
goods, &c, and that letters be given him to Brother Par- 
ley P. Pratt to this effect. Voted that Brother Fielding 
come immediately to this place with his family after his 
return from England. 

John C. Bennett's defense of the proceedings at Nau- 
voo, frc, may be seen on the 37th, 38th, and 39th pages 
of the Wasp. 

Wednesday , 15. — Visited at different places in the city, 
and my farm on the prairie, accompanied by my clerk 
and Orrin Porter Eockwell, and supped at Hiram Kim- 

Issued an editorial on the Gift of the Holy Ghost, as 
follows : — 

The Gift of the Holy Ghost. 

Various and conflicting are the opinions of men in regard to the gift 
of the Holy Ghost. Some people have been in the habit of calling 
every supernatural manifestation the effects of the Spirit of God, whilst 
there are others that think there is no manifestatiou connected with it 
at all; and that it is nothing but a mere impulse of the mind, or an in- 
ward feeling, impression, or secret testimony or evidence, which men 
possess, and that there is no such a thing as an outward manifes- 

It is not to be wondered at that men should be ignorant, in a great 
measure, of the principles of salvation, and more especially of the 
nature, office, power, influence, gifts, and blessings of the gift of the 
Holy Ghost; when we consider that the human family have been en- 
veloped in gross darkness and ignorance for many centuries past, without 
revelation, or any just criterion [by which] to arrive at a knowledge of 
the things of God, which can only be known by the Spirit of God. Hence 
it not infrequently occurs, that when the Elders of this Church preach 
to the inhabitants of the world, that if they obey the Gospel they shall 


receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, that the people expect to see some 
wonderful manifestation, some great display of power, or some extra- 
ordinary miracle performed ; and it is often the case that young mem- 
bers of this Church for want of better information, carry along with them 
their old notions of things, and sometimes fall into egregious errors. 
We have lately had some information concerning a few members that 
are in this dilemma, and for their information make a few remarks upon 
tbe subject. 

We believe in the gift of the Holy Ghost being enjoyed now, as much 
as it was in the Apostles' days; we believe that it [the gift of the Holy 
Ghost] is necessary to make and to organize the Priesthood, that no man 
can be called to fill any office in the ministry without it; we also believe 
in prophecy, in tongues, in visions, and in revelations, in gifts, and in 
healings; and that these things cannot be enjoyed without the gift of 
the Holy Ghost. We believe that the holy men of old spake as they 
were moved by the Holy Ghost, and that holy men in these days speak 
by the same principle; we believe in its being a comforter and a witness 
bearer, that it brings things past to our remembrance, leads us into all 
truth, and shows us of things to come; be believe that "no man can 
know that Jesus is the Christ, but by the Holy Ghost." We believe in 
it [this gift of the Holy Ghost] in all its fullness, and power, and great- 
ness, and glory; but whilst we do this, we believe in it rationally, 
consistently, and scripturally, and not according to the wild vagaries, 
foolish notions and traditions of men. 

The human family are very apt to run to extremes, especially in re- 
ligious matters, and hence people in general, either want some miracul- 
ous display, or they will not believe in the gift of the Holy Ghost at all. 
If an Elder lays his hands upon a person, it is thought by many that the 
person must immediately rise and speak in tongues and prophesy; this 
idea is gathered from the circumstance of Paul laying his hands upon 
certain individuals who had been previonsly (as they stated) baptized 
unto John's baptism; which when he had done, they "spake in tongues 
and prophesied.' ' Phillip also, when he had preached the Gospel to 
the inhabitants of the city of Samaria, sent for Peter and John, who 
when they came laid their hands upon them for the gift of the Holy 
Ghost; for as yet he was fallen upon none of them; and when Simon 
Magus saw that through the laying on of the Apostles' hands the Holy 
Ghost was given, he offered them money that he might possess the 
same power. (Acts viii.) These passages are considered by many as 
affording sufficient evidence for some miraculous, visible manifestation, 
whenever hands are laid on for the gift of the Holy Ghost. 

We believe that the Holy Ghost is imparted by the laying on of hands 
of those in authority, and that the gift of tongues, and also the gift of 


prophecy are gifts of the Spirit, and are obtained through that medium; 
but then to say that men always prophesied and spoke in tongues when 
they had the imposition of hands, would be to state that which is untrue, 
contrary to the practice of the Apostles, and at variance with holy writ; 
for Paul says, "To one is given the gift of tongues, to another the gift 
of prophecy, and to another the gift of healing;" and again: "Do all 
prophesy? do all speak with tongues? do all interpret?" evidently 
showing that all did not possess these several gifts; but that one re- 
ceived one gift, and another received another gift — all did not 
phophesy, all did not speak in tongues, all did not work miracles; but 
all did receive the gift of the Holy Ghost; sometimes they spake in 
tongues and prophesied in the Apostles* days, and sometimes they did 
not. The same is the case with us also in our administrations, while 
more frequently there is no manifestation at all; that is visible to the 
surrounding multitude; this will appear plain when we consult the 
writings of the Apostles, and notice their proceedings in relation to this 
matter. Paul, in 1st Cor. xii, says, "Now concerning spiritual gifts, 
brethren, I would not have you ignorant;" it is evident from this, that 
some of them were ignorant in relation to these matters, or they would 
not need instruction. 

Again, in chapter xiv, he says, "Follow after charity and desire- 
spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy." It is very evident 
from these Scriptures that many of them had not spiritual gifts, for .if 
they had spiritual gifts where was the necessity of Paul telling them 
to follow after them, and it is as evident that they did not all receive 
those gifts by the imposition of the hands; for they as a Church had 
been baptized and confirmed by the laying on of hands — and yet to a 
Church of this kind, under the immediate inspection and superintend- 
ency of the Apostles, it was necessary for Paul to say, "Follow after 
charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy," 
evidently showing that those gifts were in the Church, but not enjoyed 
by all in their outward manifestations. 

But suppose the gifts of the Spirit were immediately, upon the im- 
position of hands, enjoyed by all, in all their fullness and power; the 
skeptic would still be as far from receiving any testimony except upon 
a mere casualty as before, for all the gifts of the Spirit are not visible 
to the natual. vision, or understanding of man; indeed very few of them 
are. We read that "Christ ascended into heaven and gave gifts unto 
men; and He gave some Apostles, and «ome Prophets, and some Evang- 
elists, and some Pastors and Teachers." (Eph. iv). 

The Church is a compact body composed of different members, and 
is strictly analogous to the human system, and Paul, after speaking 
of the different gifts, says, "Now ye are the body of Christ and 


members in particular; and God hath set some in the Church, first Apos- 
tles, secondarily Prophets, thirdly Teachers, after that miracles, then 
gifts of healing 1 , helps, governments, diversities of tongues. Are all 
Teachers? Are all workers of miracles? Do all speak with tongues? 
Do all interpret?'* It is evident that they do not; yet are they all 
members of one body. All members of the natural body are not the 
eye, the ear, the head or the hand — yet the eye cannot say to the ear [ 
have no need of thee, nor the head to the foot, I have no need of thee; 
they are all so many component parts in the perfect machine — the one 
body; and if one member suffer, the whole of the members suffer with 
it: and if one member rejoice, all the rest are honored with it.. 

These, then, are all gifts; they come from God; they are of God; 
they are all the gifts of the Holy Ghost; they are what Christ ascended 
into heaven to impart; and yet how few of them could be known by the 
generality of men. Peter and John were Apostles, yet the Jewish court 
scourged them as impostors. Paul was both an Apostle and Prophet, 
yet they stoned him and put him into prison. The people knew noth- 
ing about it, although he had in his possession the gift of the Holy 
Ghost. Our Savior was * 'anointed with the oil of gladness above his 
fellows," yet so far from the people knowing Him, they said He was 
Beelzebub, and crucified Him as an impostor. Who could point out a 
Pastor, a Teacher, or an Evangelist by their appearance, yet had they 
the gift of the Holy Ghost? 

But to come to the other members of the Church, and examine the 
gifts as spoken of by Paul, and we shall find that the world can in gen- 
eral know nothing about them, and that there is but one or two that 
could be immediately known, if they were all poured out immediately 
upon the imposition of hands. In I. Cor. xii., Paul says, * 'There are di- 
versities of gifts yet the same spirit, and there are differences of ad- 
ministrations but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, 
but it is the same God which worketh all in all. But the manifestations 
of the Spirit is given unto every man to profit withal. For to one is 
given, by the Spirit, the word of wisdom, to another, the word of knowl- 
edge by the same Spirit; to another faith, by the same Spirit; to an- 
other the gifts of healing, by the same Spirit; to another the working 
of miracles; to another prophecy; to another the discerning of spirits; 
to another divers kinds of: tongues; to another the interpretation of 
tongues. But all these worketh that one and the self same spirit, divid- 
ing to each man severally as he will." 

There are several gifts mentioned here, yet which of them all could be 
known by an observer at the imposition of hands? The word of wis- 
dom, and the word of knowledge, are as much gifts as any other, yet if 
a person possessed both of these gifts, or received them by the imposi- 


tion of hands, who would know it? Another might receive the gift of 
faith, and they would be as ignorant of it. Or suppose a man had the 
gift of healing or power to work miracles, that would not then be 
known; it would require time and circumstances to call these gifts into 
operation. Suppose a man had the discerning of spirits, who would be 
the wiser for it? Or if he had the interpretation of tongues, unless 
someone spoke in an unknown tongue, he of course would have to be 
silent; there are only two gifts that could be made visible — the gift of 
tongues and the gift of prophecy. These are things that are the most 
talked about, and yet if a person spoke in an unknown tongue, accord- 
ing to Paul's testimony, he would be a barbarian to those present. They 
would say that it was gibberish; and if he prophesied they would call 
it nonsense. The gift of tongues is the smallest gift perhaps of the 
whole, and yet it is one that is the most sought after. 

So that according to the testimony of Scripture and the manifesta- 
tions of the Spirit in ancient days, very little could be known about it 
by the surrounding multitude, except on some extraordinary occasion, 
as on the day of Pentecost. 

The greatest, the best, and the most useful gifts would be known 
nothing about by an observer. It is true that a man might prophesy, 
which is a great gift, and one that Paul told the people — the Church — 
to seek after and to covet, rather than to speak in tongues; but what 
does the world know about prophesying? Paul says that it "serveth 
only to those that believe."' But does not the Scriptures say that they 
spake in tongues and prophesied? Yes; but who is it that writes these 
Scriptures? Not the men of the world or mere casual observers, but 
the Apostles — men who knew one gift from another, and of course were 
capable of writing about it; if we had the testimony of the Scribes and 
Pharisees concerning the outpouring of the Spirit on the day of Pente- 
cost, they would have told us that it was no gift, but that the people 
were "drunken with new wine," and we shall finally have to come to 
the same conclusion that Paul did — "No man knows the things of God 
but by the Spirit of God;" for with the great revelations of Paul when 
he was caught up into the third heaven and saw things that were not 
lawful to utter, no man was apprised of it until he mentioned it himself 
fourteen years after; and when John had the curtains of heaven with- 
drawn, and by vision looked through the dark vista of future ages, and 
contemplated events that should transpire throughout every subsequent 
period of time, until the final winding up scene — while he gazed upon 
the glories of the eternal world, saw an innumerable company of angels 
and heard the voice of God — it was in the Spirit, on the Lord's day, un- 
noticed and unobserved by the world. 

The manifestations of the gift of the Holy Ghost, the ministering of 


angels, or the development of the power, majesty or glory of God were 
very seldom manifested publicly, and that generally to the people of 
God, as to the Israelites; but most generally when angels have come, 
or God has revealed Himself, it has been to individuals in private, in 
their chamber; in the wilderness or fields, and that generally without 
noise or tumult. The angel delivered Peter out of prison in the dead of 
night; came to Paul unobserved by the rest of the crew; appeared to 
Mary and Elizabeth without the knowledge of others; spoke to John the 
Baptist whilst the people around were ignorant of it. 

When Elisha saw the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof, it 
was unknown to others. When the Lord appeared to Abraham it was 
at his tent door; when the angels went to Lot, no person knew them but 
himself, which was the case probably with Abraham and his wife; when 
the Lord appeared to Moses, it was in the burning bush, in the taber- 
nacle, or in the mountain top; when Elijah was taken in a chariot of fire, 
it was unobserved by the world; and when he was in a cleft of a rock, 
there was loud thunder, but the Lord was not in the thunder; there was 
an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake; and then there 
was a still small voice, which was the voice of: the Lord, saying, "What 
doest thou hear, Elijah?" 

The Lord cannot always be known by the thunder of His voice, by 
the display of His glory or by the manifestation of His power; and those 
that are the most anxious to see these things, are the least prepared to 
meet them, and were the Lord to manifest His power as He did to the 
children of Israel, such characters would be the first to say, "Let not 
the Lord speak any more, lest we His people die." 

We would say to the brethren, seek to know God in your clos- 
ets, call upon him in the fields. Follow the directions of the Book of 
Mormon, and pray over, and for your families, your cattle, your flocks, 
your herds, your corn, and all things that you possess; ask the blessing 
of God upon all your labors, and everything that you engage in. Be 
virtuous and pure; be men of integrity and truth; keep the command- 
ments of God; and then you will be able more perfectly to understand 
the difference between right and wrong — between the things of God 
and the things of men; and your path will be like that of the just, 
which shineth brighter and brighter unto the perfect clay." 

Be not so curious about tongues, do not speak in tongues except 
there be an interpreter present; the ultimate design of tongues is to 
speak to foreigners, and if persons are very anxious to display their 
intelligence, let them speak to such in their own tongues. The gifts of 
God are all useful in their place, but when they are applied to that 
which God does not intend, they prove au injury, a snare and a curse 

32 HISTOKY O*' I'M*: CHURCH. [A.D. 1842 

instead of a blessing. We may some future time enter more fully into 
this subject, but shall let this suffice for the present. 

Thursday, 16. — The following notice was published by 
the Nauvoo [Masonic] lodge: 


To all" whom it may concern, greeting: — Whereas, John Cook 
Bennett, in the organization of the Nauvoo Lodge, under dispensation 
palmed himself upon the fraternity as a- regular mason, in good stand- 
ing; and satisfactory testimony having been produced before said lodge, 
that he, said Bennett, was an expelled mason, we therefore publish to 
all the masonic world the above facts that he, the said Bennett, may 
not impose himself again upon the fraternity of masons. All edi- 
tors who are friendly to the fraternity of free and accepted 
ancient York masons will please insert the above. 
George Miller, 

Master of Nauvoo Lodge under Dispensation. 

The British forces captured the Chinese fortifications on 
the Yang-tse-Kiang river with 364 pieces of artillery. 
Friday, 17.— 

Defense of the Saints in Nauvoo by William Law. 

What have the Mormons done to Illinois? is the question which I 
have frequently asked of those who are busy with the tongue of slander 
in calumniating the Latter-day Saints, but .as yet I have found none 
who are willing to answer me honestly or correctly. Perhaps many 
judge from rumor, not having investigated the matter for themselves. 
I have, therefore, thought it might be well to lay before the public 
some facts in relation to the case, believing that there is a respectable 
portion of the community, who, after having received correct informa- 
tion, will frown with indignation upon the conduct of those who are 
endeavoring to raise a persecution against our people. 

In the first place, we would say, that where a crime is committed 
there is a law broken, for if no law has been violated, theie cannot 
have been a crime committed; if, then, our people have broken the law 
is there not power in those laws to vindicate themselves, or to redress 
the wrongs of those who are injured? We say there is; neither would 
we cast any aspersiou upon the characters of the administrators of the 
laws, as though they were not vigilant in the discharge of their duty; 
we believe, with very few exceptions, they have been vigilant. 

With these facts before us, there is then no difficulty in obtaining 
correct information as to the amount of crime committed by the Mormons 


throughout the state. You have only to refer to the various dockets 
kept by the administrators of law, from the highest court to the lowest, 
throughout the length and breadth of the land, and there you will find 
recorded the crimes of the Mormons, if it so be that they have com- 
mitted any. 

We say their faults are few compared to the population. Where is 
there a record of murder committed by any of our people? None in the 
State. Where is there a record against any of our people for a peni- 
tentiary crime? — Not in the State. Where is there a record of fine or 
county imprisonment (for any breach of law) against any of the Latter- 
day Saints? I know of none in the State. If, then, they have broken 
no law, they consequently have taken away no man's rights — they have 
infringed upon no man's liberties. 

We have been three years in this State, and have not asked for any 
county or state office. Laws have been administered by those n,ot of 
our persuasion; administered rigorously, even against the appearance 
of crime, and yet there has been no conviction of which I have heard. 
Where is there another community in any state, against none of whom 
there is a record of conviction for crime in any court during the space 
of three years? And yet there are those who cry out ''Treason! 
murder! bigamy! burglary! arson! and everything that is evil, without 
being able to refer to a single case that has ever been proved against 
the Mormons. 

This, then, must be the "head and front of our offending," that by 
industry in both spiritual aud temporal things, we are becoming a 
great and numerous people; we convert our thousands and tens of 
' thousands year A y to the light of truth — to the glorious liberty of the 
Gospel of Christ; we bring thousands from foreign lands, from under 
the yoke of oppression and the iron hand of poverty, and we place them 
in a situation where they can sustain themselves, which is the highest 
act of charity toward the poor. We dry the widow's tear, we fill the 
orphan's hand with bread, and clothe the naked; we tea^h them prin- 
ciples of morality and righteousness, and they rejoice in the God of 
Abraham and in the Holy One of Israel, and are happy. 

Thus it is with the honest in heart: but when the wicked creep in 
amongst us for evil, to trample upon the most holy and virtuous pre- 
cepts, and find our moral and religious laws too strict for them, they 
cry out, "Delusion, false prophets, speculation, oppression, illegal ordi- 
nances, usurpation of power, treason against the government, &c. You 
must have your charters taken away; you have dared to pass an ordi- 
nance against fornicators and adulterers; you have forbidden the vend- 
ing of spirituous liquors within your city; you have passed an ordin- 
ance against vagrants and disorderly persons; with many other high- 


handed acts! You even threaten to vote at the next election, and may 
be, (at least we fear) you will send a member to the legislature; none 
of which doings we, the good mobocrats and anti-Mormon politicians 
(and some priests as well) are willing to bear." 

This is the cry of ihe base and the vile, the priest and the speculator, 
but the noble, the high-minded, the patriotic and the virtuous breathe no 
such sentiment; neither will those who feel an interest in the welfare 
of the state, for who does not know that to increase the population ten 
thousand a year with the most industrious people in the world, to pay 
thousands of dollars of taxes, to bring into the state immense sums of 
gold and silver, from all countries; to establish the greatest manufac- 
turing city in America (which Nauvoo will be in a few years,) and to 
create the best produce market in the west, — is for the good and 
prosperity of the community at large, and of the state of Illinois in par- 
ticular. As to the city ordinances we have passed all such as we 
deemed necessary for the peace, welfare and happiness of the inhabi- 
tants, whether Jew or Greek, Mohammedan, Roman Catholic, Latter- 
day Saint or any other; that they all worship God according to their 
own conscience, and enjoy the rights of American freemen. 

William Law. 

Nauvoo, June 17, 1842. 

The above are plain matters of fact, that every one my 
become acquainted with by reference to the county and 
state records. We might add that in regard to moral 
principles, there is no city either in this state, or in the 
ml _ „ , , United States that can compare with the 

The Prophet's , x . 

confirmation city of Nauvoo. You mav live m our city for 

of Win. Law's J . " J 

Defense of a month, and not hear an oath sworn; you 

the Saints. •* i n -. , 

may be here as long and not see one person 
intoxicated. So notorious are we for sobriety, that at 
the time the Washington convention passed through our 
city a meeting was called for them, but they expressed 
themselves at a loss what to say, as there were no drunk- 
ards to speak to. 

Saturday, 18. — The following brief extract is from the 
journal of Elder Wilford Woodruff: » 

Minutes of a Public Meeting in Nauvoo. 

The citizens of Nauvoo, both male and female, assembled near the 
Temple for a general meeting; many thousands were assembled. 


Joseph the Seer arose and spoke his mind in great plainness concern- 
ing the iniquity, hypocrisy, wickedness and corruption of General John 
Cook Bennett. He also prophesied in the name of the Lord, concerning 
the merchants in the city, that if they and the rich did not open their 
hearts and contribute to the poor, they would be cursed by the hand of 
God, and be cut off from the land of the living. 

The main part of the day was taken up upon the business of the 
Agricultural and Manufacturing Society. Arrangements were entered 
into to commence operations immediately, under the charter granted by 
the legislature. 

Also Joseph commanded the Twelve to organize the Church more 
according to the law of God; that is to require of those that come in 
to be settled according to their counsel, and also to appoint a committee 
to wait upon all who arrive, make them welcome and counsel them 
what to do. Brigham Youug, Heber C. Kimball, George A, Smith and 
Hyrum Smith were the committee appointed to wait upon emigrants 
and settle them. 

Tuesday, 21. — I attended a large assembly of the Saints, 
at the stand neai the Temple, and addressed them on the 
subject of agriculture, manufacture, and trade, and was 
followed by the Twelve and others on the same subject. 

Wednesday , 22. — There was a special session of the city 
council held, when was passed " an ordinance repealing 
all ordinances and resolutions relative to the changing of 
the names of streets" in the city of Nauvoo. 

Thursday, 23. — I published the following: 

An Address to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and to all 
the Honorable Part of the Community. 

It becomes my duty to lay before the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints and the public generally, some important facts rela- 
tive to the conduct and character of Dr. John C. Bennett, who has 
lately been expelled from the aforesaid Church and the honorable part 
of the community may be aware of his proceedings, and be ready to 
treat him, and regard him as he ought to be regarded, viz., as an 
impostor and base adulterer. 

It is a matter of notoriety that the said Dr. John C. Bennett became 
favorable to the doctrines taught by the Elders of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, and located himself in the city of Nauvoo, 
about the month of August, 1840, and soon after joined the Church. 


Soon after it was known tnat be had become a member of said Church, 
a communication was received at Nauvoo from a person of respectable 
character and residing in the vicinity where Bennett had lived. This 
letter cautioned us against him, setting forth that he was a very mean 
man, and had a wife and two or three children in McConnellsvill, Morgan 
county, Ohio; but knowing that it is no uncommon thing for good men to 
be evil spoken against, the above letter was kept quiet, but held in 

He had not been long in Nauvoo before he began to keep company 
with a young lady, one of our citizens; and she, being ignorant of his 
having a wife living, gave way to his addresses, and became confident 
from his behavior towards her, that he intended to marry her; and this 
he gave her to understand he would do. I, seeing the folly of such an 
acquaintance, persuaded him to desist, and on account of his continu- 
ing his course, finally threatened to expose him if he did not desist. 
This, to outward appearance, had the desired effect, and the acquain- 
tance between them was broken off. 

But, like one of the most abominable and depraved beings which 
could possibly exist, he only broke off his publicly wicked actions to 
sink deeper into iniquity and hypocrisy. When he saw that I would 
not submit to any such conduct, he went to some of the females in the 
city who knew nothing of him but as an honorable man, and began to 
teach them that promiscuous intercourse between the sexes was a doc- 
trine believed in by the Latter-day Saints, and that there was no harm 
in it, but this failing, he had recourse to a more influential and desper- 
ately wicked course, and that was to persuade them that myself and 
others of the authorities of the Church, not only sanctioned but prac- 
ticed the same wicked acts, and when asked why I publicly preached 
so much against it, said that it was because of the prejudice of the pub- 
lic, and that it would cause trouble in my own house. He was well 
aware of the consequence of such wilful and base falsehoods, if they 
should come to my knowledge, and consequently endeavored to per- 
suade his dupes to keep it a matter of secrecy, persuading them there 
would be no harm if they did not make it kno^n. This proceeding on 
his part answered the desired end; he accomplished his wicked pur- 
poses; he seduced an innocent female by his lying, and subjected her 
character to public disgrace, should it ever be known. 

But his depraved heart would not suffer him to stop here. Not being 
contented with having disgraced one female, he made an attempt upon 
others; and by the same plausible tale overcame them also, evidently 
not caring whose character was ruined, so that his wicked, lustful 
appetites might be gratified. 

Some time, about the early part of July, 1841, I received a letter 


from Elders Hyrum Smith and William Law, who were then in Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. This letter was dated June 15th, and contained 
the particulars of a conversation betwixt them and a respectable gentle- 
man from the neighborhood where Bennett's wife and children resided. 
He stated to them that it was a fact that Bennett had a wife and chil- 
dren living, and that she had left him because of his ill treatment 
toward her. This letter was read to Bennett, which he did not attempt 
to deny, but candidly acknowledged the fact. 

Soon after this information reached our ears, Dr. Bennett made an 
attempt at suicide by taking poison, but he being discovered before it 
took effect, and the proper antidote being administered, he recovered; 
but he very much resisted when an attempt was made to save him. The 
public impression was that he was so much ashamed of his base and 
wicked conduct, that he had recourse to the above deed to escape the 
censures of an indignant community. 

It might have been supposed that these circumstances, transpiring 
in the manner they did, would have produced a thorough reformation 
in his conduct; but, alas! like a being totally destitute of common 
decency, and without any government over his passions, he was soon 
busily engaged in the same kicked career, and continued until a knowl- 
edge of the same reached my ears. I immediately charged him with it, 
and he admitted that it was true; but in order to put a stop to all such 
proceedings for the future, I publicly proclaimed against it, and had 
those females notified to appear before the proper officers, that the 
whole subject might be investigated and thoroughly exposed. 

During the course of investigation, the foregoing facts were 
proved by credible witnesses, and were sworn and subscribed to before 
an alderman of the city, on the 15th ultimo. The documents contain- 
ing the evidence are now in my possession. 

We also ascertained by the above investigation that others had been 
led by his conduct to pursue the same adulterous practice, and in order 
to accomplish their detestible designs made use of the same language 
insinuated by Bennett, with this difference, that they did not hear me 
say anything of the kind, but Bennett was one of the heads of the 
Church, and he had informed them that such was the fact and they 
credited his testimony. 

The public will perceive the aggravating nature of this case, and will 
see the propriety of this exposure. Had he only beeu guilty of adul- 
tery, that was sufficient to stamp disgrace upon him, because he is a 
man of better information, and has been held high in the estimation of 
many. But, when it is considered that his mind was so intent upon his 
cruel and abominable deeds, and his own reputation not being sufficient 
to enable him to do it, he must needs make use of my name in 


order to effect his purposes, an enlightened public will not be astonished 
at the course I have pursued. 

In order that it may be distinctly understood that he willfully and 
knowingly lied iu the above insinuations, I will lay before my readers 
an affidavit taken before an alderman of the city, after I had charged 
him with these things: — 

State of Illinois, { 
City of Nauvoo. S 

Personally appeared before me, Daniel H. Wells, an alderman of 
said city of Nauvoo, John C. Bennett, who being duly sworn according 
to law, deposeth and saith, — that he never was taught anything in the 
least contrary to the strictest principles of the Gospel, or of virtue, or 
of the laws of God or man, under auy circumstances, or upon any 
occasion, either directly or indirectly, in word or deed, by Joseph 
Smith, and that he never knew the said Smith to countenance any im- 
proper conduct whatever, either in public or private; and that he never 
did teach me in private that an illegal, illicit intercourse with females 
was, under any circumstances justifiable, and that I never knew him so 
to teach others. 

John C. Bennett. 

Sworn to, and subscribed before me, this 17th day of May, A. D. 

Daniel H. Wells, Alderman. 

The following conversation took place in the City Council, and was 
elicited in consequence of its being reported that the doctor had stated 
that I had acted in an indecorous manner, and given countenance to 
vices practiced by the doctor and others: — 

Dr. John C. Bennett, ex-mayor, was then called upon by the mayor to 
state if he knew aught against him [i.e., Joseph Smith], when Mr. Ben- 
net replied: I know what I am about, aud the heads of the Church 
know what they are about, I expect. I have no difficulty with the heads 
of the Church. I publicly avow that any one who has said that I have 
stated that General Joseph Smith has given me authority to hold illicit 
intercourse with women, is a liar in the face of God; those who have 
said it are damned liars; they are infernal liars. He never, either in 
public or private, gave me any such authority or license, and any per- 
son who states it, is a scoundrel and a liar. I have heard it said that I 
would become a second Avard by withdrawing from the Church, and 
that I was at variance with the heads, and would use an influence 
against them, because I resigned the office of mayor; this is false. 1 
have no difficulty with the heads of the Church, and I intend to con- 
tinue with you, and hope the time may come when I may be restored 


to full confidence and fellowship, and my former standing in the 
Church; and that my conduct may be such as to warrant my restora- 
tion; and should the time ever come that I may have the opportunity to 
test my faith, it will then be known whether I am a traitor or a true 

Joseph Smith then asked: "Will you please state definitely whether 
you know anything against my character either in public or private?" 

General Bennett answered: "I do not; in all my intercourse with 
General Smith, in public and in private, he has been strictly virtuous." 

Wilson Law, 
Hiram Kimball, 
Brigham Young, 
Willard Richards, 
Heber C. Kimball, 
Wilford Woodruff, 
Geo. A. Smith, 
Newel K. Whitney, 
Orson Spencer, 
John Taylor, 
John P. Greene, 
Gustave Hills, 
George W. Harris, 
James Sloan, City Recorder. 
May 19, 1842. 

After I had done all in my power to persuade him to amend his con- 
duct, and these facts were fully established (not only by testimony, but 
by his own confessions) he having acknowledged that they were true, 
and seeing no prospects of any satisfaction from his future life, the 
hand of fellowship was withdrawn from him as a member of the Church 
by the officers; but ou account of his earnest requesting that we would 
not publish him to the world, we concluded not to do so at that time, 
but would let the matter rest until we saw the effect of what we had 
already done. 

It appears evident that as soon as he perceived that he could no 
longer maintain his standing as a member of the Church, nor his 
respectability as a citizen, he came to the conclusion to leave the place, 
which he has done, and that very abruptly; and had he done so quietly, 
and not attempted to deceive the people around him, his case would 
not have excited the indignation of the citizens so much as his real con- 
duct has done. In order to make his case look plausible, he has 
reported that he had withdrawn from the Church because we were not 
worthy of his society; thus, instead of manifesting a spirit of repent- 


ance, be has to the last proved himself to be unworthy the confidence 
or regard of any upright person, by lying to deceive the innocent, and 
committing adultery in the most abominable and degraded manner. 

We are credibly informed that he has colleagued with some of our 
former wicked persecutors, the Missourians, and has threatened 
destruction upon us; but we should naturally suppose chat he would be 
so much ashamed of himself at the injury he has already done to those 
who never injured him, but befriended him in every possible manner, that 
he could never dare to lift up his head before an enlightened public 
with the design either to misrepresent or persecute; but be that as it 
may, we neither dread him nor his influence, but this much we believe, 
that unless he is determined to fill up the measure of his iniquity, and 
bring sudden destruction upon himself from the hand of the Almighty, 
he will be silent, and never more attempt to injure those concerning 
whom he has testified upon oath he knows nothing but that which is 
good and virtuous. 

Thus I have laid before the Church of Latter-day Saints, and before 
the public, the character and conduct of a man who has stood high in 
the estimation of many; but from the foregoing facts, it will be seen 
that he is not entitled to any credit, but rather to be stamped with 
indignity and disgrace so far as he may be known. What I have 
stated, I am prepared to prove, having all the documents concerning 
the matter in my possession, but I think that to say further is unneces- 
sary, as the subject is so plain that no one can mistake the true nature 
of the case. 

I remain, yours respectfully, 

Joseph Smith. 

Nauvoo, June 23, 1842. 

I have been engaged in domestic affairs and counseling 
the brethren the last week. 

I addressed the following letter to Richmond, Massa- 
chusetts : 

Ike Prophet 1 s Letter to Jennetta Richards. 

Nauvoo, June 23, 1842. 

Sister Jennetta Richards: — Agreeable to your request in the 
midst of the bustle and business of the day, and the care of all the 
churches both at home and abroad, I now embrace a moment to address a 
few words to you, thinking peradventure it may be a consolation 
to you to know that you, too, are remembered by me, as well as all 
the Saiuts. 

My heart's desire and prayer to God is all the day long for all the 
Saints, and man especial and particular manner for those whom He hath 

A.D. 1842 j ; HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 41 

chosen and anointed to bear the heaviest burthens in the heat of the 
day, aniong which number is your husband received — a man in whom I 
have the most implicit confidence and trust. You say I have got him; 
so I have, in the which I rejoice, for he has done me a great good, and 
taken a great burthen off my shoulders since his arrival in Nauvoo. 
Never did I have a greater intimacy with any man than with him. May 
the blessings of Elijah crown his head for ever and ever. We are about 
to send him in a few days after his dear family; he shall have our 
prayers fervently for his safe arrival in their embraces; and may God 
speed his journey, and return him quickly to our society; and I want 
you, beloved sister, to be a general in this matter, in helping him along, 
which I know you will. He will be able to teach you many things 
which you never have heard; you may have implicit confidence in the 

I have heard much about you by the Twelve, and in consequence of 
the great friendship that exists between your husband and me, and the 
information they all have given me of your virtue and strong attach- 
ment to the truth of the work of God in the last days, I have formed 
a very strong brotherly friendship and attachment for you in the bonds 
of the Gosoel. Although I never saw you, I shall be exceedingly glad 
to see you face to face, and be able to administer in the name of the 
Lord, some of the words of life to your consolation, and I hope that you 
may be kept steadfast in the faith, even unto the end. 

I want you should give my love and tender regard to Brother Rich- 
ards' family, and those who are friendly enough to me to inquire after 
me in that region of the country, not having but very little time to 
apportion to any one, and having stolen this opportunity, I therefore 
subscribe myself, in haste, your most obedient brother in the fullness 
of the Gospel, 

Joseph Smith. 

P. S. — Brother Richards having been with me for a long time, can 
give you any information which you need, and will tell you all about me. 
I shall be very anxious for his return; he is a great prop to me in my 

J. S. 

The Afghan war has cost great Britain $15,000,000 per 
annum since its commencement. 

Friday, 24. — Called St. John's day. I rode in Masonic 
procession to the grove where a large assembly of masons 
and others listened to an address from President Rigdon. 


Dined at the Masonic Hall Hotel, kept by Brother Alex- 
ander Mills. 
Wrote Governor Carlin as follows : 

Ihe Prophet 1 s Letter to Governor Carlin on John C. Bennett Affairs. 

Natjvoo, June 24, 1842. 
Thomas Carlin, Governor of the State of Illinois: 

Dear Sir: — It becomes my duty to la}^ before you some facts rela- 
tive to the conduct of our major-general, John C. Bennett, which have 
been proven beyond the possibility of a dispute, and which he himself 
has admitted to be true in my presence. 

It is evident that his general character is that of an adulterer of the 
worst kind, and although he has a wife and children living, circum- 
stances which have transpired in Nauvoo, have proven to a demonstra- 
tion that he cares not whose character is disgraced, whose honor is 
destroyed, nor who suffers, so that his lustful appetite may be grati- 
fied; and further, he cares not how many or how abominable the 
falsehoods he has to make use of to accomplish his wicked purposes, 
even should it be that he brings disgrace upon a whole community. 

Some time ago it having been reported to me that some of the most 
aggravated cases of adultery had been committed upon some previously 
respectable females in our city, I took proper methods to ascertain the 
truth of the report, and was soon enabled to bring sufficient witnesses 
before proper authority to establish the following facts: 

More than twenty months ago Bennett went to a lady in the city and 
began to teach her that promiscuous intercourse between the sexes was 
lawful and no harm in it, and requested the privilege of gratifying his 
passions; but she refused in the strongest terms, saying that it was 
very wrong to do so, and it would bring a disgrace on the Church. 

Finding this argument ineffectual, he told her that men in higher 
standing in the Church than himself not only sanctioned, but practiced 
the same deed?; and in order to finish the controversy, said and 
affirmed that I both taught and acted in the same manner, but publicly 
proclaimed against in consequence of the prejudice of the people, and 
for fear of trouble in my own house. By this means he accomplished 
his designs; he seduced a respectable female with lying, and subjected 
her to public infamy and disgrace. 

Not contented with what he had already done, he made the attempt 
on others, and by using the same language, seduced them also. 

About the early part of July, 1841, 1 received a letter from Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania; in it was container" information setting forth that. 


said Bennett had a wife and two or three children then living. This 
I read to him, and he acknowledged it was true. 

A very short time after this, he attempted to destroy himself by tak- 
ing poison; but being discovered before it had taken sufficient effect, 
and proper antidotes being administered, he recovered. 

The impression made upon the minds of the public by this event, was 
that he was so ashamed of his base conduct, that he took this course 
to escape the censure of a justly indignant community. It might have 
been supposed that after this he would have broken off his adulterous 
proceedings; but to the contrary, the public consternation had scarcely 
ceased, before he was again deeply involved in the same wicked pro- 
ceedings and continued until a knowledge of the fact reached my ears. 
I immediately charged him with the whole circumstance, and ne 
candidly acknowledged the truth of the whole. 

The foregoing facts were established on oath before an alderman of 
the city; the affidavits are now in my possession. 

In order that the truth might be fully established, I asked Benuett 
to testify before an alderman, whether I had given him any cause for 
such aggravating conduct. He testified that I never taught him that 
illicit intercourse with females was under any circumstances justifiable, 
neither did he ever hear me teach anything but the strictest principles 
of righteousness and virtue. This affidavit is also in my possession. I 
have also a similar affidavit taken before the City Council, and signed 
by the members of the Council. 

After these things transpired, and finding that I should resist all such 
wicked conduct, and knowing that he could no longer maintain himself 
as a respectable citizen, he has seen fit to leave Nauvoo, and that very 

I have been credibly informed that he is colleaguing with some of our 
former cruel persecutors, the Missourians, and that he is threatening 
destruction upon us; and under these circumstance I consider it my 
duty to give you information on the subject, that a knowledge of his 
proceedings may be before you in due season. 

It can be proven by hundreds of witnesses that he is one of the basest 
of liars, and that his whole routine of proceedings, while among us, has 
been of the basest kind. 

He also stated that he had resigned his commission as major-general 
to. the Governor, whether this be true or not, I have no knowledge. I 
wish to be informed on the subject, that we may know how to act in 
regard to the Legion. 

A short time ago, I was told by a friend of mine (not a member of 
the Church) that some of the Missourians were conspiring to come up 
to Nauvoo and kidnap me, and not doubting but that it might be true, 


I consulted with General Bennett upon the most proper course to be 
pursued. We concluded to write to you on the subject, and I requested 
him to do so. I understand he has written to you, but I know not in 
what manner, and I should be very much pleased if you would write to 
me on receipt of this, giving 1 me the contents of his communication. . 

I have also heard that you have entertained of late very unfavorable 
feelings towards us as a people, and especially so with regard to my- 
self, and that you have said that I ought to be shot, &c. If this be 
true, I should be pleased to know from yourself the reason of such hos- 
tile feelings, for I know of no cause which can possibly exist that might 
produce such feelings in your breast. 

It is rumored, and stroug evidence exists, that Dr. Bennett and 
David and Edward Kilbourn have posted bills in Galena, calling upon 
the people to hold meetings, and have themselves in readiness at a 
moment's warning to be assembled and come here and mob us out of the 
place, and try to kidnap me; we know not as to the truth of this report, 
but we have conversed with some transient persons who had the report 
from a gentleman who lately came from there, and had seen those 
hand bills posted in Galena. 

In case of any mob coming upon us, I wish to be informed by the 
Governor what will be the best course for us to pursue, and how he 
wishes us to act in regard to this matter. 

Joseph Smith. 
Lieutenant-General Nauvoo Legion. 

There was a severe shock of an earthquake at Antigua. 

Saturday, 25. — Transacted business with Brother 
Hunter, and Mr. Babbitt, and sat for a drawing of my 
profile to be placed on a lithograph of the map of the city 
of Nauvoo. 

Messrs. Stephens and Catherwood have succeeded in 
collecting in the interior of America a large 

The Work of & . to 

Stephens and amount of relics of the Nephites, or the an- 
cient inhabitants of America treated of in the 
Book of Mormon, which relics have recently been landed 
in New York. 

■ Sunday, 26. — President Young preached on the law of 
consecration, and union of action in building up the city 
and providing labor and food for the poor. 
I attended meeting and council at my house at six 


o'clock p. m. ; present Hyrurn Smith, George Miller, 
Newel K. Whitney, William Marks, Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Willard Rich- m°gs D at th^T 
ards, to take into consideration the situation Home. 6 * 9 
of the Pine country, and lumbering business, 
and other subjects of importance to the Church; after 
consultation thereon the brethren united in solemn prayer 
that God would make known His will concerning the Pine 
country, and that He would deliver His anointed, His 
people, from all the evil designs of Governor Boggs, and 
the powers of the state of Missouri, and of Governor Car- 
lin and the authorities of Illinois, and of all Presidents, 
Governors, Judges, Legislators, and all in authority, and 
of John C. Bennett, and all mobs and evil designing per- 
sons, so that His people might continue in peace and 
build up the city of Nauvoo, and that His chosen might 
be blessed and live to man's appointed age, and that their 
households, and the household of faith might continually 
be blest with the fostering care of heaven, and enjoy the 
good things of the earth abundantly. Adjourned to Mon- 
day evening. 

Monday, 27. — Transacted a variety of business. Bor- 
rowed money of Brothers Woolley, Spencer, &c, and 
paid Hiram Kimball for the mound. 

When the council assembled in the evening, Brothers 
Hunter, Ivins, Woolley, Pierce and others being present, 
the adjourned council was postponed till Tuesday even- 
ing, and I proceeded to lecture at length on the import- 
ance of uniting the means of the brethren for the purpose 
of establishing manufactories of all kinds, furnishing 
labor for the poor, &c. Brothers Hunter and Woolley 
offered their goods towards a general fund, and good 
feelings were generally manifested. 

This morning little Frederick G. W. Smith told his 
dream to all the house, that "the Missoiirians had got 
their heads knocked off." 

Tuesday , 28.- Paid Brothers Woolley and Spencer. 


Brother Hunter's goods were received at the store, and 
Brother Robins consecrated his goods and money to the 
general fund. 

The adjourned council of Sunday evening met in my 
upper room, and were agreed that a reinforcement go im- 
mediately to the Pine country, led by Brother Ezra Chase. 
The council dispersed after uniting in solemn prayer to God 
for a blessing on themselves and families, and the Church 
in general, and for the building up of the Temple and 
Nauvoo House and city; for deliverance from their ene- 
mies, and the spread of the work of righteousness : and 
that Brother Richards (who was expected to go East to- 
morrow for his family) might have a prosperous journey, 
have power over the winds and elements, and all opposi- 
tion and dangers, his life and health be preserved, and be 
speedily returned to this place with his family, that their 
lives and health might be preserved, and that they might 
come up in peace to this place, and that Brother Richards 
might be prospered according to the desire of his heart, 
in all things in relation to his household, and the Church, 
and that the Spirit of God might rest upon him continu- 
ally, so that he may act according to the wisdom of 

Previous to the council, in company with Bishop Miller, 
I visited Elder Rigdon and his family, and had much 
conversation about John C. Bennett, and others, much 
unpleasant feeling was manifested by Elder Rigdon 's 
family, who were confounded and put to silence by the 

George Miller's Letter to Governor Reynolds oj Missouri. 

To his Excellency Governor Reynolds, of Missouri. 

Dear Sir: — You will permit me to ask you to peruse this letter and 
the accompanying newspaper, relative to the character aud conduct of 
John Cook Bennett, who associated himself with our religious com- 
munity nearly two years ago, he being a mau of respectable talents and 
moderately good literary attainments. 

In the judicial organization of our city uuder the charter granted by 


the legislature of Illinois, said Bennett was elected mayor; and con- 
tinued to hold said office of mayor until within the last two months or 
less. He having learned that he could no longer maintain a standing 
as an honorable man in our society, he tendered his resignation, which 
was accepted. 

The object of this communication is, therefore, to inform you of the 
true character of said John C. Bennett, that he may not injure the 
innocent by gaining credence with you, or those over whom your 
Excellency is placed to govern. 

We have learned from respectable sources that John Cook Bennett 
has entered into a conspiracy with some of the citizens of your state, to 
bring a mob upon us, and thereby disturb our peaceful vocations of 
life, and destroy and drive us from our homes and firesides. 

Believing that your Excellency cannot be influenced by the popular 
prejudice, almost everywhere entertained against us, on account of our 
peculiar tenets, I am the more free to write to you without reserve, 
knowing that the high-toned and honorable men of the earth will not be 
easily carried away by popular opinion or vulgar prejudice; but will 
always be found on the side of the law-abiding portion of the commun- 
ity, and will suppress, so far as in them lies, every movement that tends 
to abridge the rights, or mar the peace and happiness of any portion of 
the citizens of the common country. 

I have resided in this city nearly three years, and have attached my- 
self to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, soon after their 
location here; and have had a good opportunity of learning the feelings 
of the leading members of the said Church in regard to the citizens of 
Missouri which are of the most friendly nature, fever desiring to live 
in peace and cultivate friendship with all the citizens of your state, as 
also all the states, and all mankind generally; it being a principle of our 
faith to cultivate friendship and live in peace with all mankind; and if 
Dr. John Cook Bennett, or any other person, may conspire with citizens 
of your state to bring upon us mob violence, we confide in you as one 
who will under all circumstances, interpose the strong arm of the law in 
the suppression of conspiracy or mobs, or any other violation of law. 
As citizens of the United States we claim the protection of the several 
states and the United States in all our constitutional rights; and having 
learned something of your character, we, the more confidently, 
expect your protection against all lawless aggressions by any of the 
citizens of your state. 

Whatever may be reported concerning us, we assure your Excellency 
that our feelings are, as I have before stated, of the most friendly 
nature, and should Bennett or any other persou report anything 

48 • HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. | A .D. 1842 

contrary, your Excellency need pay no attention to it; for it is 
not the truth, and is only designed by wicked men to cause the over- 
throw of the innocent. 

Should any report have already reached your ears, I would esteem it 
as a great favor, if you would R ive me information of the same by letter 
mmediately on receipt of this. 

I am, yours respectfully, 

George Miller. 




Wednesday , 29. — I held a long conversation with Francis 
M. Higbee. Francis found fault with being exposed, but 
I told him I spoke of him in self defense. Francis was, 
or appeared, humble, and promised to reform. 

Heard the recorder read in the Law of the Lord ; paid 
taxes; rode out in the city on business, with Brigham 

My clerk, Willard Richards, being about to leave me 
for a season, committed the business of my office to Elder- 
William Clayton, who had been engaged with him for a 
few weeks past. 

Thursday , '30. — In the forenoon, spent some time with 
C. A. Warren, Esq., from Quincy, and others, in the 
private office, and in the afternoon was in the court mar- 
tial, giving testimony concerning John C. Bennett, who 
was cashiered. 

Letter of Governor Thomas Carlin to Joseph Smith — Anent John C. 


Quincy, June 30, 1842. 

Dear Sir: — I received by the last mail, your letter of the 24th in- 
stant, in which you have thought proper to give me a statement of 
charges against the conduct and character of General John C. Bennett; 
I can say that I regret that any individual should so far disregard his 
obligations to his God, and to his fellow man, as to condescend to the 
commission of the crimes alleged in your letter to have been perpetrated 
by General Bennett. It is, however, in accordance with representations 


of his character, made to me more than two years since, and which I 
then felt constrained to believe were true, since which time I have de- 
sired to have as little intercourse with him as possible. No resignation 
of his commission as major- general of the Naiivoo Legion has reached 

Some weeks since I read a short note from him, stating that you had 
reason to believe that a conspiracy is getting up in the state of Mis- 
souri; for' the purpose of mobbing the Mormons at Nauvoo, and kidnap- 
ping you, and take you to that state, and requested to be informed in 
ease of such mob, whether you would be protected by the authorities of 
this state, etc. To which I replied; that as all men were held amen- 
able to the laws, so in like manner the rights of all would be protected, 
and the dignity of the state maintained, to the letter of the constitution . 
and laws. The above is, in substance, the contents of his note to me, 
and my reply to him, having destroyed his letter, as I considered it of 
no use, should it be retained. 

You state that you have heard that I have of late entertained un- 
favorable feelings towards you (the Mormons) as a people, and espe- 
cially so with regards to yourself, &c, *fcc. If this should be true, you 
would be pleased to know from me the reasons of such hostile feelings. 

In reply, I can in truth say that I do not entertain or cherish hostile 
or revengeful feelings towards any man or set of men on earth; but 
. that I may have used strong expressions in reference to yourself, at 
times when my indignation has been somewhat aroused by repeated 
admonitions of my friends (both before and since the attempt to assassi- 
nate Ex-Governor Boggs) to be upon my guard; that you had prophe- 
sied that Boggs should die a violent death, and that I should die in a 
ditch, all this, however, if true, I looked upon as idle boasting until 
since the assassination of Boggs, and even since theu, in reference to 
myself, I cannot view it in any other light, because whatever your feel- 
ings may have been towards Boggs, the mere discharge of an official 
duty on my part, enjoined upon me by the constitution and laws of this 
state, and of the United States, could not possibly engender feelings of 
such deep malignity. Be assured that this matter gives me no uneasi- 
ness, nor would the subject now have been mentioned, had you not re- 
quested a reply to your inquiries. 

I have seen your denial published in the Wasp, of the prediction, at- 
tributed to you, of the death (or assassination) of Governor Boggs; be 
that true or false, nothing has contributed more towards fixing the belief 
upon the public mind, that you had made such prediction, than the re- 
peated statements of a portion of your followers, that the manner of his 
death had been revealed to you, and their exultation that it needs must 
be fulfilled. 


In reference to your request, to be advised how you should act, m 
case a mob should come upon you, I should feel very much at a loss to 
recommend any course for you to adopt, other than the resort to the first 
law of nature, namely, to defend your own rights; because, were 
I to advise a quiet submission on your part, I could not expect that you 
would fold your arms, and silently look on, whilst those rights were 
violated and outraged, as long as you have the power to protect them. 
I, however, have not the most distant thought that there exists, at pres- 
ent, any real cause for the apprehension of a mob coming upon you, 
otherwise I should feel it my duty to endeavor to arrest it. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thomas Carlin. 
To General Joseph Smith. 

I received a letter from Horace R. Hotchkiss, of which 
the following is a copy: — 

Letter of Horace R. Hotchkiss to Joseph Smith — On the Prophet taking 
Advantage of the Bankrupt Act. 

Fair Haven, May 27, 1842. 
Rev. Joseph Smith: 

Dear Sir: — Yours, notifying me of your application for the benefit 
of the bankrupt act, is at hand. I regret very much the step you have 
taken, as I am fearful it will have a most disastrous influence upon your 
society, both commercially and religiously; you have, however, prob- 
ably weighed the subject with sufficient care to arrive at a correct de- 

You will oblige me by stating, immediately upon the receipt of this 
letter, your precise meaning, in saying, that "all your creditors would 
fare alike." It is, as you will see, important for me to know the course 
taken with my notes, and also the position in which we stand to each 

You have my bond for certain lands, or rather you have my bond 
that you shall have a deed to certain lands upon the payment of notes 
specified in said bond. I wish to know exactly how this bond stands in 
your inventory. Of course, it cannot stand as a title to the property; 
but I want to know the disposition which is to be made of it. 

Possibly some arrangement might be made between us at once; still 
I do not know how Mr. Tuttle and Mr. Gillet will view the subject: 

Yours, &c, 

Horace K. Hotchkiss. 


To which I wrote the following answer:- — 

Letter of Joseph Smith to H. R. Hotchkiss — Reply to Above. 

Nauvoo, June 30, 1842. 
H. R. Hotchkiss, Esq.: 

Dear Sir: — Yours of the 27th May has been received, which I shall 
now briefly answer. In regard to my application for the benefit of the 
bankrupt act, there was no other course for me to pursue than the one 
I have already taken; and, as I have said before, all my creditors will 
have to fare alike. Your papers are inventoried along with all the other 

The influence this step may have upon our society, either commerci- 
ally or religiously, is a matter we cannot stop to consult, as we had no 
alternative left, We have been compelled to pursue this course on ac- 
count of the extreme pressure of the times, which continued to bear 
harder upon ns, until we took the step we have. 

A great pressure of business prevents writing more at the present, 
you will, therefore, excuse a short communication. 

I remain yours respectfully, 

Joseph Smith. 

Friday j July 2. — Elder Willard Richards left Nauvoo 
for New England. 

Saturday,. \2. — Rode out in the city with my clerk, Mr. 
Clayton, to look at some lots ; afterwards rode to Heze- 
kiah Peck's, accompanied by Emma and others. 

In this day's Wasp, I find the following: — 

Mr. Editor: 

Sir: — I take the liberty to inform you that a large number of persons 
in different places have manifested a desire to know the phrenological 
development of Joseph Smith's head. I have examined the Prophet's 
head, and he is perfectly willing to have the chart published. You will 
please publish in your paper such portions of it as I have marked, show- 
ing the development of his much-talked-of brain, and let the public 
judge for themselves whether phrenology proves the reports against 
him true or false. Time will prove all things, and a "word to the wise 
is sufficient." 

Yours respectfully, 

A. Crane. 

A.D. 1842 j HISTORY Of THE CHURCH. 53 

A Phrenological Chart of Joseph Smith the Prophet by A. Crane, M, D., 
Professor of Phrenology. 


Amativeness — 11, L. Extreme susceptibility; passionately fond of 
the company of the other sex. 

Philoprogenitiveness — 9, L. Strong parental affection, great solici- 
tude for their happiness. 

Inhabitiveness — 5, F. Attached to place of long residence; no desire 
to change residence. 

Adhesiveness — 8, P. Solicitous for the happiness of friends, and 
ardent attachments for the other sex. 

Combativeness — 8, L. Indomitable perseverance, great courage; 
force, ability to overpower. 

Destructiveness — 6, M. Ability to control the passions, and is not 
disposed to extreme measures. 

Secretiveness — 10, L. Great propensity and ability to conceal feel- 
ings, plans, &c. 

Acquisitiveness — 9, L. Strong love of riches, desire to make and 
save money. 

Alimentativeness — 9, L. Strong relish for food; keen and severe 

Vitativeness — 4, M. or S. Indifference to life; views the approach of 
death without fear. 


Cautiousness — 7, F. Provision against prospective dangers and ills, 
without hesitation or irresolution. 

Approbativeness — 10, L. Ambition for distinction; sense of charac- 
ter; sensibility to reproach, fear of scandal. 

Self-esteem — 10, L. High-mindedness, independence, self-confi- 
dence, dignity, aspiration for greatness. 

Concentrativeness — 7, F. Can dwell on a subject without fatigue, 
and control the imagination. 


Benevolence — 10, L. Kiudness, gooduess, tenderness, sympathy. 

Veneration — 6, F. Religion, without great awe or enthusiasm; rea- 
sonable deference to superiority. 

Firmness — 10, L. Stability and decison of charcter and purpose. 

Conscientiousness — 8, L. High regard for duty, integrity, mora 
principle, justice, obligation, truth, &c. 

Hope— 10, L. Cheerfulness, sanguine expectation of success and en- 


Marvelousness — 10 L. Wonder, credulity, belief in the sapernatural. 

Imitation — 5,M. Inferior imitative powers; failure to copy, desciibe, 
relate stories, Sec. 

Prepossession — 8, L. or F. Attached to certain notions; not disposed 
to change them, &c. 

Ideality — 9, L. Lively imagination; fancy, taste, love of poetry, 
elegance, eloquence, excellence, &c. 

Percepti ves. 

Admonition — 8, F. or M. Desirous to know what others are doing; 
ready to counsel, and give hints of a fault or duty, &c. 

Constructiveness — 7, F. Respectable ingenuity, without uncommon 
skill, tact or facility in making, &c. 

Tune — 5, F. or M. Love of music, without quickness to catch or 
learn tunes by the ear. 

Time — 11, V. L. Distinct impressions as to the time when, how 
long, &c. 

Locality — 11, V. L. or L. Great memory of place and position. 

Eventuality — 11, V. L. Extraordinary recollection of minute cir- 

Individuality — 10, L. Great desire to see; power of observation. 

Form — 10, F. Cognizance, and distinct recollection of shapes, coun- 
tenances, &c. 

Size — 11, N. L. or F. Ability to judge of proportionate size, &c. 

Weight — 9, V. L.. L. F. Knowledge of gravitation, momentum, &c. 

Color — 9, F. or M. Moderate skill in judging of colors, comparing 
and arranging them. 

Language — 6, F. Freedom of expression, without fluency or ver- 
bosity; no great loquacity. 

Order — 9, L. Love of arrangement, everything in its particular 

Number — 7. Respectable aptness in arithmetical calculations, with- 
out extraordinary talent. 


Mirthfulness — 10, L. Wit, fun, mirth, perception and love of the 

Causality — 9, L. Ability to think and reason clearly, and perceive 
the relationfof cause and effect. 

Comparison — 11, V. L. Extraordinary critical acumen; great power 
of analysis. 

There are four temperaments. The lymphatic or phlegmatic, in 
which the secreting glands are the most active portion of the system , 


produces both corporeal and mental langour, dullness, and inactivity. 
The sanguine in which the arterial portion of the system is most active, 
gives strong feelings and passions, and more ardor, zeal, and activity, 
than of strength or power. The bilious, in which the muscular portion 
predominates in activity, produces strength, power, and edurance of 
body, with great force and energy of mind and character. The nervous, 
in which the brain and nervous system are most active, gives the 
highest degree of activity, with clearness of perception and of thought, 
but less endurance. Sharp and prominent organs denote activity; 
smooth and broad ones intensity and strength. 

Explanation oj the Chart, 

The written figures opposite the organs and ranging in a scale from 
1 to 12, indicate the various degrees in which the respective organs are 
developed in the head of the individual examined; thus 1, 2 indicate that 
the organ is very small or almost wholly wanting; 3, 4 means small, 
or feeble, and inactive; 5, 6 moderate or active only in a subordinate 
degree; 7, 8, full or fair, and a little above par; 9, 10, large, or quite 
energetic, and having a marked influence upon the character; 11, 12, 
mean very large, or giving a controlling influence, and extreme liability 
to perversion. The size of the brain, combinations of the faculties and 
temperament of the individual, may be indicated in the same manner 
as the degrees of the faculties or orgaas. 

The initials V. L. denote very large, L. large, F. full, M moderate, 
S. small, V. S. very small. 

1 give the foregoing a place in my history for the grati- 
fication of the curious, and not for [any] respect [I enter- 
tain for] phrenology. 

The following communication was sent to the Wasp : 


As a people, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are found 
"more sinned against than sinning." In political affairs we are ever 
ready to yield to our fellow citizens of the county equal participation in 
the selection of candidates for office. 

We have been disappointed in our hopes of being met with the same 
disposition on the part of some of the old citizens of the county — they 
indeed seem to manifest a spirit of intolerance and exclusion incompati- 
ble with the liberal doctrines of true republicanism. 

At the late anti-Mormon convention, a complete set of candidates, 


pledged to a man to receive no support from, and to yield no quarters 
to, "Mormons," are commended to all the citizens of this county for 
their suffrages! 

As a portion of the said citizens of Hancock, we embrace the oppor- 
tunity to decline this ticket for the want of reciprocity in its terms, and 
honesty and intelligence in the character of some of its candidates. 

If the old citizens of the county are still ^desirous of equal participa- 
tions with us in the choice of candidates, we are ready to co-operate 
with them. If independent erentlemen possessing the requisite quali- 
ties, capacity and integrity, will announce themselves, they will receive 
the united support of our people in the county. 

The time for holding a convention seems to have already gone by — 
there is time enough for the friends of justice and fair play to elect a 
ticket to be announced in the independent manner we have suggested* 
Let the gentlemen who have the courage to oppose the spirit of dicta- 
tion, which governed the an ti- Mormon convention candidates show 
themselves, and we will exercise enough, on the terms proposed in this 
article, to ensure complete success. Joseph Smith. 

Sunday j 3. — This morning I preached at the grove to 
about 8,000 people. The subject matter of my discourse 
was from the Prophet Daniel's saying, that in the last 
days the God of heaven would set up a kingdom, &c. 

In the afternoon I heard Brother Hyrum preach at the 

The steamer Edna collapsed her flues at the mouth of 
the Missouri river ; more than sixty persons wero badly 
scalded. A proof among many similar that the waters of 
the West are cursed, as saith the Lord in a revelation.* 

Monday, 4. — The Legion appeared on parade under 
command of Brigadier- General Wilson Law, ranking offi- 
Parade of the cer °^ ^e line. Lieutenant- General Smith 
Legion. reviewed the Legion at 11 a. m., »and con- 

tinued in command through the day, which was some- 
what unpleasant, yet an immense number of spectators 
were present, including the passengers of three steamers 
from the neighboring cities and villages. 

* See Doctrine and Covenants sec. lxi: 14-29. Also see an article in the Improve- 
ment Era, September number, 1903, "The Fulfillment of Prophecy, the Testimony 
of the Floods." 


At the close of the day General Smith expressed his en- 
tire satisfaction in an animated speech, in which he illus- 
trated the design of the organization of the Legion, viz., 
to yield obedience to the institutions of our country, and 
protect the Saints from mobs, after which leave was given 
for strangers to address the Legion, when General Swan- 
zey, of Iowa, expressed his friendly feelings towards Nau- 
voo, and his gratification at the good discipline of the 

Mrs. Emma Smith and the ladies of other distinguished 
officers accompanied their companions on the parade. A 
few Lamanites were present, and there was but little 
drinking. Two individuals were fined $10.25 for offering 
whisky for sale. 

Tuesday, 5. — Attended court-martial and city council ; 
an ordinance in relation to public shows and exhibitions 
was passed. 

The following was also passed : — 

An Ordinance in Relation to Writs of Habeas Corpus, 

Sec. 1. Be it, and it is hereby ordained by the city council of the 

city of Nauvoo, that no citizen of this city shall be taken out of the city 

by any writs without the privilege of investigation before the municipal 

court, and the benefit of a writ of habeas corpus, as granted in the 17th 

section of the Charter of this city. Be it understood that this ordinance 

is enacted for the protection of the citizens of this city, that they may in 

all cases have the right of trial in this city, and not be subjected to 

illegal process by their enemies. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
Passed July 5, 1842. 

James Sloan, Recorder. 

Wednesday, 6. — Transacted business in the city, and 
rode to La Harpe with Emma. 

Two keel boats, sloop-rigged, and laden with pro- 
visions and apparatus necessary for the occa- Expedition to 
sion, and manned with fifty of the brethren, the pineries - 
started this morning on an expedition to the upper Missis- 
sippi, among the pineries, where they can join those al- 

58 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.l>. 1842 

ready there, and erect mills, saw boards and plank, make 
shingles, hew timber, and return next spring with rafts, 
for the Temple of God, Nauvoo House, &c, to beautify 
the city of Nauvoo, according to the Prophets. 

Thursday, 7. — Weather very cool at Nauvoo, ther- 
mometer at six degrees. 

Saturday, 9. — I rode on the prairie with Brothers Clay- 
ton and Gheen to look at some land. Dined on my farm; 
hoed potatoes, &c, and in the afternoon returned to the 
city and transacted a variety of business. 

I find the following phrenological chart of my clerk, 
Elder Willard Richards, of the quorum of the Twelve, by 
A. Crane, M. D.: — 

Phrenological Chart of Willard Richards. 

Amitiveness — 8, F. Very partial to the opposite sex; generally re- 
ciprocated by them. 

Philoprogeni.tiveness — 7, F. Interested in the happiness of children; 
fond of their company. 

Inhabitiveness — 7, F. Attached to place of lone: residence; no desire 
to change residence. 

Adhesiveness — 11, V. L. Passionately and devotedly attached to 
lovers[and friends. 

Combativeness — 7, F. Great powers of exertion and sustaining under 
opposition and difficulties. 

Destructiveness — 6, M. Ability to control the passions, and is not 
disposed to extreme measures. 

Secretiveness — 10, L. Great propensity and ability to conceal feel- 
ings, plans, &c. 

Acquisitiveness — 8, F. Frugality and industry, without much of the 
miserly, penurious, or stingy feeling. 

Alimentativeness — 8, F. A good appetite, but not excessive, parti- 
ality for a variety of rich hearty dishes. 

Vitativeness — 7, L. Strong desire to exist; contemplates death as 
the greatest misfortune. 


Cautiousness — Discretion, carefulness, anxiety, apprehension, &c. 
Approbativeness — 10, L. Ambition for distinction; sense of charac- 
ter, sensibility to reproach, fear of scandal. 


Self-esteem — 10, L. High-mindedness, independence, self-confi- 
dence, dignity; aspiration for greatness. 

Concentrativeness — 7, F. Can dwell on a subject without fatigue, 
and control the imagination. 


Benevolence — 9, L. Kindness, goodness, tenderness, sympathy. 

Veneration, 7, F. Religion without great awe or enthusiasm; reason- 
able deference to superiority. 

Firmness— 9, L. Stability and decision of character and purpose. 

Conscientiousness — 8, L. High regard for duty, integrity, moral 
principle, justice, obligation, truth, &c. 

Hope — 7, F. Reasonable hopes, a fine flow of spirits; anticipation 
of what is to be realized. 

Marvelousness — 6, F. Openness to conviction without blind credu- 
lity; tolerably good degree of faith. 

Imitation — 10, F. A disposition and respectable ability to imitate, 
but not to mimic or to act out. 

Prepossession — 8, L. or F. Attached to certain notions;' not disposed 
to change them, &c. 

Ideality —10, L. Lively imagination; fancy, taste, love of poetry: 
elegance, eloquence, excellence, &c. 


Admonition — 9, F, or M. Desirous to know what others are doing; 
ready to counsel and give hints of a fault or duty, &c. 

Constructiveness — 8, L. Great mechanical ingenuity, talent and 

Tune — 8, F. or M. Love of music, without quickness to catch or 
learn tunes by the ear. 

Time — 8, F. or M. Indistinct notions of the lapse of time, of ages 
dates and events, &c. 

Locality — 11, V. L. or L. Great memory of places and position. 

Eventuality— 9, L. Retentive memory of events and particulars. 

Individuality — 10, L. Great desire to see; power of observation. 

Form — 8, F. Cognizance and distinct recollection of shapes, counte 
nances, &c. 

Size — 11, V. L., L. or F. Ability to judge of proportionate size, &c. 

Weight — 6, M. S. or V. S. Deficient balancing power; failure in 

Color — 11, V. L. or L. Great power of recollecting and comparing 


Language — 7, F. Freedom of expression, without fluency or ver- 
bosity; no great loquacity. 

Order — 10, L. Love of arrangement; everything in its particular 

Number — 9, L. Quickness, facility, and correctness in calculating 


Mirthfulness — 10, L. Wit, fun, mirth; perception and love of the 

Causality — 11, L. Ability to think and reason clearly, and perceive 
the relations of cause and effect. 

Comparison — 10, L. A discrimination; power of illustration, ability 
to perceive and apply analogies, &c. — [See explanation of numbers, etc. 
to my chart]. 

Sunday, 10. — Attended meeting at the stand. Elder 
Woodruff preached. My health was not good. At home 
in the afternoon. 

Monday, 11. — In the morning, transacting business 
with Mr. Hunter. In the afternoon, at the printing office 
reading the papers, and bought a horse of Harmon T. 
Wilson, which I named Joe Duncan. 

Tuesday, 12. — At the court room in consultation about 

Bishop Miller and Erastus Derby started for Quincy 
and Missouri. 

Attended city council. An ordinance was passed regu- 
lating auctions ; also provision was made for publishing 
the Legion laws, &c, &c. 

Mobs, riots, earthquakes, tumults and distress of na- 
tions, are common. In England the manufacturers are 
reducing the wages of the laborers, and tarn-outs and 
starvation follow. 

The Asiatic cholera has appeared again in India. 

Friday, 15. — It was reported early in the morning that 
Elder Orson Pratt was missing. I caused the Temple 
hands and the principal men of the city to make search 
for him. After which, a meeting was called at the Grove, 


and I gave the public a general outline of John C. Ben- 
nett's conduct. 

The people met again in the afternoon, and were ad- 
dressed on the same subject by Brother Hyrum and Elder 
Kimball. I then stated that I had heard that Edward and 
D. Kilboum were engaged with John C. Bennet to bring 
a mob on the city, from Galena, and asked Edward Kil- 
bourn, who was present, if it was so? To which Mr. Kil- 
bourn replied at some length, and denied the charge. 

Elder Pratt returned in the evening. 

I find an editorial, in the Times and Seasons, on the 
government of God as follows : — 

1 he Government of God, 

The government of the Almighty has always been very dissimilar to 
the governments of men, whether we refer to His religious government, 
or to the government of nations. The government of God has always 
tendacLto promi)j£_4i£jic^,_unity_, Jiarmony^trength, ancLJiappiness; 
while that of man has been productive of confusion, disorder, weakness, 
and misery. 

The geatest acts of the mighty men have been to depopulate nations 
and to overthrow kingdoms; and whilst they have exalted themselves 
and become glorious, it has been at the expense of the lives of the inno- 
cent, the blood of the oppressed, the moans of the widow, and the tears 
of the orphan. 

Egypt, Babylou, Greece, Persia, Carthage, Rome — each was raised 
to dignity amidst the clash of arms and the din of war; and whilst their 
triumphant leaders led forth their victorious armies to glory and vic- 
tory, their ears were saluted with the groans of the dying and the 
misery and distress of the human family; before them the earth was 
a paradise, and behind them a desolate wilderness; their kingdoms 
were founded in carnage and bloodshed, and sustained by oppression, 
tyranny, and despotism. The designs of God, on the other hand, have 
been to promote the universal good of the universal world: to establish 
peace and good will among men; to promote the principles of eternal 
truth; to bring about a state of things that shall unite man to his fellow 
man; cause the world to *'beat their swords into plowshares, and 
their spears into pruning hooks," make the nations of the earth dwell 
in peace, and to bring about the millennial glory, when "the earth shall 
yield its increase, resume its paradisean glory, and become as the 
garden of the Lord." 


The great and wise of ancient days have failed in all their attempts 

to promote eternal power, peace and happiness. Their nations have 

j crumbled to pieces; their thrones have been cast down in their turn, and 

their cities, and their mightiest works of art have been annihilated; or 

their dilapidated towers, of time-worn monuments have left us but 

feeble traces of their former magnificence and ancient grandeur. They 

I proclaim as with a voice of thunder, those imperishable truths — that 

I man's strength is weakness, his wisdom is folly, his glory is his shame. 

Monarchial, aristocratical, and republican governments of their vari- 
ous kinds and grades, have, in their turn, been raised to dignity, and 
prostrated in the dust. The plans of the greatest politicians, the wisest 
senators, and most profound statesmen have been exploded; and the 
proceedings of the greatest chieftains, the bravest generals, and the 
wisest kings have fallen to the ground. Nation has succeeded nation, 
and we have inherited nothing bat their folly. History records their 
1-^puerjie plans, their short-lived glory, their feeble intellect and their 
ignoble deeds. 

Have we increased in knowledge or intelligence? Where is there a 
man that can step forth and alter the destiny of nations and promote 
the happiness of the world? Or where is there a kingdom or nation that 
can promote the universal happiness of its own subjects, or even then- 
general well being? Our nation, which possesses greater resources 
than any other, is rent, from center to circumference, with party strife, 
political intrigues, and sectional interest; our counselors are panic 
stricken, our legislators are astonished, and our senators are confounded, 
our merchants are paralyzed, our tradesmen are disheartened, our me- 
chanics out of employ, our farmers distressed, and our poor crying for 
bread, our banks are broken, our credit ruined, and our states over- 
whelmed in debt, yet we are, and have beenin peace. 

What is the matter? Are we alone in this thing? Verily no. With 
all our evils we are better situated than any other nation. Let Egypt, 
Turkey, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Germany, England, China, or 
any other nation, speak, and tell the tale of their trouble, their per- 
plexity, and distress, and we should find that their cup was full, and 
that they were preparing to drink the dregs of sorrow. England, that 
boasts of her literature, her science, comrnerce, &c, has her hands 
reeking with the blood of the innocent abroad, and she is saluted with 
the cries of the oppressed at home. Chartism, O'Connelism, and radi- 
calism are gnawing her vitals at home; and Ireland, Scotland, Canada, 
and the east are threatening her destruction abroad. France is rent to 
the core, intrigue, treachery, and treason lurk in the dark, and murder, 
and assassination stalk forth at noonday. Turkey, once the dread of 
European nations, has been shorn of her strength, has dwindled into 


her dotage, and has been obliged to ask her allies to propose to her 
tributary terms of peace; and Russia and Egypt are each of them 
opening their jaws to devour her. Spain has been the theater of blood- 
shed, of misery and woe for years past. Syria is now convulsed with 
war and bloodshed. The great and powerful empire of China, which 
has, for centuries resisted the attacks of barbarians, has become tribu- 
tary to a foreign foe, her batteries thrown down, many of her cities 
destroyed, and her villages deserted. We might mention the Eastern 
Rajahs, the miseries and oppressions of the Irish; the convulsed state 
of Central America; the situation of Texas and Mexico; the state of 
Greece, Switzerland and Poland; nay, the world itself presents one 
great theater of misery, woe, and "distress of nations with perplexity." 
All, all, speak with a voice of thunder, that man is not able to govern 
himself, to legislate for himself, to protect himself, to promote his own 
good, nor the good of the world. 

It has been the design of Jehovah, from the commencement of the 
world, and is His purpose now, to regulate the affairs of the world in 
His own time, to stand as a head of the universe, and take the reins of 
government in His own hand. When that is done, judgment will be 
administered in righteousness; anarchy and confusion will be destroyed, 
and "nations will learn war no more." It is for want of this great 
governing principle, that all this confusion has existed; "for it is not 
in man that walketh, to direct his steps;" this we have fully shown. 

If there was anything great or good in the world, it came from God. 
The construction of the first vessel was given to Noah, by revelation. 
The design of the ark was given by God, "a pattern of heavenly 
things." The learning of the Egyptians, and their knowledge of as- 
tronomy was no doubt taught them by Abraham and Joseph, as their 
records testify, who received it from the Lord. The art of working in 
brass, silver, gold, and precious stones, was taught by revelation, in the 
wilderness. The architectural designs of the Temple at Jerusalem, to- 
gether with its ornaments and beauty, were given of God. Wisdom to 
govern the house of Israel was given to Solomon, and to the judges of 
Israel ; and if he had always been their king, and they subject to his 
mandate, and obedient to his laws, they would still have been a great 
and mighty people — the rulers of the universe, and the wonder of the 

If Nebuchadnezzar, or Darius, or Cyrus, or any other king possessed 
knowledge or power, it was from the same source, as the Scriptures 
abundantly testify. If, then, God puts up one, and sets down another 
at His pleasure, and made instruments of kings, unknown to them- 
selves, to fulfill His prophecies, how much more was He able, if man 
would have been subject to His mandate to regulate the affairs of 


this world, and promote peace and happiness among the human 

The Lord has at various times commenced this kind 6f government, 
and tendered His services to the human family. He selected Enoch, 
whom He directed, and gave His law unto, and to the people who were 
with him; and when the world in general would not obey the com- 
mands of God, after walking with God, he translated Enoch aud his 
church, and the Priesthood or government of heaven, was taken away. 

Abraham was guided in all his family affairs by tbe Lord; was con- 
versed with by angels, and by the Lord; was told where to go, and 
when to stop; and prospered exceedingly in all that he put his hand 
unto; it was because he and his family obeyed the counsel of the 

When Egypt was under the superintendence of Joseph it prospered, 
because he was taught of God; when they oppressed the Israelites, de- 
struction came upon them. When the children of Israel were chosen 
with Moses at their head, they were to be a peculiar people, among 
whom God should place His name; their motto was: "Tha Lord is our 
lawgiver; the Lord is our Judge; the Lord is our King, and He shall 
reign over us." While in this state they might truly say, * 'Happy is 
that people, whose God is the Lord." Their government was a theoc- 
racy; they had God to make their laws, and men chosen by Him to ad- 
minister them; He was their God, and they were His people. Moses 
received the word of the Lord from God Himself; he was the mouth of 
God to Aaron, and Aaron taught the people, in both civil and ecclesi- 
astical affairs; they were both one, there was no distinction; so will it 
be when the purposes of God shall be accomplished: when "the Lord 
shall be King over the whole earth," and "Jerusalem His throne." 
"The law shall go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from 

This is the only thing that can bring about the "restitution of all 
things spoken of by all the holy Prophets since the world was" — "the 
dispensation of the fullness of times, when God shall gather together 
all things in one." Other attempts to promote universal peace and 
happiness in the human family have proved abortive; every effort has 
failed; every plan and design has fallen to the ground; it needs the 
wisdom of God, the intelligence of God, and the power of God to ac- 
complish this. The world has had a fair trial for six thousand years; 
the Lord will try the seventh thousand Himself; "He whose right it is, 
will possess the kingdom, and reign until He has put all things under 
His feet;" iniquity will hide its hoary head, Satan will be bound, aud 
the works of darkness destroyed; righteousness will be put to the line, 
and judgment to the plummet, and "he that fears the Lord will alone 


be exalted in that day." To bring- about this state of things, there 
must of necessity be great confusion among the nations of the earth; 
* 'distress of nations with perplexity." Am I asked what is the cause 
of the present distress? I would answer, " Shall there be evil in a city 
and the Lord hath not done it?" 

The earth is groaning under corruption, oppression, tyranny and 
bloodshed; and God is coming out of His hiding place, as He said He 
would do, to vex the nations of the earth. Daniel, in his vision, saw 
convulsion upon convulsion; he "beheld till the thrones were cast down, 
and the Ancient of Days did sit ; " and one was brought before him like un- 
to the Son of Man; and all nations, kindred, tongues, and people, did 
serve and obey Him. It is for us to be righteous, that we may be 
wise and understand; for none of the wicked shall understand; but 
the wise shall understand, and they that turn many to righteousness 

shall shine as the stars for ever and ever. > 

"~As a Church and a people it behooves us to be wise, and to seek to / 
know the will of God, and then be willing to do it; for "blessed is he / 
that heareth the word of the Lord, and keepeth it," say the Scriptures, I 
"Watch and pray always," says our Savior, "that ye may be accounted I 
worthy to escape the things that are to come on the earth, and to stand 
before the Son of Man." If Enoch, Abraham, Moses, and the children J 
of Israel, and all God's people were saved by keeping the command- 
ments of God, we, if saved at all, shall be saved upon the same princi- 
ple. As God governed Abraham, Isaac aud Jacob as families, and the 
children of Israel as a nation; so we, as a Church, must be under His 
guidance if we are prospered, preserved and sustained. Our only con- 
fidence can be in God; our only wisdom obtained from Him; and He 
alone must be our protector and-"saregaarch-6^^ttf5ll,V and temporally, 
or we fall. ' l 

We have been chastened by the hand of God heietofore for not obey- 
ing His commands, although we never violated any human law, or 
transgressed any human precept; yet we have treated lightly His com- 
mands, and departed from His ordinances, and the Lord nas chastened 
us sore, and we have felt His arm and kissed the rod; let us be wise 
in time to come and ever remember that "to obey is better than sacri- 
fice, and to hearken than the fat of rams." The Lord has told us to 
build the Temple and the Nauvoo House; and that command is as bind- 
ing upon us as any other; and that man who engages not in these things 
is as much a transgressor as though he broke any other commandment; 
he is not a doer of God's will, not a fulfiller of His laws. 

In regard to the building up of Zion, it has to be done by the counsel 
of Jehovah, by the revelations of heaven; and we should feel to say, 
"if the Lord go not with us, carry us not up hence." We would say to 


the Saints that come here, we have laid the foundation for the gathering 

of God's people to this place, and they expect that when the Saints do 

come, they will be under the counsel that God has appointed. The 

\ Twelve are set apart to counsel the Saints pertaining to this matter; 

V'and we expect that those who come here will send before them their 

Q wise men according to revelation; or if not practicable, be subject to 

\J the counsel that God has given, or they cannot receive an inheritance 

^vivj among the Saints, or be considered as God's people, and they will be 

I y* dealt with as transgressors of the laws of God. We are trying here to 

gird up our loins, and purge from our midst the workers of iniquity; and 

we hope that when our brethren arrive from abroad, they will assist us 

to roll forth this good work, and to accomplish this great design, that 

"Zion may be built up in righteousness; and all nations flock to her 

standard;" that as God's people, under His direction, and obedient to 

His law, we may grow up in righteousness and truth; that when His 

purposes shall be accomplished, we may receive an inheritance among 

those that are sanctified. 

Saturday, 16. — Rode on the prairie with my clerk, to 
show some land to Brother Russell from New York; dined 
with my farmer, Brother CorneMiis-E^JLiott, and hoed 




Sunday Morning, July 17, 1842, — Attended meeting at 
the Grove; was sick and tarried at home the remainder 
of the day. 

Monday, 18. — Eode out to Brother Kearns and* the 

Tuesday 19. — Eode with Dr. Foster, Henry Kearns 
and others to examine some timber lands, &c. 

Wednesday, 20. — 

Affidavit of Lilburn W. Boggs, Ex- Governor of Missouri. 

State of Missouri, county of Jackson: This day personally appeared 
before me, Samuel Weston, a justice of the peace, within and for the 
county of Jackson, the subscriber, Lilburn W, Boggs, who being duly 
sworn doth depose and say that on the night of the 6th day of May, 
while sitting in his dwelling, in the town of Independence, in the county 
of Jackson, he was shot with intent to kill, and that his life was de- 
spaired of for several days, and that he believes and has good reason 
to believe from evidence and information now in his possession, that 
0. P. Rockwell, a citizen or resident of the state of Illinois, is the per- 
son who shot him on the night aforesaid, and the said deponent hereby 
applies to the Governor of the State of Illinois, to deliver the said 0. 
P. Rockwell to some person authorized to receive him and convey him 
to the county aforesaid, there to be dealt with according to law. 

Lilburn W. Boggs. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 20th. day of July, 1842. 

SAiiuEL Weston, J. P. 
Affidavit of the City Council anent John C. Bennett. 
We, the undersigned, members of the city council, of the city of 


Nauvoo, testify that John C. Bennett was not under duress at the time 
he testified before the city council, May 19, 1842, concerning Joseph 
Smith's innocence, virtue and pure teaching. His statements that he 
has lately made concerning this matter are false; there was no excite- 
ment at the time, nor was he in anywise threatened, menaced or intimi- 
dated. His appearance at the city council was voluntary; he asked the 
privilege of speaking, which was granted. After speaking for some 
time on the city affairs, Joseph Smith asked him if he knew anything 
bad concerning his public or private character. He then delivered those 
statements contained in the testimony voluntarily, and of his own free 
will, and went of his own accord, as free as any member of the council. 
"We further testify that there is no such thing as a Danite Society in 
the city, nor any combination, other than the Masonic Lodge of which 
we have any knowledge. 

Wilson Law, Geo. A. Smith, 

John Taylor, Geo. W. Harris, 

Wilford Woodruff, Newel K. Whitney, 

Vinson Knight, Brigham Young, 

Heber C. Kimball, Charles C. Rich, 

John P. Greene, Orson Spencer. 

William Marks, 

Subscribed and sworn to by the persons whose names appear to the 
foregoing affidavit, the 20th day of July, A. D. 1842, except Newel K. 
Whitney, who subscribed and affirmed to the foregoing this day [July 
21st] before me. 

Daniel H. Wells, 
Justice of the peace within and for Hancock county, Illinois. 

Friday, 22. — A special session of the city council was 
called at eight o'clock this morning; the Vice-Mayor pre- 
siding, when the following petition was written: 

Petition of the Nauvoo City Council to Governor Carlin* 
To His Excellency, Thomas Carlin, Governor of the State of Illinois: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the State of Illinois, having heard 
that many reports are in circulation prejudicial to the interest, happi- 
ness, peace, well being and safety of the inhabitants of the city of 
Nauvoo and vicinity have thought proper to lay before your Excellency 
the following statement: 

Whereas, the Latter-day Saints having suffered much in the state of 
Missouri, in time past through the hand of oppression, brought upon 
them by the falsehoods and misrepresentations of wicked and designing 


men, whose hands are yet dripping 1 with the blood of the innocent, and 
whose fiendish rage has sent many a patriot to his long home, leaving 
in our midst many widows and orphans whose sorrows and tears even 
time cannot wipe away: 

We would represent to your Excellency that we broke no law, vio- 
lated no constitutional rights, nor trampled upon the privileges of any 
other people in Missouri; yet we had to suffer banishment, exile, the 
confiscation of our properties, and have diseases, distress and misery 
entailed upon us and our children, the effects of which we bear about in 
our bodies, and are indelibly engraven on our minds, and we appeal to 
your Excellency at the present time, that you will not suffer an occur- 
rence of such heart-rending scenes to take place under your adminis- 

Whilst we have been in this state we have behaved as good, peace- 
able citizens; we have availed ourselves of no privileges but what are 
strictly constitutional, and such as have been guaranteed by the author- 
ity of this state; we have always held ourselves amenable to the laws 
of the land; we have not violated any law, nor taken from any their 

Your Excellency must be acquainted with the false statements and 
seditious designs of John Cook Bennett, with other political demago- 
gues, pertaining to us as a people. We presume, sir, that you are 
acquainted with the infamous character of that individual, from certain 
statements made to us by yourself pertaining to him> but lest you 
should not be we forward to you documents pertaining to the affair, 
which will fully show the darkness of his character, and the infamous 
course that he has taken. 

Concerning those statements made by him against Joseph Smith, we 
know that they are false. Joseph Smith has our entire confidence; we 
know that he has violated no law, nor has he in anywise promoted sedi- 
tion or rebellion; nor has he sought the injury of any citizen of this or 
any other place. We are perfectly assured that he is as loyal, patriotic 
and virtuous a man, as there is in the state of Illinois, and we appeal 
to your Excellency, if in three years acquaintance with him you have 
seen anything to the contrary? 

Inasmuch as this is the case, we your petitioners, knowing that 
Joseph Smith could not have justice done him in the state of Missouri — 
that he has suffered enough in that state unjustly already, and that if he 
goes there it is only to be murdered — pray your Excellency not to issue 
a writ for him to be given up to the authorities of Missouri; but if your 
Excellency thinks that he has violated any law, we request that he may 
be tried by the authorities of this state, for he shrinks not from inves- 


We furthermore pray that our lives and the lives of our wives and chil" 
dren may be precious in your sight and that we may have the privilege of 
following our avocations, of living on our farms, and by our own fire- 
sides iu peace, and that neither said John C. Bennett, nor any other 
person may be able to influence your Excellency, either by intrigue or 
falsehood, to suffer us as a people to be injured by mob violence, but if, 
in the estimation of your Excellency, we have done wrong, we appeal 
to the laws of this state. 

Having heard a report that your Excellency had called upon several 
companies of militia, to prepare themselves and be in readiness in case 
of emergency, we would further ask of your Excellency, that if the 
state or country should be in danger, that the Nauvoo Legion may have 
the privilege of showing their loyalty in the defense thereof. 

We have the fullest confidence in the honor, justice and integrity of 
yo^ir Excellency, and feel confident that we have only to present our 
case before you to insure protection, believing that the cries of so many 
peaceable and patriotic citizens will not be disregarded by your Excel 

We therefore ask you as the chief magistrate of this state to grant us 
our requests, and we, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

Signed by the Vice-Mayor and City Council. 

This forenoon I attended a general meeting of the citizens 
at the stand; Orson Spencer, Esq., presiding. The object 
of the meeting was to correct the public mind relative to 
false reports put in circulation by Bennett and others, and 
General Wilson Law presented the following: 

Resolution of a Nauvoo Mass Meeting, 

Resolved, That having heard that John C. Bennett was circulating 
many base falsehoods respecting a number of the citizens of Nauvoo, 
and especially against our worthy and respected Mayor, Joseph Smith, 
we do hereby manifest to the world, that so far as we are acquainted 
with Joseph Smith, we know him to be a good, moral, virtuous, peace- 
able and patriotic man, and a firm supporter of law, justice and equal 
rights; that he at all times upholds and keeps inviolate the constitution 
of this state and the United States. 

This resolution was adopted unanimously by the nu- 
merous assembly. 

The assembly came together in the afternoon, and 


about eight hundred signed the foregoing petition pre- 
sented by the city council to Governor Carlin. 

The "Ladies Relief Society" also drew up a petition 
signed by about one thousand ladies, speaking in the 
highest terms of the virtue, philanthropy and benevolence 
of Joseph Smith, begging that he might not be injured, 
and that they and their families might have the privilege 
of enjoying their peaceable rights. 

A petition was also drawn up by many citizens in and 
near Nauvoo, who were not "Mormons" setting forth the 
same things. (See affidavits of Hyrum Smith and William 
Law Times and Seasons, Vol. Ill, page870, &c. Also certi- 
ficates of Elias Higbeeand Francis M. Higbee, Times and 
Seasons, Vol. Ill, page 874.)* 

Affidavit of Hyrum Smith. 

On the seventeenth day of May, 1842, having been made acquainted 
with some of the conduct of John C. Bennett, which was given in testi- 
mony, under oath before Alderman G. W. I^arris, by several females 
who testified that John C. Bennett endeavored to seduce them, and 
accomplished his designs by saying it was right; that it was one of the 
mysteries of God, which was to be revealed when the people was strong 
enough in faith to bear such mysteries — that it was perfectly right to 
have illicit intercourse with females, providing no one knew it but 
themselves, vehemently trying them from day to day, to yield to his 
passions, bringing witnesses of his own clan to testify that there were 
such revelations and such commandments, and that they were of God; also 
stating that he would be responsible for their sins, if there were any, 
and that he would give them medicine to produce abortions, provided 
they should become pregnant. One of these witnesses, a married woman 
that he attended upon in his professional capacity whilst she was sick, 
stated that he made proposals to her of a similar nature; he told her 
that he wished her husband was dead, and that if he was dead, he would 
marry her and clear out with her; he also begged her permission to give 

r" *The matters of which these affidavits treat are of such importance in the 
Church History, since they establish the villainy of John C. Bennett and prove 
the Prophet to be innocent of those things charged against him by Bennett that it 
is thought proper to give them here in extenso, as also an extract from an editorial 
from the Times and Seasons, explaining the long forbearance with this arch- 
apostate and traitor'^ 



him [her husband] medicine to that effect; he did try to give him 
medicine, but he would not take it. On interrogating her what she thought 
of such teaching, she replied she was sick at the time, and had to be 
lifted in and out of her bed like a child. Many other acts as criminal 
were reported to me at the time. On becoming acquainted with these 
facts, I was determined to prosecute him, and bring him to justice. 
Some person knowing my determination, having informed him of it, 
he sent to me William Law and Brigham Young, to request an inter- 
view with me, and to see if there could not be a reconciliation made. I 
told them I thought there could not be, his crimes were so heinous; but 
told them I was willing to see him; he immediately came to see me; 
he begged on me to forgive him this once, and not prosecute him and 
expose him; he said he was guilty, and did acknowledge the crimes that 
were alleged against him; he seemed to be sorry that he had committed 
such acts, and wept much and desired that it might not be made public, 
for it would ruin him forever; he wished me to wait, but I was deter- 
mined to bring him to justice, and declined listening to his entreaties; 
he then wished me to wait until he could have an interview with the 
Masonic fraternity; he also wanted au interview with Brother Joseph; 
he wished to know of me if I would forgive him, and desist from my 
intentions, if he could obtain their forgiveness; and requested the privi- 
lege of an interview immediately. I granted him that privilege as I 
was acting as master pro tern at that time; he also wished an interview 
first with Brother Joseph; at that time Brother Joseph was cross- 
ing the yard from the house to the store, he immediately came to the 
store and met Dr. Bennett on the way; he reached out his hand to 
Brother Joseph and said, Will you forgive me? weeping at the time; 
he said, Brother Joseph, I am guilty, I acknowledge it, and I beg of 
you not to expose me, for it will ruin me; Joseph replied, Doctor! why 
are you using my name to carry on your hellish wickedness? Have I 
ever taught you that fornication and adultery were right, 6r polygamy or 
any such practice? He said, You never did. Did I ever teach you 
auything that was not virtuous — that was iniquitous, either in public or 
private? He said, You never did. Did you ever know anything un- 
virtuous or unrighteous in my conduct or action at any time, either in 
public or private? He said, I did not. Are vou willing to make oath to 
this before an alderman of the city? He said I am willing to do so. 
Joseph said, Doctor, go into my office and write what you can in con- 
science subscribe your name to, and I will be satisfied. I will, he said, 
and went into the office, and I went with him, and he requested pen, 
ink and paper of Mr. Clayton, who was acting clerk in that office, and 
was also secretary pro tern, for the Nauvoo Lodge, U. D. William Clay- 
ton gave him paper, pen and ink, and he stood at the desk and wrote 


the following* article which was published in the 11th No. of the Wasp; 
sworn to and subscribed before Daniel H. Wells, Alderman, 17th day 
of May, A. D. 1842. He called in Brother Joseph and read it to him, 
and asked him if that would do; he said it would; he then swore to it as 
before mentioned, the article was as follows: 

State of Illinois, City of Nauvoo. 
Personally appeared before me, Daniel H. Wells, an alderman of 
said city of Nauvoo, John C. Bennett, who being duly sworn, accord- 
ing to law, deposeth and saith: that he never was taught anything in 
the least contrary to the strictest principles of the Gospel, or of virtue, 
or of the laws of God, or man, under any occasion, either directly or 
indirectly, in word or deed by Joseph Smith: and that he never knew 
the said Smith to countenance any improper conduct whatever, either 
in public or private; and that he never did teach to me in private that 
an illegal, illicit intercourse with females was, under any circumstances, 
justifiable, and that I never knew him so to teach others. 

John C. Bennett. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 17th day of May, 1842. 

Daniel H. Wells, 


During all this intercourse I was present with him, and there was no] 
threats used nor harshness, everything was as pacific as could be under 
existing circumstances. I then immediately convened the Masonic 
Lodge, it being about 4 o'clock p. m. He then came into the lodge 
and charges of a similar nature were preferred against him. He 
admitted they were true, in the presence of about sixty in number. He 
arose and begged the privilege of speaking to the brethren; he acknowl- 
edged his wickedness; and begged for the brethren to forgive him still 
longer, and he called God and angels to witness that he never would be 
guilty of the like crimes again — he would lay his hand on the Bible and 
swear that he would not be guilty of such crimes. He seemed to be 
very penitent and wept much; his penitence excited sympathy in the 
minds of the brethren, and they withdrew the charge for the time being 
until he could be heard on other charges which had been preferred 
against him by members of the Pickaway Lodge of Ohio, through the 
communications of the Grand Master, A. Jones. After this we found 
him to be an expelled Mason, in consequence of his rascally conduct, 
from the Pickaway Lodge, in Ohio; the circumstances and documents 
were mentioned in the 11th number of the Wasp, signed by George 
Miller, Master of Nauvoo Lodge, under dispensation, and reads as fol- 

74 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. l^. D. 1842 


To All Whom it May Concern, Greeting: 

Whereas John Cook Bennett, in the organization of the Nauvoo 
Lodge, under dispensation, palmed himself upon the fraternity as a 
regular Mason in good standing; and satisfactory testimony having 
been produced before said Lodge, that he, said Bennett, was an ex- 
pelled Mason, we therefore publish to all the Masonic world, the above 
facts, that he, the said Bennett may not impose himself upon the 
fraterns of Masons. 

All editors who are friendly to the fraternity of free and accepted 
ancient York Masons will please insert the above. 

George Miller, 
Master of Nauvoo Lodge under dispensation. 

Still after all this we found him guilty of similar crimes again, and it 
was found to our satisfaction that he was conspiring against the peace 
and safety of the citizens of this state — after learning these facts we 
exposed him to the public; he then immediately left the place abruptly; 
threatening to drink the hearts blood of many citizens of this place. 
Previous to this last disclosure, the hand of fellowship was withdrawn 
from him, May 11, 1842, by the First Presidency, six days previous to 
the time he pretended to withdraw from the Church, which you will see 
published in the limes and Seasons, June 15, 1842. I was also present 
at the time when he gave this testimony before the city council, as 
printed in the limes and Seasons, July 1, 1842, on page 841, which 
reads as follows: 

Dr. John C. Bennett, ex-Mayor, was then called upon by the Mayor 
to state if he knew aught against him; when Mr. Bennett replied: *'i 
know what I am about, and the heads of the Church know what they are 
about, I expect. I have no difficulty with the heads of the Church. I 
publicly avow that any one who has said that I have stated that General 
Joseph Smith has given me authority to hold illicit intercourse with 
women, is a liar in the face of God, those who have said it are damned 
liars; they are infernal liars. He never either in public or private gave 
me any such authority or license, and any person who states it is a scoun- 
drel and a liar. I have heard it said that I should become a second 
Avard by withdrawing from the Church, and that I was at variance with 
the heads and should use an influence against them because I resigned 
the office of mayor; this is false. I have no difficulty with the heads of 
the Church, and I intend to continue with you, and hope the time may 
come when I may be restored to full confidence, and fellowship, and my 
former standing in the Church, and that my conduct may be such as to 
warrant my restoration — and should the time ever come that I may 


have an opportunity to test my faith, it will then be known whether I 
am a traitor or a true man," 

Joseph Smith then asked: "Will you please state definitely whether 
you know anything against my character either in public or private V 

General Bennett answered: "I do not; in all my intercourse with Gen. 
Smith, in public and in private, he has been strictly virtuous." 


Newel K. Whitney, Willard Richards, 

Hirum Kimball, Wilson Law, 

Orson Spencer, John Taylor, 

Gust. Hills, Brigham Young, 

G. W. Harris, John P. Greene, 

Heber C. Kimball, 

James Sloan, recorder. Wilford Woodruff, 

May 19th, 1842. George A. Smith. 

I know he was not under duress at the time, for his testimony was 
given free and voluntarily, after requesting the privilege of the council 
to speak (which was granted him) on matters pertaining to the city 
ordinances, while speaking, or before he took his seat, he was requested 
by the mayor of the city, Joseph Smith, to state to the council if he 
knew aught against him, and he replied according to the above. 

I also know that he had no private intercourse with Joseph in the 
preparation room on the 17th day, as he stated in his letter as printed 
in the Sangamo Journal, for the lodge was convened on that day, and I 
had the keys of the doors in my possession from 7 o'clock a. m. until 6 
o'clock p. m., and it was when the lodge called off for refreshment dur- 
ing recess, that I had the interview with him, at which time he wrote 
the affidavit and subscribed it in my presence, and I was with him during 
the whole time from his first coming to me, until he signed it and until 
the lodge convened again at 4 o'clock. 

Hyrum Smith. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, July 23, 1842. 

George W. Harris, 

Alderman of the city of Nauvoo. 

Affidavit oj Wm. Laiv. 

As John C. Bennett has become our open enemy, and is engaged 
in circulating falsehoods of the blackest character, I deem it a duty to 
make the following statement of facts: 

John C. Bennett states in the Sangamo Journal that the withdrawal 
of the hand of fellowship by the First Presidency, and the Twelve was 


after he had withdrawn from the Church. I presume the notice of our 
withdrawal was not published till after he withdrew, but that does not 
prove his statement true, for I hereby testify that I signed the article 
in question several days before he withdrew. I believe it was on the 
evening of the 11th day of May, some four or five days afterwards I 
had some conversation with John C. Bennett and intimated to him that 
such a thing was concluded upon, which intimation, I presume led him 
to withdraw immediately. I told him we could not bear with his con- 
duct any longer — that there were many witnesses against him, and that 
they stated that he gave Joseph Smith as authority for his illicit inter 
course with females. John C. Bennett declared to me before God that 
Joseph Smith had never taught him such doctrines, and that he never 
told any one that he (Josjeph Smith) had taught any such things, and 
that any one who said so told base lies; nevertheless he said he had done 
wrong, that he would not deny, but he would deny that he had used 
Joseph Smith's name to accomplish his designs on any one; stating 
that he had no need of that, for that he could succeed without telling 
them that Joseph approbated such conduct. 

These statements he made to me of his own free will, in a private 
conversation which we had on the subject; there was no compulsion or 
threats used on my part; we had always been on good terms, and I re- 
gretted exceedingly that he had taken such a course. He plead with 
me to intercede for him, assuring me that he would turn from his iniq- 
uity, and never would be guilty of such crimes again. He said that if 
he were exposed it would break his mother's heart — that she was old, 
and if such things reached her ears it would bring her down with sor- 
row to the grave. I accordingly went to Joseph Smith and plead with 
him to spare Bennett from public exposure, on account of his mother. 
On many occasions I heard him acknowledge his guilt, and beg not to 
be destroyed in the eyes of the public, and that he would never act so 
again, so "help him God." From such promises and oaths I was 
induced to bear with him longer than I should have done. 

On one occasion I heard him state before the city council that Joseph 
Smith had never taught him any unrighteous principles, of any kind, 
and that if any one says that he ever said that Joseph taught such 
tilings they are base liars, or words to that effect. This statement he 
made voluntarily; he came into the council room about an hour after 
the council opened, and made the statement, not under duress, but of 
his own free will, as many witnesses can testify. 

On a former occasion he came to me and told me that a friend of his 
was about to be tried by the High Council, for the crime of adultery, 
and that he feared his name would be brought into question. He en- 
treated me to go to the council and prevent his name from being 


brought forward, as, said he, "I am not on trial, and I do not want my 
mother to hear of these things, for she is a good woman." 

I would further state that I do know from the amount of evidence 
which stands against John C. Bennett, and from his own acknowledg- 
ments, that he is a most corrupt, base, and vile man; and that he has 
published many base falsehoods since we withdrew the hand of fellow- 
ship from him. 

About the time that John C. Bennett was brought before the Masonic 
Lodge he came to me and desired that I would go in company with 
Brigham Young to Hyrum Smith, and entreat of him to spare him — that 
he wished not to be exposed — that he wanted to live as a private citi- 
zen, and would cease from all his folly, etc. I advised him to go to 
Texas, and when he returned, if he would behave well we would rein- 
state him. He said he had no means to take him to Texas, and still 
insisted on Brigham Young and myself to intercede for him. 

William Law. 

Sworn to, and subscribed before me a justice of the peace, within and 
for the county of Hancock, state of Illinois, July 20th j 1842. 

Daniel H. Wells. 

Certificate of Elias and Francis M. Higbee. 
Mr. Editor: 

Sir, from a perusal of the St. Louis papers, I find from an article 
signed J. C. Bennett, stating that all who are friends to Mr. Joseph 
Smith he considers his enemies — as a matter of course, then, I must be 
one, for I am, and have been for a, long time the personal friend of 
Joseph Smith; and I will here say that I have never yet seen or known 
anythingiagainst him that I should change my mind. It is true many 
reports have been and are put in circulation by his enemies for politi- 
cal or religious effect, that upon investigation are like the dew before 
the morning sun, vanish away, because there is no real substance in 

Could Dr. Bennett expect any man acquainted with all the circum- 
stances, and matters of fact which were developed both here and from 
abroad, respecting his conduct and character, previous to [his leaving 
this place, for one moment to believe him — I answer, No! he could not. 
And all his affidavits, that came from auy person entitled to credit, (I 
say entitled to credit, because some there are who are not entitled to 
credit; as Dr. Bennett very well knows) are in amount nothing at all, 
when summed up, and render no person worthy of death or bonds. 

Francis M. Higbee's knowledge concerning the murder of a prisoner 
in Missouri, I am authorized to say, by Francis M. Higbee that he 


knows of no such thing— that no prisoner was ever killed in Missouri, 
to the best of his knowledge. And I also bear the same testimony 
that there never was any prisoner killed there, neither were we ever 
charged with any such thing, according to the best of my recollection. 

Elias Higbee. 
July 22, 1842. 

This is to certify that I do not know of the murder of any prisoner in 
Missouri, as above alluded to. * 

Francis M. Higbee. 
July 22, 1842. 

[The following is the excerpt from the limes and Seasons alluded to 
in the foot note at page 71:] 


In the state of Missouri we had our Hinckle, our Avard, Marsh, Mc- 
Lellin, and others who were the first to flee in time of dangei — the first 
to tell of things that they never knew, and swear to things that they 
never before had heard of They were more violent in their persecu- 
tions, more relentless and sanguinary in their proceedings, and sought 
with greater fury the destruction and overthrow of the Saints of God 
who had never injured them, but whose virtue made them blush for 
their crimes. All that were there remember that they were the stoutest 
and the loudest in proclaiming against oppression; they protested 
vehemently against mob and misrule, but were the first in robbing, 
spoiling, and plundering their brethren. Such things we have always 
expected; we know that the "net will gather together of every kind, 
good and bad," that "the wheat and tares must grow together until the 
harvest," and that even at the last there will be five foolish as well as 
five wise virgins, Daniel, in referring to the last days says, in speak- 
ing concerning the "Holy Covenant," that many shall have indigna- 
tion against it, and shall obtain information from those that forsake the 
Holy Covenant, "and the robbers of thy people shall seek to exalt them- 
selves, but they shall fall." This we have fully proven — we have seen 
them try to exalt themselves, and we have seen their fall. He goes on 
further to state, that 4k many shall cleve unto them by flatteries." Such 
was Dr. Avard, and John C. Bennett — with the latter we have to do at 
the present time, and in many of the foregoing statements and prophe- 
cies we shall see his character and conduct exemplified. He professed 
the greatest fidelity, and eternal friendship, yet was he an adder in the 
path, and a viper in the bosom. He professed to be virtuous and 
chaste, yet did he pierce the heart of the innocent, introduce misery 
and infamy into families, reveled in voluptuousness and crime, and led 


the youth that he had influence over to tread in his unhallowed steps; he 
professed to fear God, yet did he desecrate His name, and prostitute 
his authority to the most unhallowed and diabolical purposes; even to 
the seduction of the virtuous, and the defiling of his neighbor's bed. 
He professed indignatioa against Missouri saying, "My hand shall 
avenge the blood of the innocent; " yet now he calls upon Missouri to 
come out against the Saints, and he "will lead them on to glory and to 

It may be asked why it was that we would countenance him so long 
after being apprised of his iniquities, and why he was not dealt with 
long ago. To this we would answer, that he has been dealt with from 
time to time; when he would acknowledge his iniquity, ask and pray 
for forgiveness, beg that he might not be exposed, on account of his 
mother, and other reasons, saying, he should be ruined and undone. 
He frequently wept like a child, and begged like a culprit for forgive- 
ness, at the same time promising before God and angels to amend his 
life, if he could be forgiven. He was in this way borne with from time 
to time, until forbearance was no longer a virtue, and then the First 
Presidency, the Twelve, and the Bishops withdrew their fellowship from 
him, as published in the 16th number of this paper. The Church after- 
wards publicly withdrew their fellowship from him, and his character 
was published in the 17th number of this paper: since that time he has 
published that the conduct of the Saints was bad — that Joseph Smith 
and many others were adulterers, murderers, etc., that there was a 
secret band of men that would kill people, etc., called Danites — that he 
was in duress when he gave his affidavit, and testified that Joseph 
Smith was a virtuous man — that we believed in and practiced polyg- 
amy,* that we believed in secret murders, and. aimed to destroy the 
government, etc., etc. As he has made his statements very public, and 
industriously circulated them through the conntry,we shall content our- 
selves with answering his base falsehoods and misrepresentations, with- 
out giving publicity to them, as the public is generally acquainted with 
them already."! 

* A distinction here mist be kept in mind between the "polygamy" charged 
against the Saints by Bennett and plurality of wives allowed under certain restric- 
tions by the revelation on tne Eternity of the Marriage Covenant. It was the 
vicious, promiscuous polygamous associations charged " by Bennett that belief in 
and practice of by the Saints that is here denied, not the plural relations under the 
seal and covenant of the marriage law in the aforesaid revelation. See Bennett's 
"History of the Saints," (1842), pp. 217-260. 

t According to Bennett's own statement concerning himself, he joined the Church 
for the purpose of exposing the alleged treasonable designs of the Mormon people 
against several of the western states. In his book, entitled "The History of the 
Saints," (Leland & Whitney, Boston, 1842), he says: 

"I find that it is almost universally the opiniou of those who have heard of me 


Affidavit of Daniel H. Wells Anent John C. Bennett. 

State of Illinois, County of Hancock. 
I hereby certify that on the 17th day of May last, John C. Bennett 
subscribed and swore to the affidavit over my signature of that date 
and published in the Wasp, after writing the same in my presence, in 
the office where I was employed in taking depositions of witnesses. 
The door of the room was open and free for all, or any person to pass 
or repass. After signing and being qualified to the affidavit aforesaid, 

in the eastern part of the United States, that I united myself to the Mormons from 
a conviction of the truth of their doctrines, and that I was, at least for some time, 
a convert to their pretended religion. This, however, is a very gross error, I 
never believed in them or their doctrines. This is, and indeed was, from the first, 
well known to my friends and acquaintances in the western country, who were well 
aware of my reasons for connecting myself with the Prophet; which reasons I will 
now proceed to state. My attention had been long turned towards the movements 
and designs of the Mormons, with whom I had become pretty well acquaiLted, years 
before, in the state of Ohio; and after the formation of their establishment at Xau- 
voo, in 1839, the facts and reports respecting them, which I continually heard, led 
me to suspect, and, indeed, believe, that their leaders had formed, and were pre- 
paring to execute, a daring and colossal scheme of rebellion and usurpation 
throughout the Northwestern States of the Union. It was to me evident that tem- 
poral, as well as spiritual, empire was the aim and expectation of the Prophet and 
his cabinet. The documents that will hereafter be introduced, will clearly show 
the existence of a vast and deep-laid scheme, upon their part, for conquering the 
states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, and erecting upon the ruit of 
their present governments a despotic military and religious empire, the head of 
which, as emperor and pope, was to be Joseph Smith, the Prophet of the Lord, 
and his ministers and viceroys, the apostles, high priests, elders, and bishops, of 
the Mormon Church. The fruition of this hopeful project would, of course, have 
been preceded by plunder, devastation, and bloodshed, and by all the countless 
horrors which invariably accompany civil war. American citizens could not be ex- 
pected to stand quietly by, and suffer their governments to be overthrown, their 
religion subverted, their wives and children converted into instruments for a des- 
pot's lust and ambition, and their property forcibly appropriated to the use and 
furtherance of a base imposture. The Mormons would, of course, meet with resist- 
ance as soon as their intentions became evident; and so great was already their 
power, and so rapidly did their numbers increase, that the most frightful conse- 
quences might naturally be expected to ensue, from an armed collision between 
them and the citizens who still remained faithful to the God ^nd the laws of their 
fathers. These reflections continually occurred to me, as I observed the pro- 
ceedings of the Mormons, and, at length, determined me to make an attempt to 
detect and expose the movers and machinery of the plot. 

The promised documentary proofs of the alleged scheme to overthrow govern- 
ment in the states named, and establish on their ruins a despotic military govern- 
ment, etc., did not appear in the book compiled by Bennett, nor can his statement be 
true that he joined the Church for the purpose of expot-i ag a tecret plot on the 
part of Joseph Smith and his associates against government in the United States. 
The most probable and most charitable view in relation to Bennett's actions and 
character is that expressed by the late President John Taylor in his public dis- 


he requested to speak to me at the door. I followed him out; he told 
me some persons had been lying about him, and showed ine a writing 
granting him the privilege to withdraw from the Church, and remarked 
that the matter was perfectly understood between him and the heads of 
the Church; and that he had resigned the mayor's office, and should 
resign the office he held in the Legion; but as there was a court-mar- 
tial to be held in a few days Joseph Smith desired that he would wait 
until that was over. 

I was in the city council on the 19th day of May last. I there heard 
him say what has heeu published concerning the teachings of Joseph 
Smith, and of his own course. I afterwai'ds met him in company with 
Colonel Francis M. Higbee. He then stated that he was going to be 
the candidate, (meaning the candidate for the legislature) and Joseph 
and Hyrum Smith were going in for him. Said: "You know it will be 
better for me not to be bothered with the mayor's office, Legion, 'Mor- 
moD,' or anything else." 

During all this time, if he was under duress or fear, he must have 
a good faculty for concealing it, for he was at liberty to go and come 
when and where he pleased, so far as I am capable of judging. 

I know that I saw him in different parts of the city even after he 
had made these statements, transacting business as usual, and said he 
was going to complete some business pertaining to the mayor's 
office; and I think did attend to work on the streets. 

I was always personally friendly with him, after 1 became acquainted 

cussion with a number of Protestant ministers in France, 1850, who relied on 
Bennett's "disclosures" concerning Joseph Smith and the Mormon people for the 
data of their arguments. Of Bennett, with whom he was well and intimately 
acquainted, the late President John Taylor said: 

"Respecting John C, Bennett: I was well acquainted with him. At one time he 
was a good man, but fell into adultery, and was cut off from the Church for his in- 
iquity; and so bad was his conduct, that he was also expelled from the municipal 
courts, of which he was a member. He then went lecturing through the country, and 
commenced writing pamphlets for the sake of makiug money, charging so much 
for admittance to his lectures, and selling his slanders. His remarks, however, 
were so bad, and his statements so obscene and disgraceful, that respectable peo- 
ple were disgusted." 

Elder Taylor's opponents regarded this as an attack upon Bennett's character, 
to which Elder Taylor answered: •' Mr. Carter * * tells us that 

it is now too late to attack John C. Bennett's motives for joining the Church. Did 
I ever attack Johu C. Bennett's motives for joining the Church? * * * * 
I stated conceruiug John C. Bennett, that at one time he was a good man, but that he 
fell into iniquity and was cut off from the Church for adultery, and then com- 
menced his persecutions. If I had my books here I could have shown an affidavit 
made before the city council about the time he was cut off, stating that he knew 
nothing evil or bad of Joseph Smith, an affidavit that I heard him make himself." 
(Public discussion between Reverends Cleeve, Robiuson, Carter, and Elder John 
Taylor at Boulogne-Sur-Mer, France, 1850.) 



with him. I never heard him say anything derogatory to the character 
of Joseph Smith, until after he had been exposed by said Smith, on the 

public stand in Nauvoo. 

Daniel H. Wells. 
July 22nd, A. D. 1842. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, a justice of the peace, in and 
tor the city of Nauvoo, in said county, this 22nd day of July, 1842. 

Gu status Hills, 
[L. S.] J. P. and Alderman. 

limes and Seasons Editors Note. — ''Daniel H. Wells, Esq., is an old 
resident in this place, and not a Mormon." 

Sunday, 24. — This morning at home sick. Attended 
meeting at the Grove in the afternoon, and spoke of 
Brother Miller's having returned with the good news that 
Bennett would not be able to accomplish his designs. 

Tuesday, 26. — Sick this morning. Rode to my farm in 
the afternoon. 

Wednesday, 27 — Attended meeting at the Grovs and 
listened to the electioneering candidates, and spoke at 
the close of the meeting. 

Letter of Governor Carlin to Joseph Smithy Anent the Foregoing Resolution 

and Petition. 

Quincy, July 27, 1842. 

Dear Sir: — Your communication of the 25th instant, together with 
the petitions of the citizens of the city of Nauvoo, both male and 
female, were delivered to me last evening by Brevet-Major-General 
Wilson Law; also a report of James Sloan, Esq., Secretary of Nauvoo 
Legion, of the proceedings of a Court Martial of Brevet-Ma.ior-General 
had upon charges preferred against Major- General John C. Bennett; 
upon which trial the court found the defendant guilty, aod sentenced 
him to be cashiered; all of which have been considered. 

In reply to your expressed apprehensions of "the possibility of an 
attack upon the peaceable inhabitants of the city of Nauvoo and vicin- 
ity, through the intrigues and false representations of John C. Bennett 
and others," and your request that I would issue official orders to you to 
have the Nauvoo Legion in readiness to be called out at a moment's 
warning in defense of the peaceable citizens, &c, I must say that I 
cannot conceive of the least probability, or scarcely possibility, of an 
attack of violence upon the citizens of Nauvoo from any quarter what- 
ever, and as utterly impossible that such attack is contemplated by any 


sufficient number of persons to excite the least apprehension of danger 
or injury, and whilst I should consider it my imperative duty to prompt- 
\y take measures to suppress and repel any invasion, by violence of the 
people's rights, I nevertheless think that it is not in my province to in- 
terpose my official authority gratuitously when no such exigency exists. 
From the late exposure, as made by General Bennett it is not strange 
that the apprehensions of the citizens of Nauvoo are excited, but so far 
as I can learn from the expression of public opinion, the excitement is 
confined to the Mormons themselves, and only extends to the com- 
munity at large as a matter of curiosity and wonder. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
To General Joseph Smith. Thomas Carlin. 

Elder W. Woodruff started for St. Louis, to procure 
printing paper for the Times and Seasons. 

Saturday, 30. — I wrote to Thomas Carlin, Governor of 
the state of Illinois as follows : 

Letter of the Prophet to Governor Carlin — Satisfied with the Governor's 


Nauvoo, July 30, 1842. 

Esteemed Sir: — Your favor of the 27th instant per Brevet Major- 
General Wilson Law is before me. I cannot let this opportunity pass 
without tendering to you my warmest thanks for the friendly treatment 
my lady as well as those with her received at your hands during the 
late visit, and also for the friendly feelings breathed forth in your letter. 
Your Excellency may be assured that they ai*e duly appreciated by me, 
and shall be reciprocated. 

I am perfectly satisfied with regard to the subject under considera- 
tion, and with your remarks. I shall consider myself and our citizens 
secure from harm under the broad canopy of the law under your admin- 
istration. We look to you for protection in the event of any violence 
being used towards us, knowing that our innocence with regard to all 
the accusations in circulation will be duly evidenced before an enlight- 
ened public. 

Any service we can do the state at any time will be cheerfully done, 
for our ambition is to be serviceable to our country. 

With sentiments of respect and esteem, I remain your humble 

Joseph Smith. 

My wife's nephew, L. D. Wasson, who had gone out on 


a preaching mission, wrote us this day from Philadelphia 
— (see Times and Seasons, Vol. Ill, pages 891 and 892.) 
Sunday, 31.— In council with Bishops Miller and Whit- 
ney, Brigham Young, John Taylor, &c, con- 
BishopVinson cerning Bishop Vinson Knight's sickness. 
Brother Knight has been sick about a week, 
and this morning he began to sink very fast until twelve 
o'clock when death put a period to his sufferings. 

The High Priests' Quorum met in council, and in- 
structed their clerk to publish in the Times and Seasons 
that it is the duty of the High Priests to have their names 
enrolled on the records of the quoi urns when they arrive at 
Nauvoo. The members, when they spoke in 

Requirements , ' "' x 

of High turns, were required to state whether they had 


any hardness with the brethren, kept the Word 
of Wisdom, had family prayers, &c, 

An earthquake was recently felt in Dublane Cathedral, 
near Comrie Scotland. 

Monday, August 1, 1842. — Almost disgraceful riot is 
reported to have commenced in Philadelphia, between the 
colored and white people, which continued three or four days. 

Wednesday, 3. — In the city transacting a variety of 
business in company with General James Adams, and 
others. Brigadier- General Wilson Law elected Major- 
General of the Nauvoo Legion (by a small majority over 
Lyman Wight) in place of John C. Bennett, cashiered. 

Thursday, 4. — In company with fifteen others learning 
sword exercise with Colonel Brewer, and attending to a 
variety of business. 

Friday, 5. — Engaged in a variety of business, and at 
six in the evening presided in the city council ; Councilor 
Taylor brought forward a bill to regulate proceedings in 
the Municipal Court under habeas corpus— the bill was 
read the first time, and upon motion for a second reading 
it was referred to a select committee, namely Alderman 
Spencer, and Councilors Taylor and William Law, to 
report thereon at the next sitting of council. 


Saturday, 6. — Passed over the river to Montrose, Iowa, 
iu company with General Adams, Colonel 
Brewer, and others, and witnessed the install- th^safnts 
ation of the officers of the Rising Sun Lodge Driven to the 
Ancient York Masons, at Montrose, by Gen- f^ k J Woim " 
eral James Adams, Deputy Grand-Master of 
Illinois. While the Deputy Grand-Master \was engaged 
in giving the requisite instructions to the Master-elect, 1 
had a conversation with a number of brethren in the 
shade of the building on the subject of our pers ecution s in 
Missouri and the constant annoyance which has followed us 
since we were driven from that state, [i prophesied that 
( the Saints would cpnt muej^p^nffeiuinuch affliction. .and . 
/ worilcl. bo. driven~to-the -Rocky Mountain s Amany wquIcT 
Apostatize,, others would be put to death by "our persecut- 
ors or lose theirJ iyeiLJua^consequence of exposure o rdis - 
ease, and some of you will live to go and assistinjXLakiag 
settlements and build cities and see the Saints become a 
mighty people in the midst of the Rocky-Mountains.* 

* It is thought important that the following statement from a biography of Anson 
Call, by Edward Tullidge, should be made part of the history of this prophetic in- 
cident, as doubtless the testimony of Brother Call relates to the same incident as 
that described in the Prophet's text of the History, notwithstanding some confusion 
of dates that exists in the Call testimony. It will be seen that the Prophet 
fixes the date of his prophecy on Saturday, the 6th of August, 1842. In 
Whitney's History of Utah, Vol. IV.— {Biographical section of the history, p. 143), 
the date on which Call heard the prophecy, is given as the 8th of August, 1842. 
While in Tullidge \s biography of Call the date is given as the 14th of July, 1843, 
evidently an error. There is no entry in the Prophet's journal for the 8th of 
August, 1842, and the entries for the 8th of August, 1843, and the 14th of July, 
1843, relate to matters of quite a different character. Tullidge, in relating Anson 
Call's recollection of the incident also says that J. C. Bennett was present on the 
occasion, which must also be an error, as the rupture between Bennett and the 
Church and its authorities occurred and he had left Nauvoo previous to the 6th of 
August, 1842. In the Call statement as published by Tullidge, the name of Mr. 
Adams, the Deputy Grand Master Mason in charge of the ceremonies, is given as 
George, it should be James. 

Statement of Anson Call. 

"On the 14th of July, 1843, with quite a number of his brethren, he crossed the 
Mississippi river to the town of Montrose, to be present at the installment of the 
Masonic Lodge of the "Rising Sun." A block schoolhouse had been prepared with 
shade in front, under which was a barrel of ice water. Judge George [James] Adams 
was the highest masonic authority in the state of Illinois, and had been sent there 


Sunday, 7. -At home through the day. 

Monday, 8 — This forenoon I was arrested by the deputy 
sheriff of Adams county, and two assistants, on a war- 
Arrestofthe rant issued by Governor Carlin, founded on 
Prophet on a a requisition from Governor Revnolds of Mis- 

Reqmsrtion of x 

Missouri. souri, upon the affidavit of ex-Governor 

Boggs, complaining of the said Smith as * 'being an ac- 
cessory before the fact, to an assault with intent to kill 
made by one Orrin P. Rockwell on Lilburn W. Boggs," 
on the night of the sixth of May, A. D. 1842. Brother 
Rockwell was arrested at the same time as principal. 

to organize this lodge. He, Hyrum Smith, and J. C. Bennett, being high Masons, 
went into the house to perform some ceremonies which the others were not en- 
titled to witness. These, including Joseph Smith, remained under the bowery. 
Joseph, as he was tasting the cold water, warned the brethren not to be too free 
with it. With the tumbler still in his hand he prophesied that the Saints would 
yet go to the Rocky Mountains; and, said he, this water tastes much like that of 
the crystal streams that are running from the snow-capped mountains. < We wj^Il 
Jet Mr. Call describe this prophetic scene: "I had before seen him in a vision, and} 
I now saw while he was talking his countenance change_to white ; not the deadly 
white of a bloodless face, but a living brillianTwhite. He seemed absorbed in gaz- 
ing at something at a great distance; and Faid:~" 1i r" am gaz mg^pon j;he.-r^&y$--of 

those mount_ainsJ Ihi&jras_£ollowed4>y-a vivid description of the scenery of these) 

| mm^ainSj^s^I^Uay^sin^ it. Pointing to Shadracn 

^Itcmndy and others, he said: 'There are some men here who shall do a great work 
in that land.' Pointing to me, he said: 'There is Anson, he shall go and shall as- 
sist in building up cities from one end of the country to the other, and you, rather 
extending the idea to all those he had spoken of, shall perform as great a work as 
has been done by man, so that the nations of the earth shall be astonished, and 
many of them will be gathered in that land and assist in building cities and tem- 
ples, and Tsrael shall be made to rejoice.' 

"It is impossible to represent in words this scene which is still vivid in my mind, 
of the grandeur of Joseph's appearance, his beautiful descriptions of this land, 
and his wonderful prophetic Utterances as they emanated from the glorious inspira- 
tions that overshadowed him. There was a force and power in his exclamations of 
which the following is but a faint echo: ^ 'Oh the beauty of those snow-capped) 
/mountains! The cool refreshing streams that are running down through tho^e 
^mountain gorges!' Then gazing in anothei direction, as if there was a change of 
locality: 'Oh the scenes that this people will pass through! The dead that will lay 
between here and there.' Then turning in another direction as if the scene had 
again changed: 'Oh the apostasy that will take place before my brethren reach 
that land!' 'But,' he continued, 'The priesthood shall prevail over its enemies, tri- 
umph over the devil and be established upon the„earth, never more to be thrown j 
I downl'AHe then charged us with great force and power, to be faithful to those 
things that had been and should [be committed to our charge, with the promise of 
all the blessings that the Priesthood could bestow. 'Remember these things and 
treasure them up. Amen.' " (Tullidge's Histories, Vol. II. History of Northern 
Utah, and Southern Idaho. — Biographical Supplement, p. 271 et seq.) 



There was no evasion of the officers, though the munici- 
pal court issued a writ of habeas corpus according to the 
constitution of the state, Article 8, and Section 13. This 
writ demanded the bodies of Messrs. Smith and Rockwell 
to be brought before the aforesaid court; but these officers 
refused to do so, and finally without complying, they left 
us in the care of the marshal, without the original writ by 
which we were arrested, and by which only we could be 
retained, and returned to Governor Carlin for further 
instructions, and myself and Rockwell went about our 

I have yet to learn by what rule of right I was arrested 
to be transported to Missouri for a trial of the kind stated. 
"An accessory to an assault with intent to 

J The Prophet's 

kill," does not come under the provision of Comments on 

His Arrest. 

t he fugitive act, wh en the person charged has 
not been out of Illinois, &c. An accessory before the fact to 
manslaughter is something of an anomaly. The isolated 
affidavit of ex- Governor Boggs is no more than any other 
man's, and the constitution says, "that no person shall 
be liable to be transported out of the state, for an offense 
committed within the same." The whole is another Mis- 
souri farce. In fact, implied power, and constructive 
guilt, as a dernier resort, may answer the purpose of des- 
potic governments, but are beneath the dignity of the 
Sons of Liberty, and would be a blot on our judicial es- 

I received a letter from the postoffice, which had been 
broken open, and I was grieved at the meanness of its 

The city council passed the following "Ordinance regu- 
lating the mode of proceeding in cases of habeas corpus 
before the municipal court: " 

Ordinance on Habeas Corpus Procedure. 

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the city council of the city of Nauvoo, that 
in all cases where any person or persons, shall at any time hereafter, 
be arrested or under arrest in this city, under any writ or process, and 


shall be brought before the municipal court of this city, by virtue of a 
writ of habeas corpus, the court shall in every such case have power 
and authority, and are hereby required to examine into the origin, 
validity and legality of the writ of process, under which such arrest was 
made, and if it shall appear to the court, upon sufficient testimony that 
said writ or process was illegal, or not legally issued, or did not proceed 
from proper authority, then the court shall discharge the prisoner from 
under said arrest; but if it shall appear to the court that said writ or 
process had issued from proper authority, and was a legal process, the 
court shall then proceed and fully hear the merits of the case, upon 
which said arrest was made, upon such evidence as may be produced 
and sworn before said court, and shall have power to adjourn the 
hearing, and also issue process from time to time, in their discretion, 
in order to procure the attendance of witnesses, so that a fair and im- 
partial trial and decision may be obtained in every such case. 

Sec. 2. And be it further ordained that if upon investigation it shall 
be proven before the municipal court, that the writ or process has 
been issued, either through private pique, malicious intent, or religious 
or other persecution, falsehood or misrepresentation, contrary to the 
constitution of this state, or the Constitution of the United States, the 
said writ or process shall be quashed and considered of no force or 
effect, and the prisoner or prisoners shall be released and discharged 

Sec. 3. And be it also further ordained that in the absence, sick- 
ness, debility, or other circumstances disqualifying or preventing the 
mayor from officiating in his court, as chief justice of the municipal 
court, the aldermen present shall appoint one from amongst them to 
act as chief justice, or president pro tempore. 

Sec. 4. This ordinance to take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage. 

Passed Augusts, 1842. 

Hyrum Smith, 
Vice-Mayor and President Pro Tempore. 
James Sloan, Recorder. 

A disgraceful and bloody riot occurred in Cincinnati 
this evening, in and about the "Sans Souci House," 




Tuesday, August 9. — In company witb Judge Ralston 
and Lawyer Powers, preparing for the return of the sher- 
iff; prepared a writ of habeas corpus for the master in 

Wednesday, 10, — The deputy sheriff returned to Nau- 
yoo, but 1 was absent and he did not see me, nor Brother 
Rockwell. He endeavored to alarm my wife and the 
brethren with his threats, if I was not forthcoming, but 
they understood the law in such cases, and his threats 
proved harmless. 

Thursday, 11. — This forenoon Brother William Law 
entered into conversation with the sheriff on the illegality 
of the whole proceedings in reference to the arrest, when 
the sheriff acknowledged that he believed Joseph was 
innocent, and that Governor Carlin's course which he had 
pursued, was unjustifiable and illegal. 

I spent the day at Oncle John Smith's in Zarahemla, 
and sent word that I wished to see Emma, Brothers 
Hyrum Smith, William Law and others, with , f ,. 

* > 7 Meeting of 

instructions to meet me on the island between the p^p^ 

with Confi- 

Nauvoo and Montrose. After dark, Emma, cientiai 
Hyrum, William Law, Newel K. Whitney, 
George Miller William Clayton, and Dimick Huntington, 
met at the waterside near the brick store, and proceeded in a 
skiff between the islands until they arrived near the lower 


end; and then hailed to shore. After waiting a very* 
little while, the skiff arrived from the opposite shore, and 
in it were myself, and Brother Erastus H. Derby. A 
council was then held in the skiffs, and various state- 
ments set forth in regard to the state of things. It was 
reported that the governor of Iowa had issued a warrant 
for my apprehension, and that of Orrin P. Rockwell, and 
that the sheriff of Lee county was expected down immedi- 
ately; very strong evidence was also manifested that 
Governor Reynolds of Missouri was not acquainted with 
these proceedings; that ex-Governor Boggs had made 
oath before a justice of the peace or a judge, and that 
the judge had made the requisition, and not Governor 
Reynolds, also that the writ issued by Oarlin was illegal 
and unjustifiable. It is absolutely certain that the whole 
business is another glaring instance of the effects of pre- 
judice against me as a religious teacher, and that it pro- 
ceeds from a persecuting spirit, the parties have signified 
their determination to have me taken to Missouri, whether 
by legal or illegal means. It was finally concluded that I 
should be taken up the river in a skiff, and be landed be- 
low Wiggan's farm, so called, and that I should proceed 
from thence to Brother Edward Savers, and there abide 
for a season. 

This being concluded upon, we separated, myself 
and Brother Derby being rowed up the river by Brother 
Dunham, and the remainder crossed over to Nauvoo. 
It was agreed that Brother Albert P. Rock wood should 
proceed up the river on shore to the place where 
the skiff should stop, and there light up two fires as a 
signal for a stopping place. After the boat had proceeded 
some distance above the city, a fire was discovered on 
shore. We concluded that it was the signal and immedi- 
ately rowed towards shore. When near the shore one of 
the company hailed a person on the banks, but received a 
very unsatisfactory answer, whereupon we turned about and 
put to the channel, and upon coming near the middle of the 


river, discovered two fires a little higher up the stream. We 
immediately steered towards the fires and were happy to 
find Brother Rockwood awaiting our arrival. We then 
proceeded through the timber to Brother Sayers' house, 
where we were very kindly received and made welcome. 

Judge Ralston and Lawyer Powers departed, each for 
home, expressing their perfect willingness to aid us in 
every possible manner. Judge Ralston also promised 
to ascertain the state of affairs in Quincy, and give us the 
earliest information. 

Friday , 12. — This forenoon it appeared still more evi- 
dent that the whole course of proceedings by Governor 
Carlin and others was illegal. After some 
consultation with Brother William Law, state of 
Emma concluded to dispatch a messenger iowa. 
with a letter to Lawyer Powers, of Keokuk, 
to request him to go to Burlington, Iowa Territory, and 
there see the governor of Iowa, and endeavor to ascertain 
whether Governor Reynolds had made any requisition on 
him for myself and Rockwell. William Walker proceeded 
to cross the river on my horse, "Joe Duncan," in sight of 
a number of persons — one chief design in this movement 
was to draw the attention of the sheriffs and public from 
all idea that I was on the Nauvoo side of the river. 

At night William Clayton and John D. Parker, left 
Nauvoo after dark, and came to see me, and found me 
cheerful and in good spirits. 

Saturday, 13. — This forenoon Brother Hyrum received 
a letter from Elder Hollister at Quincy, stat- 
ing that Governor Carlin had said that his Throw the 
proceedings were illegal and he should not ^^f 
pursue the subject any further. The letter 
also stated that Ford (the agent to receive me from the 
hands of the sheriff and carry me to Missouri) had con- 
cluded to take the first boat and start home ; and that he 
was going to fetch a force from Missouri. All this, my 
friends thought, was only a scheme got up for the pur- 


pose of throwing us off our guard, that they might come 
unexpectedly, kidnap, and carry me to Missouri. 

I had sent a request to Emma to come to see me, and 
she concluded to start in the carriage, but while it was 
preparing, it attracted the attention of the 
Emma to sheriff, who kept a close watch of all move- 

ments. To avoid suspicion, Emma walked to 
Sister Uurphy's and waited the arrival of the carriage 
which passed off down the river with William Clayton and 
Lorin Walker, with raised curtains, receiving Emma by 
the way, without any discovery by the sheriff ; when about 
four miles down the river, the carriage turned on the 
prairie and passing around the city, turned into the tim- 
ber opposite Wiggan's farm, when Emma alighted and 
walked to Brother Sayers', and the carriage returned. I 
was in good spirits, although somewhat afflicted in body, 
and was much rejoiced to meet my dear wife once more. 

A report came over the river to the following effect: 

There are several small companies of men in Montrose, Nashville, 
Keoknk, &c, in search of Joseph, they saw his horse go down 
the river yesterday, and were confident he was on that side. 
They swear they will have him. It is said there is a reward of thirteen 
hundred dollars offered for the apprehension and delivery of Joseph 
and Rockwell, and this is supposed to have induced them to make 
search. The sheriff and deputy have uttered heavy threats several 
times; saying that if they could not find Joseph they would lay the city 
in ashes. They say they will tarry in the city a month, but what they 
will find him. 

Great freshet in Virginia, Indian murders in Florida, 
and riots in Canada are reported in this day's Wasp. 

Sunday, 14. — Spent the forenoon chiefly in conversa- 
tion with Emma on various subjects, and in reading my 
history with her— both felt in good spirits and very cheer- 
ful. Wrote the following letter to Wilson Law (who was 
officially reported to have been duly elected to the office 
of major-general of the Nauvoo Legion) as follows: 


Letter of the Prophet to Wilson Law — Directing the Latter How to Pro- 
ceed on Certain Contingencies Arising. 

Headquarters of Nauvoo Legion, August 14, 1842. 
Major- General Law: 

Dear General: — I take this opportunity to give you some instruc- 
tions how I wish you to act in case our persecutors should carry their 
pursuits so far as to tread upon our rights as free-born American citi- 
zens. The orders which I am about to give you, are the result of a long 
series of contemplations since I saw ybu. I have come fully to the con- 
clusion both since this last difficult} 7 commenced as well as before, that 
I never would suffer myself to go into the hands of the Missourians 
alive, and to go into the hands of the officers of this state is nothing 
more or less than to go into the hands of the Missourians; for the whole 
farce has been gotten up unlawfully and unconstitutionally, as well on 
the part of the Governor as others, by a mob spirit, for the purpose of 
carrying out mob violence, to carry on mob intolerance in a religious 
persecution. I am determined, therefore, to keep out of their hauds, 
and thwart their designs, if possible, that perhaps they may not urge 
the necessity of force and bloodshed against their own fellow citizens, 
and loyal subjects [of the state], and become ashamed and withdraw 
their pursuits. But if they should not do this, and shall urge the neces- 
sity of force; and if I by any means should be taken, these are there- 
fore to command you forthwith, without delay, regardless of life or 
death, to rescue me out of their hands. And further, to treat any pre- 
tensions to the contrary, unlawful and unconstitutional, and as a mob 
got up for the purpose of a religious persecution to take away the rights 
of men. 

And further that our chartered rights and privileges shall be consid- 
ered by us as holding the supremacy in the premises, and shall be 
maintained. Nothing short of the Supreme Court of this State having 
authority to disannul them; and the Municipal Court having jurisdiction 
in my case. You will see, therefore, that the peace of the city of Nau- 
voo is kept, let who will endeavor to disturb it. You will also see, 
that whenever any mob force, or violence is used on any citizen there- 
of, or that belongeth thereunto, you will see that that force or violence, 
is immediately dispersed and brought to punishment; or meet it, or con- 
test it, at the point of the sword with firm, undaunted and unyielding 
valor; and let them know that the spirit of old Seventy-Six and of 
Washington yet lives, and is contained in the bosoms and blood of the 
children of the fathers. If there are any threats in the city, let 
legal steps be taken against them; and let no man, woman or child be 
intimidated, or suffer it to be done. Nevertheless, as I said in the 
first place, we will take every measure that lays in our power, and 


make every sacrifice that God or man could require at our hands to pre- 
serve the peace and safety of the people without collision. And if sac- 
rificing my own liberty for months and years without stooping to the 
disgrace of Missouri persecutions and violence, and Carlin's misrule 
and corruption. I bow to my fate with cheerfulness, and all due defer- 
ence in consideration of the lives, safety and welfare of others. But if 
this policy cannot accomplish the desired object let our charter and 
nmnicipality, free trade, and sailor's rights be our motto, and go-ahead 
David Crocket like, and lay down our lives like men, and defend our- 
selves to the best advantage we can to the very last. You are there- 
fore hereby authorized and commanded by virtue of the authority 
which I hold, and commission granted me by the executive of this state, 
to maintain the very letter and spirit of the above contents of this 
letter to the very best of your ability; to the extent of our lives and our 
fortunes, and to the lives and fortunes of the Legion; as also all those who 
may volunteer their lives and fortunes with ours; for the defense of our 
wives and children, our fathers and our mothers; our homes, our grave 
yards and our tombs; and our dead and their tombstones, and our dear 
bought American liberties, with the blood of our fathers and all that is 
d ear and sacred to men. 

Shall we shrink at the onset? No! Let every man's brow be as the 
face of a lion; let his breast be as unshaken as the mighty oak, and his 
knee confirmed as the sapling of the forest: and by the voice and loud 
roar of the cannon; and the loud peals and thundering of artillery; and 
by the voice of the thunderings of heaven as upon Mount Sinai; and by 
the voice of the heavenly hosts; and by the vobe of the eternal God; 
and by the voice of innocent blood; and by the voice of innocence; and 
by the voice of all that is sacred and dear to man, let us plead the just- 
ice of our cause; trusting in the arm of Jehovah, the Eloheim, 
who sits enthroned in the heavens; that peradventure He may give us 
the victory; and if we bleed, we shall bleed in a good cause, in the 
cause of innocence and truth; and from henceforth will there not be a 
crown of glory for us? And will not those who come after hold our 
names in sacred remembrance? And will our enemies dare to brand 
us with cowardly reproach? 

With these considerations, I subscribe myself, yours most faithfully 
and respectfully, with acknowledgments of your high and honored trusts 
as Major-General of the Nauvoo Legion. 

Joseph Smith, 

Mayor of the City of Nauvoo, and Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo 
Legion, of Illinois Militia. 

P. S. — I want you to communicate all the information to me of all the 
transactions as they are going on daily, in writing, by the hands of my 


aides-de-camp. As I am not willing that anything that goes from my 
hand to you should be made a public matter, I enjoin you to keep all 
things in your own bosom; and I want everything that comes from you 
to come through my aides. The bearer of this will be able to pilot 
them in a way that will not be prejudicial to my safety. 

Joseph Smith. 

I gave the foregoing letter to Emma with a charge to 
deliver it to General Law tomorrow. After considerable 
conversation on various subjects, and partaking of dinner 
Emma, accompanied by Brothers Derby and Clayton 
started for Nauvoo. The morning had been very wet, and 
the roads were very muddy. It was difficult walking — 
they proceeded to the river and entered a skiff, in which 
they proceeded across the river, and then down the side 
of the islands — soon after they got on the 

id.© Depart- 

water, the wind began to blow very hard, and ure of Emma 
it was with much difficulty and apparent dan- 
ger that they could proceed; but they continued on, and 
after considerable toil arrived opposite the city of Nauvoo 
— they went between the islands and crossed over the river 
to Montrose. As soon as they landed the wind abated, 
and was nearly calm. Brother Derby wanted to return up 
the river without the additional toil of crossing to Nauvoo 
— they met with Brother Ivins' skiff just about to go over 
to Nauvoo, they got into that skiff and left Brother Derby 
to return at his own leisure. Before they could get over the 
wind arose again considerably, but they arrived safe home 
about six o'clock in the evening, where they found Mr. 
Powers from Keokuk, who had just returned from Burl- 
ington. While there he ascertained that there was no writ 
issued in Iowa for me. 

The people inquired "if it was not true that Joseph had 
been commissioned by the United States to visit the In- 
dians and negotiate with them for a tract of land," such 
being the report in circulation. Mr. Powers answered 
that he "was not authorized to assert that the report was 


true, but he thought that it was not only possible, but 
probable;" but in this Mr. Powers was mistaken. 

Monday, 15. — This forenoon several reports were in cir- 
culation in the city, that the militia are on their way 
here, and the same is said to have been stated by the 
stage driver, but it is supposed that it is only a scheme 
to alarm the citizens. Emma presented the foregoing 
letter to Major-General Law, to which he responded as 
follows : 

Letter oj Wilson Lmo to the Prophet, Expressing Willingness to Carry 
out the Latter's Instructions. 

Nauvoo City, Illinois, August 15, Afternoon. 1842. 
Lieutenant- General Joseph Smith: 

Dear Friend. — I this morning received a line from you, by the 
young man (Walker) respecting the guns, &c. One of them is in the 
stone shop by the Nauvoo house. One I expect to get put into Mr. 
Ivins' barn, and the other 1 cannot get under lock and key in any place 
I know of yet, but 1 will have them taken the best care of that I can. 

I have also received from the hand of your lady your orders at length 
respecting matters and things, and 1 am happy indeed to receive such 
orders from you, for your views on these subjects are precisely my 
own. I do respond with my whole heart to every sentiment you have 
so nobly and so feelingly expressed, and while my heart beats, or this 
hand which now writes is able to write and wield a sword, you may 
depend on it being at your service in the glorious cause of liberty and 
truth, and ready in a moment's warning to defend the rights of man, 
both civil and religious. Our common rights and peace is all we ask, 
and we will use every peaceable means in our power to enjoy these ; our 
rights we must have, peace we must have if we have to fight for it. 

There has nothing worthy of notice come to my knowledge today, the 
gentlemen officers are seemingly very unhappy and out of humor with 
themselves more than with anybody else. They see we have the ad- 
vantage of them and that they cannot provoke us to break the law; and 
I think they know if they do that, we will use them up the right way. 
I guess they see that in our patience we possess our souls, and I know 
that if they shed, or cause to be shed, a drop of blood, of one of the 
least amongst us, that the lives of the transgressers shall atone for it. 
with the help of our God. 

I send you the ordinance that was passed by the court martial on 


Saturday last, for your approval or otherwise, as it cannot become a 
law without your approbation. I also send you the returns of the elec- 
tion for Major- General, as yon ordered the election, you will please 
order the war secretary of the Legion (Colonel Sloan) to send for a 

With the warmest feelings of my heart, I remain most respectfully 

Wilson Law. 

P. S. — Afternoon, 6 o'clock, I have just learned that Mr. Pitman got 
a letter about noon and got ready immediately, and started off, as he 
said for Carthage, but I think for Quincy, giving it up for a bad job. 

W. L. 

About dark Brother Woolley returned from Carthage 
and stated that he had conversed with Chauncey Robin- 
son, who informed him that he had ascer- 

7 Unfriendly 

tained that the sheriffs were determined to spirit at 
have me, and if they could not succeed them- 
selves they would bring a force sufficient to search every 
house in the city, and if they could not find me there, 
they would search the state, &c. 

As before stated, the sheriffs left the city, about four 
o'clock, saying they were going to Carthage, but Brother 
Woolley did not meet them on the road. It is believed 
they are gone to Quincy. 

In consequence of these reports it was considered wis- 
dom that some of the brethren should go and inform me. 
Accordingly about nine o'clock Hyrum Smith, n , 

° * •/ ' Calmness and 

George Miller, William Law, Amasa Lyman, Courage of 
John D. Parker, Newel K. Whitney and 
William Clayton started by different routes on foot and 
came to the place where I was. When the statement 
was made to me I proposed to leave the city, suspecting 
I was no longer safe, but upon hearing the whole state- 
ment from those present I said I should not leave my 
present retreat yet, I did not think I was discovered, 
neither did I think I was any more unsafe than before. 
I discovered a degree of excitement and agitation man- 


ifested in those who brought the report, and I took occa- 
sion to gently reprove all present for letting report excite 
them, and advised them not to suffer themselves to be 
wrought upon by any report, but to maintain an even, 
undaunted mind. Each one began to gather courage, and 
all fears were soon subsided, and the greatest union and 
good feeling prevailed amongst all present. Various sub- 
jects then were conversed upon, and counsel given which 
was felt to be most seasonable and salutary. After con- 
versing awhile in the grove the company retired into the 
house and sat and conversed until about two o'clock, at 
which time they departed, evidently satisfied and much 
encouraged by the interview. 

A great whirlwind at Chauffailes, France. Thirty 
houses were carried away, and over twenty persons 
killed. Six hundred houses with all they contained were 
burned ac Ursel, Eussia. 

The following editorial appeared in the Times and 


"Ifyewill live godly in Christ Jesus, ye shall suffer persecution,' 7 
was the solemn proclamation made by one of the ancient servants of 
God; a prophecy that has received its fulfillment in all ages, that has 
been known and understood by all Saints, and that has been engraven 
npou the memories of all the faithful; for while blood, and fire, and 
sword, and torture, have been brought into requisition against the 
Saints; whilst chains, and fetters and death have been employed, and 
their sighings and mournings have been wafted on the wings of the 
wind; their solitary hours and midnight cries; their distress and calam- 
ity have been disregarded. This eternal truth has re-echoed in their 
ears; it has touched their inmost soul; has been written on the tablet of 
their hearts— "if ye will live godly in Christ Jesus, ye shall suffer per- 

Ever since the formation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, calumny, reproach and persecution have flown plentifully iuto 
their lap — detraction, slander, falsehood, and misrepresentation have 
been gratuitously heaped upon them; they have beeu assailed by vex- 
atious law suits, organized mobs, aud illegally treated by militia; they 
have been imprisoned, whipped, tarred and feathered, and driven from 


their hoines; they have had their property confiscated, and have suf- 
fered banishment, exile and death for their religion. 

Missouri has been one of the principal actors in the scene; she has 
made many a wife a widow, and many a child an orphan. The tears 
'of the oppressed have plentifully watered her soil; the cries of her 
robbed aud spoiled have rung through her valleys, and been re-echoed 
from hill to hill; many a weary pilgrim borne down with oppression and 
weary of life has laid himself down to sleep in the arms of death, while 
the blood of the innocent has drenched her soil. And never till the 
trump of God shall sound, the sleeping dead shall arise, the books be 
opened and the secret history of peoples and nations be unfolded, will 
the amount of their sufferings be fully known. That day will unfold 
scenes of wickedness, misery and oppression, and deeds of inhumanity 
and blood that the most eloquent cannot portray, the pencil of the lim- 
ner depict; and that is beyond the power of language to unfold — scenes 
of misery, of woe, and human suffering. Dipped in the malice of the 
most fiendish hate, the cup of misery has been wrung out, and they have 
drunk it to the very dregs. 

Missouri, frantic with rage, and not yet filled with blood, wishes now 
to follow her bleeding victims to their exile, and satiate herself with 
blood. And not satisfied with staining her own escutcheon, she wishes 
to decoy the noble, generous and patriotic sons of Illinois — to deceive 
them with appearances — to draw them into her snare, that they may be 
sharer in her crimes, and participate in her guilt and stamp with eternal 
infamy their character. We have already to blush for the gullibility of 
many of her [Illinois] editors who feel desirous to fan the deadly flame, 
and stain their hands with her [Missouri's] foul deeds. We would ad- 
vise such to halt, to pause for a moment — to reflect upon what they are 
doing. Have they not witnessed Missouri's wanton persecution; her 
cruel oppression; her deadly hate? Have they not loudly exclaimed 
against such proceedings; stood forth in defense of republicanism — and 
as true patriots defended the rights of man? And can they now advo- 
cate a cause that would attempt to make an innocent, virtuous people 
* 'tremble at the sight of gathering hosts! " or even moot the question. 

Who is it that has made his affidavit that Joseph Smith has been ac- 
cessory to shooting him? Governor Boggs of Missouri, a man, who, 
three years ago, issued an order to exterminate fifteen thousand men, 
women and children in republican America; a man who sanctioned 
mobocracy, and raised militia for that effect; a man who has been the 
cause of the death of scores of innocent people, and has actually been a 
wholesale murderer. This is the man who prefers the charge; a man 
who has long ago violated his constitutional oath. We deprecate at all 
times the commission of so diabolical a crime as that of murder if com- 


mitted upon our greatest enemies; and would content ourselves with 
letting the Lord take vengeance into His own hands. Moreover we 
would seriously ask if his [Governor Boggs'] statement concerning 
Joseph Smith is probable, or even possible, under the circumstances 
mentioned by him? Could Governor Boggs swear that Joseph Smith* 
was accessory before the fact, when he has not seen him for three 
years? and when Joseph Smith has not been in the state of Missouri for 
that length of time? Whatever his belief might be about his being engaged 
in the plot, he could not swear to it. Concerning Rockwell, he was in 
Missouri, and it is reported that he is gone there to prove himself clear, 
but we should think that Missouri is the last place to go ior justice; we 
don't think that she is capable of administering it to the Mormons; she 
must, however, first atone for her bloody deeds, and refund to them 
what she has robbed them of before their confidence can be restored in 
her justice, or righteousness. But we would ask, is there no one to 
murder men but Mormons? Are not assassins stalking through her , 
streets daily? Let the history of the frequent murders in St. Louis and 
other places in Missouri answer. But again, who does not know that 
Boggs has been in frequent difficulties with other people; that he ha-: 
been on the point of duelling with senators, and that his life has been 
frequently threatened, and that not by Mormons: this we are prepared 
to prove. Without saying more upon this subject we will proceed to 
give a history of the arrest. 

On Monday the 8th instant General Smith was arrested upon a war- 
rant under the signature of Governor Carlin, in accordance, as stated, 
with a call from Governor Reynolds of Missouri, upon the affidavit of 
ex-Governor Boggs. Mr. Rockwell was arrested at the same time as 
the principal. There was no evasion of this call for the persons of 
Messrs. Smith and Rockwell. The Municipal Court, however, issued a 
writ of habeas corpus, according to the constitution and city charter. 
This writ demanded the bodies of Smith and Rockwell to be brought 
before the said court, but the officers in charge of these men refused to 
obey its call; though after some deliberation, the" left them in charge 
of the city marshal, without the original writ by which they were ar- 
rested, and by which only they could be retained, and returned back to 
Governor Carlin for fuither instruction. Thus Messrs. Smith and Rock- 
well were free from the arrest, as the marshal had no authority to hold 
them in custody. Some two or three days after, the aforesaid officers 
returned, for the purpose of executing the Governor's order, without 
paying attention to the writ of habeas corpus issued by the Municipal 
Court; but Messrs. Smith and Rockwell were absent. 

In a free government every person's rights and privileges are the 
same; no extraordinary process can issue legally, nor no extra-judicial 


act be required; justice, like her representative goddess, is blind to ap- 
pearances, and favors no one. In this point of view, then, let us legally 
examine the case in question: — Mr. Boggs makes an affidavit in Mis- 
suri. and charges one 0. P. Rockwell with * 'shooting Lilburn W. Boggs 
with intent to kill," on the night of the 6th of May, 1842, and that the 
said Eockwell had fled from justice to the state of Illinois. Shooting 
with intent to kill, and Mr. Boggs alive two or three months after to 
swear to it may be set down as insufficient grounds for writ from the 
governor of one state, to demand a person as a fugitive from justice in 
another state. For aught that appears to the contrary, he might have 
shot in his own defense and been justifiable; as the charge is not grounded 
on the wilful, malicious, or felonious intent, without the fear of God 
before his eyes, to murder. The affidavit is therefore not sufficient for 
the apprehension, detention and transportation of the said Rockwell to 
the courts of Missouri. Here we deny that the Orrin P. Rockwell 
arrested is the one intended in the writ, this Rockwell being not guilty. 

If Mr. Boggs kneio, of himself, the fact that Mr. Rockwell shot at 
him with intent to kill, why did he delay the prosecution some two or 
three months? If he obtained his knowledge from a second or third 
person, why not avail himself of their affidavits in the body of the writ? 

Again, Mr. Boggs charges one Mr. Joseph Smith with being "acces- 
sory before the fact to an assault with intent to kill," on the night of 
'the sixth of May, 1842. This must allude to some other Joseph Smith, 
as the Joseph Smith of this city, was in Nauvoo on the aforesaid sixth 
of May, 1842, and on the next day he was at his post as Lieut. Gen. of 
the Nauvoo Legion. Nor can it be proved that he has been in the state 
of Missouri for the last three years. 

But for the sake of argument admit the language of the writ, and 
Joseph Smith as an accessory before the fact, with intent to kill, must 
have aided or abetted by words, or by means, while in the state of Il- 
linois, and cannot come under the purview of the fugitive act. Having 
not fled from justice from another state; and, according to the express 
language of the constitution; "he could not be liable to be transported 
out of the state for an offense committed within the same." 

An accessory before the fact in man-slaughter is an anomaly — and 
now if the Joseph Smith of Nauvoo, has committed a crime of the nature 
charged in the writ, which we deny in toto, he should he held amenable 
to the laws of Illinois, and in the ordinary course of procedure by in- 
dictment, in accordance with the right of the constitution, which says 
that he should have a "speedy public trial by au impartial jury of the 

Judging now from all the facts of the case, taking the two affidavits 
together, we must say that the whole forms but a poor excuse for exec- 


utive interference, and when properly weighed by good judges of law 
in criminal jurisprudence, will be found wanting in all the important 
counts which constitute a fair case. 

As to the writ of habeas corpus, issued by the Municipal Court of 
the city of Nauvoo, it was not acted upon, though we believe that so 
long as it was not incompatible with the spirit and meatiing of the con- 
stitution of the state, and of the constitution of the United States, its 
power was sovereign, as to the rights and privileges of citizens, granted 
to them by the City Charter, having these express privileges, in words 
as follows: "To make, ordain, establish and execute all such ordin- 
ances, not repugnant to the constitution of the United States and of this 
state, as they may deem necessary for the peace, benefit, good order, 
regulation, convenience and cleanliness of the city 1 ' — and "the Munici- 
pal Court shall have power to grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases 
arising under the ordinance of the city council.'' 

Now, it is well known that if this court exceeded the bounds of the 
chartered power, or transcended the limits of the constitution of the 
state, or United States, it could be made to respond in a writ of quo 
warranto; and, as a writ of habeas corpus can only test the validity^ 
not the virtue of a process (as testimony to prove the guilt or innocence 
of a person — under an investigation by habeas corpus, is inadmissible), 
we believe, that judges, lawyers, and jurors, will not be very apprehen- 
sive that the law of the land, or the rights of the people, will suffer viol- 
ence on this account. 

Under the existing animosity of the inhabitants of the state of Mis- 
souri, manifested towards the Church of Latter-day Saints, prudence 
would dictate great caution, and forbearance in the proceedings of 
public functionaries, relative to claims for persons or property in favor 
of either party, holding sacred the old maxim: "That it would be better 
to let ninety and nine guilty persons go unpunished, than to punish one 
innocent person unjustly." 

Concerning the whole matter, we believe that the parties are entirely 
innocent of the charges alleged against them; and that the whole of it 
is a wicked and malicious persecution. But it may here be asked by 
some, if they are innocent, why did they not apply to the master in 
chancery for a writ of habeas corpus, present themselves before the 
judge of the District Court, and prove themselves clear? 

First, we would answer, that the writ of our Municipal Court was 
treated with contempt by the officers, and it would have been dishonor- 
ing our municipal authorities to have acknowledged the insufficiency of 
their writ, and to have let our city charter be wantonly trodden under 
foot; and that could not have been enforced without coersion, and per- 
haps employing military force, which under the present excited state of 
society might have been construed to treason." 


In the second place, if they appealed to the District Court it might 
have availed them nothing, even if the judge felt disposed to do justice 
(which we certainly believe he would have done) as their dismissal 
would rest upon some technicalities of law, rather than upon the merits 
of the case: as testimony to prove the guilt or innocence of the persons 
charged, could not be admitted ou the investigation on a writ of habeas 
corpus, the question not being whether the persons are guilty or not 
guilty; but merely to test the validity of the writ; which if proved to 
be issued in due form of law, however innocent the parties might be, 
would subject them to be transported to Missouri — to be murdered. 

Upon the whole we think that they have taken the wisest course; we 
have no reflections to make upou their conduct, and shall maintain un- 
shaken our opinions unless we have more light on the subject than we 
now possess. 

Tuesday, August 16.— Wrote as follows: — 

Ihe Prophet 1 s Letter to Emma Smith — Detailing Prospective Movements. 

Nauvoo, August 1G, 1842. 
My Dear Emma: — I embrace this opportunity to express to you some 
of my feelings this morning. First of all, I take the liberty to tender 
you my sincere thanks for the two interesting and consoling visits that 
you have made me during my almost exiled situation. Tongue cannot 
express the gratitude of my heart, for the warm and true-hearted 
friendship you have manifested in these things towards me. The time 
has passed away, since you left me, very agreeably thus far; my mind 
being perfectly reconciled to my fate, let it be what it may. I have 
been kept from melancholy and dumps, by the kind-heartedness of 
Brother Derby, and his interesting chit-chat from time to time, which 
has called my mind from the more strong contemplation of things and 
subjecfs that would have preyed more earnestly upon my feelings. 

Last night Brothers Hyrum, Miller, Law, and others came to see us. 
They seemed much agitated, and expressed some fears in consequence 
of some maneuverings and some flying reports which they had heard in 
relation to our safety; but, after relating what it was, I was able to 
comprehend the whole matter to my entire satisfaction, and did not feel 
at all alarmed or uneasy. They think, however, that the militia will be 
called out to search the city; and if this should be the case, I would be 
much safer for the time being at a little distance off, until Governor 
Carlin could get weary, and be made ashamed of his corrupt and un- 
hallowed proceedings. I had supposed, however, that if there were any 
serious operations taken by the governor, that Judge Ralston, or Brother 
Hollister would have notified us; and cannot believe that anything very 


serious is to be apprehended, until we obtain information from a source 
that can be relied upon. 

I have consulted whether it is best for you to go to Quincy and see 
the Governor; but, on the whole, he is a fool; and the impressions that 
are suggested to my mind are, that it will be of no use; and the more 
we notice him and flatter him, the more eager he will be for our destruc- 
tion. You may write to him whatever you see proper, but to go and 
see him, I do not give my consent at present. 

Brother Miller again suggested to me the propriety ot my accompany- 
ing him to the Pine Woods, and then he return, and bring you and the 
children. My mind will eternally revolt at every suggestion of that 
kind, more especially since the dream and vision that was manifested to 
me on the last night. My safety is with you, if you want to have it so. 
Anything more or less than this cometh of evil. My feelings and counsel 
I think ought to be abided. If I go to the Pine country, you shall go 
along with me, and the children; and if you and the children go not 
with me, I don't go. I do not wish to exile myself for the sake of my 
own life, I would rather fight it out. It is for your sakes, therefore, 
that I would do such a thing, f I will go with you, then, in the same 
carriage, and on horseback from time to time as occasion may require; 
for I am not willing to trust you in the hands of those who cannot feel 
the same interest for you that I feel; to be subject to the caprice, temp- 
tations, or notions of anybody whatever. And I must say that I am 
prepossessed somewhat with the notion of going- to the Pine country 
anyhow; for I am tired of the mean, low, and unhallowed vulgarity of 
some portions of the society in which we live; and I think if I could 
have a respite of about six months with my family, it would be a savor 
of life unto life, with my house. Nevertheless, if it were possible, I 
would like to live here in peace and wind up my business; but if it 
should be ascertained to a dead certainty that there is no other remedy, 
then we will round up our shoulders and cheerfully endure it; and this 
will be the plan:/ Let my horse, saddle, saddle-bags, and valise to put 
some shirts and clothing in, be sent to me. Let Brothers Derby and 
Miller take a horse and put it into my buggy, with a trunk containing 
my heavier clothes, shoes, boots, &c; and let Brother Taylor accompany 
us to his father's, and there we will tarry, taking every precaution to 
keep out of the hands of the enemy, until you can arrive with the chil- 
dren. Let Brother Hyrum bring you. Let Lorin Farr and Brother Clayton 
come along, and bring all the writings, and papers, books, and histo- 
ries, for we shall want a scribe in order that we may pour upon the 
world the truth, like the lava from Mount Vesuvius. Then, let all the 
goods, household furniture, clothes, and store goods that can be procured 
be put on the boat, and let twenty or thirty of the best men that we 


can find be put on board to man it, and let them meet us at Prairie-du- 
Chien; and from thence we will wend oar way like larks up the Missis- 
sippi, until the towering mountains and rocks shall remind us of the 
places of our nativity, and shall look like safety and home; and then we 
will bid defiance to the world, to Carlin, Boggs, Bennett, and all their 
whorish whores and motly clan, that follow in their wake, Missouri not 
excepted, and until the damnation of hell rolls upon them, by the voice, 
and dread thunders, and trump of the eternal God. Then in that day 
will we not shout in the victory, and be crowned with eternal joys, for 
the battles we have fought, having kept the faith and overcome the 

Tell the children it is well with their father as yet; and that he re- 
mains in fervent prayer to Almighty God for the safety of himself, and 
for you, and for them. 

Tell Mother Smith that it shall be well with her son, whether in life 
or in death; for thus saith the Lord God. Tell her that I remember her 
all the while, as well as Lucy, and all the rest. They all must be of 
good cheer. 

Tell Hyrum to be sure and not fail to carry out my instructions; but, 
at the same time if the militia does not come, and we* should get any 
favorable information, all may be well yet. 

Yours in haste, your affectionate husband until death, through all 
eternity, for evermore. 

Joseph Smith. 

P. S. — I want you to write to Lorenzo D. Wasson, and get him to 
make affidavit to all he knows about Bennett, and forward it. I also 
want you to ascertain from Hyrum whether he will conform to what I 
have requested: and you must write me an answer per bearer, giving 
me all the news you have, and what is the appearance of things this 

J. S. 

I also wrote General Law as follows: — 

Joseph Smith's Letter to Wilson Law — Concerning Probable Movements oj 

the Prophet. 

Headquarters Nauvoo Legion, August 16, 1842. 
Major- General Laiv: 

Beloved Brother and Friend: — Those few lines which I received 
from you, written on the loth, were to me like apples of gold in pictures 
of silver. I rejoice with exceeding great joy to be associated in the high 
and responsible stations which we hold, [with one] whose mind and 
feelings and heart are so congenial with my own. I love that soul that 


is so nobly entabernacled in that clay of yours. May God Almighty 
grant that it may be satiated with seeing a fulfillment of every virtuous 
and manly desire that you possess! May we be able to triumph glori- 
ously over those who seek our destruction and overthrow, which I be- 
lieve we shall. 

The news you wrote me is more favorable than that which was com- 
municated by the brethren. They seemed a little agitated for my safety r 
and advised me for the Pine Woods country, but I succeeded admirably 
in calming all their fears; but, nevertheless, as I said in my former let- 
ter, I was willing to exile myself for months and years, if it would be 
for the welfare and safety of the people; and I do not know but it would 
be as well for me to take a trip to the Pine countries, and remain until 
arrangements can be made for my most perfect safety when I return. 
These are, therefore, to confer with you on this subject, as I want to 
have a concert of action in everything I do. If I knew that they would 
oppress me alone, and let the rest of you dwell peaceably and quietly, I 
think it would be the wisest plan to absent myself for a little season, if 
by that means we could prevent the effusion of blood. 

Please write and give me your mind on that subject, and all other in- 
formation that has come to hand today, and what are the signs of the 
times. I have no news, for I am where I cannot get much. All is quiet 
and peaceable around. I therefore wait with earnest expectation for your 
advices. I am anxious to know your opinion on any course that I may 
see proper to take, for in the multitude of counsel there is safety. 

I add no more, but subscribe myself your faithful and most obedient 
servant, friend, and brother, 

Joseph Smith, 
Lieut. -General of the Nauvoo Legion of Illinois Militia. 

The foregoing letters were delivered to Brother Derby, 
who proceeded imruediatedly to the city. 

Brother Derby has taken the greatest interest in my 
welfare, and I feel to bless him. 

Blessed is Brother Erastus H. Derby, and he shall be 
Blessing oi blessed of the Lord. He possesses a sober 
upo^Erastus mind, and a faithful heart. The snares 
H.Derby. therefore that will subsequently befall other 
men, who are treacherous and rotten hearted, shall not 
come nigh unto his doors, but shall be far from the path 
of his feet. He loveth wisdom and shall be found possessed 
of her. Let there be a crown of glory and a diadem 


upon his head. Let the light of eternal truth shine forth 
upon his understanding; let his name be had in everlast- 
ing remembrance; let the blessings of Jehovah be crowned 
upon his posterity after him, for he rendered me consola- 
tion in the lonely places of my retreat. How good and 
glorious it has seemed unto me, to find pure and holy 
friends, who are faithful, just, and true, and whose hearts 
fail not; and whose knees are confirmed and do not falter, 
while they wait upon the Lord, in administering to my 
necessities, in the day when the wrath of mine enemies 
was poured out upon me. 

In the name of the Lord, I feel in my heart to bless 
them, and to say in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, 
that these are the ones that shall inherit eternal life. I 
say it by virtue of the Holy Priesthood, and by the minis- 
tering of holy angels, and by the gift and power of the 
Holy Ghost. * 

How glorious were my feelings when I met that faithful 
and friendly band, on the night of the eleventh, on Thurs- 
day, on the island at the mouth of the slough, sentiments of 
between Zarahemla and Nauvoo: with what TowardaHis 
unspeakable delight, and what transports of wife Emma. 
joy swelled my bosom, when I took by the hand, on that 
night, my beloved Emma — she that was my wife, even 
the wife of my youth, and the choice of my heart. Many 
were the reverberations of my mind when I contemplated 
for a moment the many scenes we had been called to pass 
through, the fatigues and the toils, the sorrows and suf- 
ferings, and the joys and consolations, from time to time, 
which had strewed our paths and crowned our board. Oh 
what a commingling of thought filled my mind for the mo- 
ment, again she is here, even in the seventh trouble — un- 
daunted, firm, and unwavering — unchangeable, affection- 
ate Emma! 

There was Brother Hyrum who next took 
me by the hand — a natural brother. Thought Love f o°r P His s 
I to myself, Brother Hyrum, what a faithful Hyrum* 


heart you have got! Oh may the Eternal Jehovah crown 
eternal blessings upon your head, as a reward for the 
care you have had for my soul! how many are the 
sorrows we have shared together ; and again we find our- 
selves shackled with the unrelenting hand of oppression. 
Hyrum, thy name shall be written in the book of the law 
of the Lord, for those who come after thee to look upon, 
that they may pattern after thy works. 

Said I to myself, Here is Brother Newel K. Whitney 

also. How many scenes of sorrows have strewed our 

paths together; and yet we meet once more 

The Band ^ . / 

Between the to share again. Thou art a faithful friend in 
xeweiK. whom the afflicted sons of men can confide, 

ney * with the most perfect safety. Let the bless- 

ings of the Eternal also be crowned upon his head. How 
warm that heart! how anxious that soul ! for the welfare 
of one who has been cast out, and hated of almost all 
men. Brother Whitney, thou knowest not how strong 
those ties are that bind my soul and heart to thee. 

My heart was overjoyed as I took the faithful band by 
the hand, that stood upon the shore, one by one. William 
Law, William Clayton, Dimick B. Huntington, George 
Miller, were there. The above names constituted the little 

I do not think to mention the particulars of the history 
of that sacred night, which shall forever be remembered 
mu „ , , by me ; but the names of the faithful are what 

The Prophet's . , . 

Exaltation of I wish to record in this place. These I have 
met in prosperity, and they were my friends; 
and I now meet them in adversity, and they are still my 
warmer friends. These love the God that I serve; they 
love the truths that I promulgate ; they love those virtu- 
ous, and those holy doctrines that I cherish in my bosom 
with the warmest feelings of my heart, and with that zeal 
which cannot be denied. I love friendship and truth; I 
love virtue and law; I love the God of Abraham, of Isaac, 
and of Jacob ; and they are my brethren, and I shall live ; 


and because I live they shall live also. These are not the 
only ones who have administered to my necessity and 
whom the Lord will bless. There is Brother John D. Par- 
ker. and Brother Amasa Lyman, and Brother Wilson Law, 
and Brother Henry G. Sherwood. My heart feels to re- 
ciprocate the unwearied kindnesses that have been bestowed 
upon me by these men. They are men of noble stat- 
ure, of noble hands, and of noble deeds; possessing noble, 
and daring, and giant hearts and souls. There is Brother 
Joseph B. Noble also, I would call up in remembrance 
before the Lord. There is Brother Samuel H. Smith, a 
natural brother — he is even as Hyrum. There is Brother 
Arthur Millikin also, who married my youngest sister, 
Lucy: he is a faithful, an honest, and an upiight man. 

While I call up in remembrance before the Lord these 
men, I would be doing injustice to those who rowed me 
in the skiff up the river that night, after I The Prophet's 
parted with the lovely group — who brought me Gratitude - 
to this my safe, and lonely, and private retreat — Brother 
Jonathan Dunham, and the other, whose name I do not 
know. Many were the thoughts that swelled my aching- 
heart, while they were toiling faithfully with their oars. 
They complained not of hardship and fatigue to secure my 
safety. My heart would have been harder than an ada- 
mantine stone, if I had not prayed for them with anxious 
and fervent desire. I did so, and the still small voice 
whispered to my soul: These, that share your toils with 
such faithful hearts, shall reign with you in the kingdom 
of their God; but I parted with them in silence, and came 
to my retreat. I hope I shall see them again, that I may 
toil for them, and administer to their comfort also. They 
shall not want a friend while I live; my heart shall love 
those, and my hands shall toil for those, who love and 
toil for me, and shall ever be found faithful to my friends. 
Shall I be ungratefulf Verily no! God forbid! 

I design to continue this subject at a future time. 




Tuesday, August 16, 1842. — Brother Derby returned in 
the evening, bringing the following letter: 

Letter of Emma Smith to Joseph Smith, Belating to the Future Movements 
of the Prophet, and Items of Business, 

Dear Husband: — I am ready to go with you if you are obliged to 
leave; and Hyrum says he will go with rue. I shall make the best 
arrangements I can and be as well prepared as possible. But still I 
feel good confidence that you can be protected without leaving this 
country. There are more ways thau one to take care of you, and I 
believe that you can still 'direct in your business concerns if we are all 
of us prudent in the matter. If it was pleasant weather I should con- 
trive to see you this evening, but 1 dare not run too much of a risk, on 
account of so many going to see you. 

General Adams sends the propositions coucerning his land, two dol- 
lars an acre, payments as follows: Assumption of mortgage, say about 
fourteen hundred, interest included. Taxes due, supposed about thirty 
dollars. Town property one thousand dollars. Balance, money pay- 
able in one, two, three or four years. 

Brother Derby will tell you all the information we have on hand. I 
think we will have news from Quincy as soon as tomorrow. 

Yours affectionately forever, 

Emma Smith. 

Letter of Wilson Law to Joseph Smith — Advises Retirement of the 
Prophet from. Nauvoo until Next Governor Takes his Seat of Office. 

Nauvoo City, Illinois, 1 o'clock, afternoon, August 16, 1842. 
Lieutenant- General Josepih Smith: 

My Dear Friend. — I have just received and read yours of today, and 
hasten to reply. 


There is no movement of any kind going on today amongst the 
enemy, as far as I can see, which helps to strengthen me in my opin- 
ion of yesterday; but still it might be a calm before a storm, and if so we 
will meet it when it comes. You wish my opinion respecting your 
absenting yourself for some time from those friends that are dear to 
you as life, and to whom you are also as dear, and from the place and 
station to which you are called by Him who ruleth in the armies of 
heaven and amongst the inhabitants of the earth. 

I must confess that I feel almost unworthy to give an opinion on the 
subject, knowing that your own judgment is far superior to mine; but 
nevertheless you shall have it freely. It is this; I think that if they 
cannot get you peaceably according to the forms of law, that they will 
not dare to attempt violence of any kind upon the inhabitants of the 
city; for they are well aware that they cannot insult us with impunity, 
neither use violence, only at the risk of their lives; and there are but 
few men who are willing to risk their lives in a bad cause. It is the 
principles and spirit of liberty, of truth, of virtue, and of religion, and 
equal rights, that make men courageous, and valiant and fearless in the 
day of battle and of strife, and just the contrary with the oppressor; for 
nine times out of ten, a bad cause will make a man a coward, and he 
will flee w T hen no man pursueth. 

Now if I am right in thinking that it is you alone they seek to de- 
stroy, as soon as they find they cannot get you, they will cease to 
trouble the city except w T ith spies; and if we knew that you were com- 
pletely out of their reach, we could either laugh at their folly, or whip 
them for impertinence or anything else, as the case may be; for we 
would feel so happy in your safety, that we could meet them in any 

On the whole, I think it would be better for you to absent yourself 
till the next governor takes the chair, for I do think if you are not here 
tbey will not attempt any violence on the city; and if they should, they 
will disgrace themselves in the eyes of the world, and the woild will 
justify us in fighting for our rights, aud then you can come out like a 
lion, and lead your people to victory and to glory in the name of the 
Lord of Hosts. 

I know the sacrifice you must make in taking this course. I know it 
will grieve your noble spirit to do so; for when I think of it myself, I 
feel no desire in life but to fight, and to cut off from the earth all who 
oppress, and to establish that true form of government at once, which 
would guarantee to every man equal rights. I know Ave have justice 
on our side in respect of city laws, and that the acts of the Municipal 
Court are legal; but the question is, are we now able to assert them? 
or had we better wait till we are more able? The latter course will 


give us peace a little while, by sacrificing your liberty, and the feelings 
of your family and friends, and depriving us all of your society and gov- 
erning wisdom. 

I will only add I am ready for either course; and may God direct us 
to do that that is best. If you should conclude to go for awhile, I must 
see you before you go; and for the present, I will bid you be cheerful, 
and make yourself as happy as you can, for the right side of the wheel 
will soon be up again. 

And till then and forever, I remain under every circumstance, your 
friend and obedient servant, 

Wilson Law. 

General James Arlington Bennett wrote rne from New 
York as follows: 

Letter of James Arlington Bennett to Joseph Smith, Anent John C. Ben- 
net and his Forthcoming Anti-Mormon Book. 

Arlington House, August 16, 1842. 

Dear Sir. — Your polite and friendly note was handed to me a few 
days since by Dr. Willard Richards, who 1 must say, is a very fine speci- 
men of the Mormon people, if they are all like him; and indeed I think 
him a very excellent representative of yourself, as I find he is your 
most devoted admirer and true disciple. He spent two days with me r 
and from his arguments, and from his mild and gentlemanly demeanor, 
almost made me a Mormon. 

You have another representative here (who spent a day with me some 
time since) of the name of Foster, who is, 1 think, president of the 
Church in New York, and most unquestionably a most excellent and 
good man, and would be so if he were Turk, Jew or Saint. He is 
ab initio , a good man, and to you a most true, enthusiastic and devoted 
disciple. He has no guile. Dr. Bernhisel, of New York, too, is a most 
excellent man and true Christian. These are men with whom I could asso- 
ciate forever, even if I never joined their Church or acknowledged their 

General John C. Bennett called on me last Friday and spent just two 
hours, when he left, he said for the Eastern States. Being aware that 
Elder Richards is here, he had very little to say. He, however, pro- 
posed to me to aid him, whether serious or not, in arranging materials 
for publishing "An Exposition of Mormon Secrets and Practices," 
which I promptly refused, on two grounds: 

1st. That I had nothing to do with any quarrel that might arise* 


between you and him, as I could not be a judge of the merits or de- 
merits of the matter: and 

2nd. That inasmuch as he himself had proposed to you and your 
council to confer on me honors which I never sought, yet which I 
highly prize, it would be the height of ingratitude, as well as incon- 
sistent with every principle of common honesty and propriety, for me 
to join him in an effort to lower my own honors by attempting to lower 
in public estimation the people from whom those honors emanated. 

He gave Bennett of the Herald his commission, which I opposed 
from the very first; and you now see, by that paper, the sport which 
that man has made of it. I tell you there is no dependence on the 
friendship of that editor, when his interest is at issue. I am assured 
that James Gordon Bennett is going to publish, conjointly with John 
C. Bennett, on half profit, the exposition against you and your people, 
which is going to contain a great number of scandalous cuts and plates. 
But don't be concerned; you will receive no injury whatever from any 
thing any man or set of men may say against you. The whole of this 
muss is only extending your fame, and will increase your numbers ten- 
fold. ' 

You have nothing to expect from that part of the community who 
are bigotedly attached to other churches. They have always believed 
and still believe everything said to your disadvantage; and what Gen- 
eral John C. Bennett is now saying in the papers is nothing more 
than what was common report before, throughout this whole commu- 
nity, insomuch that I had to contradict it in the Herald under the 
signature of "Cincinnatus"— and even requested the Elders of the 
Mormon Church to do so long ago. You, therefore have lost not a 
whit of ground by it. I must in charity forbear commenting on the 
course of General Bennett in this matter. Considering all things 
delicacy forbids such a course. 

There are some things, however, I feel very sorely, and could wish 
they had not transpired. He and the Herald will make money out of 
the book, and there the matter will end, as you will find that the 
Herald will puff it to the skies.* 

The books which I sent you you will retain in your hands for the 

* Bennett's book, "The History of the Saints, or an Exposure of Joseph Smith 
and Mormonism," was not published by the New York Herald, but by a Boston 
publishing house, Leland & Whiting, 7L Washington St. The book was a failure 
from every point of view, in structure, literary merit and convincing power. 
The insincerity and the corrupt-mindedness of the author is loudly proclaimed by 
the ribald spirit that pervades the whole work. 

8 Vol. V. 


My respects to your amiable lady and all friends; and believe me as 
ever, though not a Mormon, your sincere friend, 

James Arlington Bennett. 

P. S. — I know of no reason why the Wasp was not continued to 
be sent to me. I don't like the name. Mildness should characterize 
everything that comes from Nauvoo; and even a name, as Peleg says in 
his ethics, has much influence on one side or the other. My respects 
to your brother, its editor. I would just say that General John C. 
Bennett appeared to me to be in very low spirits, and I find that many 
communications intended for you from me have never reached you- 
Those books were made over to John C. Bennett, on the presumption 
that he would, in his own name, present them for the benefit of the 

J. A. B. 

Wednesday, August 17. — I walked ouL into the woods 
for exercise in company with Brother Derby where we 

were accidentally discovered by a young man. 
pucf^Re- We asked him various questions concerning 
JovSId' Dis ^ e Public feeling and situation of matters 

around, to all which he answered prompt- 
ly. On being requested not to make it known where 
we were, he promised faithfully he would not, and said 
time would tell whether he did or no. 

Letter of Wilson Law to Joseph Smith — Advising that the Prophet Secrete 
Himself in Nauvoo. 

Nauvoo City, Illinois, August 17, 1842. 
Lieutenant- General Joseph Smith: 

Dear Friend: — Everything is moving along in the city in the usual 
tranquil and industrious manner. There is no change in the appear- 
ance of things that a common observer could see, although to one who 
knows and is acquainted with the countenances of the thinking few, it 
is evident that their minds are troubled more than common; and I 
know by myself that they cannot help it. And why should it be other- 
wise, when the Lord's anointed is hunted like a lion of the forest, by 
the most wicked and oppressive generation that has ever beenjsince the 
days of our Savior. Indeed, every movement of this generation re- 


minds me of the history of the people who crucified Christ It was 
nothing but mob law, mob rule, and mob violence all the time. The only 
difference is that the governors then were more just than the governors 
now; they were willing to acquit innocent men, but our governors now 
despise justice, garble and pervert the law, and join in with the mob in 
pursuit of innocent blood. 

I have been meditating on your communication of yesterday, and will 
just add a thought or so on the subject, respecting particularly your 
going to the Pine country. I think I would not go there for some time, 
if at all. do not believe that an armed force will come upon us at a) 1 
unless they get hold of you first; and then we rescue you, which we 
would do under any circumstances, with the help of God; but I would 
rather do it within the limits of the city, under the laws of the city. 
Therefore I would think it better to quarter in the city and not long 
in one place at once. I see no reason why you might not stay 
in safety within the city for months without any knowing it, only 
those who ought, and that as few as is necessary. 

I must close for the present, remaining as ever, your affectionate 
friend and obedient servant, 

Wilson Law. 

Letter of Emma Smith to Governor Carlin— Pleading the Cause of the 
Prophet and the People of Nauvoo Before his Excellency. 

Nauvoo, August 17, 1842. 
lo his Excellency Governor Carlin: 

Sir: — It is with feeling of no ordinary cast that I have retired, after 
the business of the day, and evening too, to address your honor. I am 
at a loss how to commence; my mind is crowded with subjects too 
numerous to be contained in one letter. I find myself almost destitute 
of that confidence, necessary to address a person holding the authority 
of your dignified and responsible office; and I would now offer, as an 
excuse for intruding upon your time and attention, the justice of my cause . 

Was my cause the interest of an individual, or of a number of individ- 
uals, then, perhaps, I might be justified in remaining silent. But it 
is not. Nor is it the pecuniary interest of a whole community alone 
that prompts me again to appeal to your Excellency. But, dear Sir, it 
is for the peace and safety of hundreds, I may safely say, of this com- 
munity, who are not guilty of any offense against the laws of the coun- 
try; and also the life of my husband, who has not committed any crime 
whatever; neither has he transgressed any of the laws, or any part of 
the Constitution of the United States; neither has he at any time in- 
fringed upon the rights of any man, or of any class of men, or com- 


inunity of any description. Need I say he is not guilty of the crime 
alleged against him by Governor Boggs? Indeed it does seem entirely 
superfluous for me, or any one of his friends in this place, to testify his 
innocence of that crime, when so many of the citizens of your place, 
and of many other places in this state, as well as in the Territory, [of 
Iowa] do know positively that the statement of Governor Boggs is with- 
out the least shadow of truth: and we do know, and so do many others, 
that the prosecution against him has been conducted in an illegal man- 
ner; and every act demonstrates the fact that all the design of the pros- 
ecution is to throw him into the power of his enemies, without the 
least ray of hope that he would ever be allowed to obtain a fair trial: 
and that he would be inhumanly and ferociously murdered, no person, 
having a knowledge of the existing circumstances, has one remaining 
doubt: and your honor will recollect that you said to me that you would 
not advise Mr. Smith ever to trust himself in Missouri. 

And, dear Sir, you cannot for one moment indulge unfriendly feeling 
towards him, if he abides by your counsel. Then, Sir, why is it that he 
should be thus cruelly pursued? Why not give him the privilege of the 
laws of this state? When I reflect upon the many cruel and illegal 
operations of Lilburn W. Boggs, aud the consequent suffering of myself 
and family, and the incalculable losses and sufferings of many hundreds 
who survived, and the many precious lives that were lost, — all the effect 
of unjust prejudice and misguided ambition, produced by. misrepresen- 
tation and calumny, my bosom heaves with unutterable anguish. And 
who, that is as well acquainted with the facts as the people at the city 
of Quincy, would censure me, if I should say that my heart burued with 
just indignation towards our caiumniators as well as the perpetrators of 
those horrid crimes? 

But happy would I now be to pour out my heart in gratitude to Gov- 
ernor Boggs, if he had rose up with the dignity and authority of the 
chief executive of the state, and put down every illegal transaction, and 
protected the peaceable citizens and enterprising immigrants from the 
violence of plundering outlaws, who have ever been a disgrace to the 
state, and always will, so Ions: as they go unpunished. Yes, I say, how 
happy would I be to render him not only the gratitude of my own heart, 
but the cheering effusions of the joyoas souls of fathers and mothers, 
of brothers and sisters, widows and orphans, whom he might have 
saved, by such a course, from now drooping under the withering hand 
of adversity, brought upon them by the persecutions of wicked and cor- 
rupt men. 

And now may I entreat your Excellency to lighten the hand of op- 
pression and persecution which is laid upon me and my family, which 
materially affect the peace and welfare of this whole community; for 


let me assure you that there are many whole families that are entirely 
dependent upon the prosecution and success of Mr. Smith's temporal 
business for their support; and, if he is prevented from attending to 
the common vocations of life, who will employ those innocent, indus- 
trious, poor people, and provide for their wants? 

But, my dear Sir, when I recollect the interesting interview I and 
my friends had with you, when at your place, and the warm assurances 
you gave us of your friendship and legal protection, I cannot doubt for 
a moment your honorable sincerity; but do still expect you to consider 
our claims upon your protection |from ever^ encroachment upon our 
legal rights as loyal citizens, as we always have been, still are, and are 
determined always to be a law-abiding people; and I still assure myself 
that, when you are fully acquainted with the illegal proceedings prac- 
ticed against us in the suit of Governor Boggs, you will recall those 
writs which have been issued against Mr. Smith and Rockwell, as you 
must be aware that Mr. Smith was not in Missouri, and of course he 
could not have left there; with many other considerations, which, if 
duly considered, will justify Mr. Smith in the course he has taken. 

And now I appeal to your Excellency, as I would unto a father, who 
is not only able but willing to shield me and mine from every unjust 
prosecution. I appeal to your sympathies, and beg you to spare me 
and my helpless children. I beg you to spare my innocent children the 
heart-rending sorrow of again seeing their father unjustly dragged to 
prison, or to death. I appeal to your affections as a son, and beg you 
to spare our aged mother — the only surviving parent we have left — the 
unsupportable affliction of seeing her son, whom she knows to be inno- 
cent of the crimes laid to his charge, thrown again into the hands of 
his enemies, who have so long sought for his life; in whose life and pros- 
perity she only looks for the few remaining comforts she can enjoy. I 
entreat of your Excellency to spare us these afflictions and many suffer- 
ings which cannot be uttered, and secure to yourself the pleasure of 
doing good, and vastly increasing human happiness — secure to yourself 
the benediction of the aged, and the gratitude of the young, and the 
blessing and the veneration of the rising generation. 

Respectfully, your most obedient, 

Emma Smith. 

P. S. — Sir, I hope you will favor me with an answer. 

E. S. 

Several rumors were afloat in the city, intimating that 
my retreat had been discovered, and that it was no longer 
safe for me to remain at Brother Sayers' ; consequently 


Emma came to see me at night, and informed me of the 
report. It was considered wisdom that I 

The Prophet's * , 

Removal to should remove immediately, and accordingly 
Granger's in I departed in company with Emma and Brother 
Derby, and went to Carlos Granger's, who 
lived in the north-east part of the city. Here we were 
kindly received and well treated. 

Friday morning , 19. William Clayton presented Emma's 
letter of the 17th to Governor Carlin at Quincy, in pres- 
GovemorCar- ence of Judge Ralston. The governor read 
Affairs'iiT 8 ° f *^ e l e tter with much attention, apparently; 
Nauvoo. an( j w h e n he got through, he passed high en- 

comiums on Emma Smith, and expressed astonishment 
at the judgment and talent manifest in the manner of her 
address. He presented the letter to Judge Ralston, re- 
questing him to read it. Governor Carlin then proceeded 
to reiterate the same language as on a former occasion, 
viz., that he was satisfied there was "no excitement any- 
where but in Nauvoo, amongst the 'Mormons' them- 
selves;" all was quiet, and no apprehension of trouble in 
other places, so far as he was able to ascertain. 

He afterwards stated, when conversing on another sub- 
ject, that "persons were offering their services every day, 
either in person or by letter, and held themselves in readi- 
ness to go against the 'Mormons' whenever he should call 
upon them; but he never had the least idea of calling out 
the militia, neither had he thought it necessary." 

There was evidently a contradiction in his assertions in 
the above instances; and, although he said "there was 
no excitement but amongst the Mormons," it is evident 
he knew better. He also said that it was his opinion that, 
if Joseph would give himself up to the sheriff, he would 
be honorably acquitted, and the matter would be ended; 
but, on Judge Ralston asking how he thought Mr. Smith 
could go through the midst of his enemies, without vio- 
lence being used towards him; and, if acquitted, how he 


was to get back; the governor was evidently at a loss 
what to say, but made light of the matter, as though he 
thought it might be easily done. He took great care to 
state that it was not his advice that Mr. Smith should give 
himself up, but thought it would be soonest decided. It 
appeared evident, by the conversation, that Governor 
Carlin was no friend to the Saints, and they could 
expect no good things from him. He explicitly acknowl- 
edged his ignorance of the law touching the case in 

After spending the day in conversation and reading, in 
the evening I received a visit from my aunt _ „ , , 

° The Prophet's 

Temperance Mack, and at night went to the Return to His 
city and concluded to tarry at home until 
something further transpired relative to the designs of 
my persecutors. 

Saturday, 20. — Spent the day in my general business 
office, otherwise called the Lodge, or Assembly Room, or 
Council Chamber, which is over my store, and the place 
where most of the business of the city and Church is 
transacted: my health very indifferent. In the evening 
had an interview with my Brother Hyrum, William Law, 
Wilson Law, Newel K. Whitney and George Miller, on 
the illegality of the proceedings of our persecutors. 

Minutes oj the Nauvoo High Council Meeting, August 20th, 1842. 

The High Council, in session, "Resolved that the city of Nauvoo be 
divided into ten [ecclesiastical] wards, according to the division made by 
the temple committee; and that there be a bishop appointed over each 
ward; and also that other bishops be appointed over such districts im- 
mediately out of the city and adjoining thereto as shall be considered 
necessary. Resolved that Samuel H. Smith be appointed bishop in the 
place of Bishop Vinson Knight, deceased; also that Tarleton Lewis be 
appointed bishop of the 4th ward; John Murdock, of the 5th ward; 
Daniel Garn, of the 6th ward; Newel K. Whitney, of the 7th ward; 
Jacob Foutz, of the 8th ward; Jonathan H. Hale, of the 9th ward; 
Hezekiah Peck, of the 10th ward; David Evans, of the district south of 
the city, called the 11th ward; Israel Calkins, of the district east of the 


city, and south of Knight street; William W. Spencer, of the district 
east of the city and north of Knight street." * 

The city council instructed the sexton to report weekly 
to the editor of some newspaper published in this city, 
the names and ages of persons deceased, and the nature 
of their disease, or cause of their death. 

The Twelve met in council, and ordained Amasa Lyman 
to be one of the Twelve Apostles. Amasa Lyman was 
ordination of born in Lyman, Grafton county, N. H., 30th 
Lyman ^to the March, 1813, where he received the gospel 
Apostieship. through the ministry of Elder Orson Pratt, 
27th April, 1832; ordained an elder under my hands, 23rd 
August, 1832, in Hiram, Portage county, Ohio. He was 
one of my fellow-prisoners, bound with the same chain in 
Richmond jail, Missouri. 

John C. Bennett was declared unworthy to hold the 

, n r, office of chancellor of the University, and was 

John C.Ben- , t 

nett Deposed discharged; and Orson Spencer was elected 

as Chancellor 

ofNauvoo in his stead, and received the oath of office. 
Amasa Lyman was elected regent of the Uni- 
versity, in place of Vinson Knight, deceased. 

* On March 1st, 1842, Nauvoo was divided into four ecclesiastical wards, (Church 
History, Vol. IV, pp. 305-6), and four bishops were set to preside over them, viz.: 
Newel K.Whitney, George Miller, Isaac Higbee, and Vinson Knignt, (See "History 
of the Aaronic Priesthood" — Orson P. Whitney — Contributor, Vol. VI, p. 405). 
There is, however, some uncertainty as to the respective wards over which these 
bishops presided. Previous to this division of Nauvoo into four wards, there 
had been but three wards, known as the middle, upper and lower wards, which 
division was recognized at the October conference held at Commerce (afterwards 
Nauvoo) on the 6th, 7th and 8th of October, 1839. Edward Partridge was made 
bishop of the upper ward; Newel K. Whitney of the middle ward; and Vinson 
Knight of the lower ward, (see History of the' Church. Vol. IV, p. 12). When 
the division of the city into four wards was made on the 1st of March, 1842, Isaac 
Higbee, was made bishop of the 2nd ward (see autobiographical sketch of Isaac 
Higbee in Jeuson's "Biographical Encyclopedia," p. 480). In what wards the other 
bishops presided cannot be determined with certainty. But as matters stood after 
the division of the city into ten wards, with the assignments of the text made — with 
Tarleton Lewi.s as bishop of the 4th ward, and Newel K. Whitney as bishop of the 
7th ward— the bishops of the 1st and 3rd wards would be Samuel H. Smith and 
George Miller, but which presided over the 1st and which over the 3rd cannot be 
ascertained. The reason for mentioning the fact that Newel K. Whitney was bishop 
of the 7th ward, is because in all other publications of the text above, the 7th 
ward and who was bishop of it is omitted. 


This day Sidney Rigdon went to the meeting near the 
Temple, and stated to the congregation, that he was not 
upon the stand to renounce his faith in Mor- Sidney Rig- 
monism, as had been variously stated by ene- affirmation of 
mies aud licentious presses, but appeared to his Faith - 
bear his testimony of its truth, and add another to the 
many miraculous evidences of the power of God; neither 
did he rise to deliver any regular discourse, but to unfold 
to the audience a scene of deep interest which had occurred 
in his own family. He had witnessed many instances of 
the power of God in this Church, but never before had he 
seen the dead raised; yet this was a thing that had actu- 
ally taken place in his own family. 

His daughter Eliza was dead. The doctor told him that 
she was gone; when, after a considerable length of time, 
she rose up in the bed and spoke in a very 
powerful tone to the following effect, in a Experience of 
supernatural manner: — She said to the family 
that she was going to leave them (being impressed' with 
the idea herself that she had only come back to deliver 
her message, and then depart again), saying the Lord had 
said to her the very words she should relate; and so par- 
ticular was she in her relation, that she would not suffer 
any person to leave out a word or add one. She called 
the family around her, and bade them all farewell, with a 
composure and calmness that defies all description, still 
impressed with the idea that she was to go back. 

Up to the time of her death, she expressed a great un- 
willingness to die; but, after her return, she expressed 
equally as strong a desire to go back. She said to her 
elder sister, Nancy, "It is in your heart to deny this work; 
and if you do, the Lord says it will be the damnation of 
your soul." In speaking to her sister Sarah, she said, 
"Sarah, we have but once to die, and I would rather die 
now, than wait for another time." She said to her sisters 
that the Lord had great blessings in store for them, if 


they continued in the faith ; and after delivering her mes- 
sage, she swooned, but recovered again. 

During this time, she was as cold as she will be when 
laid in the grave; and all the appearance of life was the 
power of speech. She thus continued till the following 
evening, for the space of thirty-six hours, when she called 
her father unto her bed, and said to him that the Lord 
had said to her, if he would cease weeping for his sick 
daughter, and dry up his tears, that he should have all 
the desires of his heart; and that if he would go to bed 
and rest, he should be comforted over his sick daughter, 
for in the morning she should be getting better, and should 
get well: that the Lord had said unto her, because that 
her father had dedicated her to God, and prayed to Him 
for her, that He would restore her back to him again. 

This ceremony of dedicating and praying took place 
when she was struggling in death, and continued to the 
very moment of her departure ; and she says the Lord 
told her that it was because of this that she must go back 
to her father again, though she herself desired to stay. 

She said concerning George W. Robinson, as he had 
denied the faith, the Lord had taken away one of his eye- 
teeth, and unless he repented he would take away 
another; and concerning Dr. Bennett that he was a 
wicked man and that the Lord would tread him under his 
feet. Such is a small portion of what she related. 

Elder Eigdon observed that there had been many idle 
tales and reports abroad concerning him, stating that he 
had denied the faith ; but he would take the 
don^sftu- opportunity to state that his faith was, and 
SePropTeu 5 had been, unshaken in the truth. It has also 
been rumored that I believe that -Joseph 
Smith is a fallen prophet. In regard to this I unequiv- 
ocally state that I never, thought so, but declare that I 
know he is a prophet of the Lord, called and chosen in 
this last dispensation, to roll on the kingdom of God for 
the last time. He closed by saying, as it regards his 


religion, he had no controversy with the world, having an 
incontrovertible evidence that, through obedience to the 
ordinances of the religion, he now believes the Lord had 
actually given back his daughter from the dead. No 
person need, therefore come to reason with him, to con- 
vince him of error, or make him believe another religion, 
unless those who profess it can show, through obedience 
to its laws, the dead have been, and can be, raised; if it 
has no such power, it would be insulting his feelings to 
ask him to reason about it; and if it had, it would be no 
better than the one he had ; and so he had done with con- 
troversy ; wherefore he dealt in facts and not in theory. 
President Hyrum Smith spoke at great length and with 
great power. He cited Elder Rigdon' s mind 

r i , ii i • • t . t Remarks of 

back to the revelation concerning him, that if Hyrum 
he would move into the midst of the city and 
defend the truth, he should be healed, &c. ; and showed 
that what Elder Rigdon felt in regard to the improvement 
in his health was a fulfillment of the revelation. 

He then proceeded to show the folly of any person's 
attempting to overthrow or destroy Joseph, and read 
from the Book of Mormon in various places concerning 
the Prophet who, it was prophesied, should be raised up 
in the last days, setting forth the work he was destined to 
accomplish, and that he had only just commenced; but 
inasmuch as we could plainly see that the former part of 
the prophecy had been literally fulfilled, we might be as- 
sured that the latter part would also be fulfilled, and that 
Joseph would live to accomplish the great things concern- 
ing him, &c. 

He concluded his address by calling upon the Saints to 
take courage and fear not, and also told Elder 

-r%* -i • Hyrum 

Rigdon that inasmuch as he had seen the smith's Ad- 
mercy of the Lord exerted in his behalf, it 
was his duty to arise and stand in the defense of the 
truth and innocence, and of those who were being perse- 


cuted innocently; and finally called for all those who were 
willing to support and uphold Joseph, and who believed 
that he was doing his duty and was innocent of the 
charges alleged against him by our enemies, to hold up 
their right hands; when almost every hand was raised and 
no opposite vote was called for. 

The meeting was productive of great good by inspiring 
the Saints with new zeal and courage, and 
the Meet- weakening the hands and hearts of the treach- 

erous, and of evil and designing persons dis- 
posed to secret combinations against the truth. Elder 
Eigdon visited Brother Hyrum in the course of the day, 
and manifested a determination to arouse his energies in 
defense of the truth. 

Tuesday, 22. — I find my feelings of the 16th inst. towards 
my friends revived, *while I contemplate the virtues and the 
good qualities and characteristics of the faithful few, which I 
am now recording in the Book of the Law of the Lord, — of 
such as have stood by me in every hour of peril, for these 

fifteen long years past, — say, for instance, my 
The Prophet's aged and beloved brother, Joseph Knight, 
Joseph Sen., who was among the number of the first 

to administer to my necessities, while I was 
laboring in the commencement of the bringing forth of 
the work of the Lord, and of laying the foundation of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. For fifteen 
years he has been faithful and true, and even-handed and 
exemplary, and virtuous and kind, never deviating to the 
right hand or to the left. Behold he is a righteous man, 
may God Almighty lengthen out the old man's days; 
and may his trembling, tortured, and broken body be 
renewed, and in the vigor of health turn upon him, if it 
be Thy will, consistently, God; and it shall be said of 
him, by the sons of Zion, while there is one of them re- 

* See closing pages of chapter V. 


maining, that this man was a faithful man in Israel; 
therefore his name shall never be forgotten. 

There are his sons, Newel Knight and Joseph 
Knight, Jun., whose names I record in Ne , w ^ Kni & ht 

o ' » and Joseph 

the Book of the Law of the Lord with Knight, jun 

the Prophet's 

unspeakable delight, for they are my friends. Friends. 

There is a numerous host of faithful souls, whose names 
I could wish to record in the Book of the Law of the 
Lord; but time and chance would fail. I will mention, 
therefore, only a few of them as emblematical mi „ , A , 

' J The Prophet's 

of those who are too numerous to be written. Feelings to- 
But there is one man I would mention, name- porter Rock- 
ly Orrin Porter Rockwell, who is now a fellow- 
wanderer with myself, an exile from his home, because of 
the murderous deeds, and infernal, fiendish dispositions 
of the indefatigable and unrelenting hand of the Missour- 
ians. He is an innocent and a noble boy. May God 
Almighty deliver him from the hands of his pursuers. He 
was an innocent and a noble child and my soill loves him. 
Let this be recorded for ever and ever. Let the bless- 
ings of salvation and honor be his portion. 

But, as I said before, so say I again, while I remember 
the faithful few who are now living, I would remember 
also the faithful of my friends who are dead, for they are 
many ; and many are the acts of kindness — paternal and 
brotherly kindnesses — which they have be- „ n , „ 

J J The Prophet's 

stowed upon me; and since I have been Testimony of 

i i i n J r - • j.i his Father. 

hunted by the Missourians, many are the 
scenes which have been called to my mind. I have remem- 
bered scenes of my childhood. I have thought of my father 
who is dead, who died by disease which was brought upon 
him through suffering by the hands of ruthless mobs. He 
was a great and a good man. The envy of knaves and fools 
was heaped upon him, and this was his lot and portion all 
the days of his life. He was of noble stature and pos- 
sessed a high, and holy, and exalted, and virtuous mind. 
His soul soared above all those mean and groveling prin- 


ciples that are so congenial to the human heart. I now 
say that he never did a mean act, that might be said was 
ungenerous in his life, to my knowledge. I love my 
father and his memory ; and the memory of his noble 
deeds rests with ponderous weight upon my mind, and 
many of his kind and parental words to me are written on 
the tablet of my heart. 

Sacred to me are the thoughts which I cherish of the 
history of his life, that have rolled through my mind, 
and nave been implanted there by my own observation, 
since I was born. Sacred to me is his dust, and the 
spot where he is laid. Sacred to me is the tomb I have 
made to encircle o'er his head. Let the memory of my 
father eternally live. Let his soul, or the spirit, my follies 
forgive. With him may I reign one day in the mansions 
above, and tune up the lyre of anthems, of the eternal 
Jove. May the God that I love look down from above 
and save me from my enemies here, and take me by the 
hand that on Mount Zion I may stand, and with my 
father crown me eternally there. 

Words and language are inadequate to express the 
gratitude that 1 owe to God for having given me so hon- 
orable a parentage. 

My mother also is one of the noblest and the best of 
all women. May God grant to prolong her 
Charact^za- 8 da Y s and mine, that we may live to enjoy 
M°oth°er his eac h °th er ' s society long, yet in the enjoy- 
ment of liberty, and to breathe the free air. 

Alvin, ray oldest brother — I remember well the pangs 

of sorrow that swelled my youthful bosom 

Descrip donof and almost burst my tender heart when he 

Aivin!° ther died - He was the oldest and the ablest 
of my father's family. He was one of the 

noblest of the sons of men. Shall his name not be re- 
corded in this book? Yes, Alvin, let it be had here 
and be handed down upon these sacred pages for ever 
and ever. In him there was no guile. He lived without 


spot from the time he was a child. From the time of his 
birth he never knew mirth. He was candid and sober 
and never would play ; and minded his father and mother 
in toiling all day. He was one of the soberest of men, 
and when he died the angel of the Lord visited him in 
his last moments." 

These childish lines I record in remembrance of my 
childish scenes. 

My brother Don Carlos Smith, whose name I desire to 
record, also was a noble boy; I never knew any fault in 
him; I never saw the first immoral act, or 

i n t • • iT-i- ... The Char- 

the first irreligious or ignoble disposition m acter of Don 

| Jot*] OS 

the child from the time that he was born till 
the time of his death. He was a lovely, a good-natured, a 
kind-hearted and a virtuous and a faithful, upright child; 
and where his soul goes, let mine go also. He lies by the 
side of my father. 

Let my father, Don Carlos and Alvin and children that 
I have buried be brought and laid in the tomb I have built. 
Let my mother and my brethren and my sisters be laid 
there also; and let it be called the tomb of Joseph, a des- 
cendant of Jacob; and when I die let me be gathered to 
the tomb of my father. 

There are many souls whom I have loved stronger than 
death . To them I have proved faithful — to them I am 
determined to prove faithful, until God calls The Prophet's 
me to resign up my breath. Thou, who Pra y er - 
seest and knowest the hearts of all men — Thou eternal, 
omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent Jehovah — God 
— Thou Eloheim, that sittest, as saith the Psalmist, ''en- 
throned in heaven," look down upon Thy servant Joseph 
at this time ; and let faith on the name of Thy Son Jesus 
Christ, to a greater degree than Thy servant ever yet has 
enjoyed, be conferred upon him, even the faith of Elijah; 
and let the lamp of eternal life be lit up in his heart, 
never to be taken away; and let the words of eternal life 
be poured upon the soul of Thy servant, that he may know 


Thy will, Thy statutes, and Thy commandments, and Thy 
judgments, to do them. 

As the dews upon Mount Hermon, may the distillations 
of Thy divine grace, glory, and honor, in the plenitude of 
Thy mercy, and power, and goodness, be poured down 
upon the head of Thy servant. O Lord, God, my heavenly 
Father, shall it be in vain, that Thy servant must needs 
be exiled from the midst of his friends, or be dragged 
from their bosoms, to clank in cold and iron chains; to 
be thrust within the dreary prison walls ; to spend days 
of sorrow, and of grief, and misery there, by the hand of 
an infuriated, incensed, and infatuated foe ; to glut their 
infernal and insatiable desire upon innocent blood ; and 
for no other cause, on the part of Thy servant, than for 
the defense of innocence ; and Thou a just God will not 
hear his cry? Oh, no; Thou wilt hear me — a child of woe, 
pertaining to this mortal life, because of sufferings here, 
but not for condemnation that shall come upon him in 
eternity; for Thou knowest, God, the integrity of his 
heart. Thou hearest me, and I knew that Thou wouldst 
hear me, and mine enemies shall not prevail; they all 
shall melt like wax before Thy face, and, as the mighty 
floods and waters roar, or as the bellowing earthquake's 
devouring gulf, or rolling thunder's loudest peal, or vivid 
forked lightning's flash, or sound of the archangel's 
trump, or voice of the Eternal God, — so shall the souls of my 
enemies be made to feel in an instant, suddenly, and shall 
be taken, and ensnared, and fall backwards, and stumble 
in the ditch they have dug for my feet, and the feet of 
my friends, and perish in their own infamy and shame, 
be thrust down to an eternal hell, for their murderous and 
hellish deeds ! 

I design to renew this subject at a future time. 

Received an interesting visit from mother and aunt 
Temperance Mack. My health and spirits good. 

This afternoon received a few lines from Emma, inform- 
ing me that she would expect me home this evening, be- 


lieving that she could take care of rue better at home than 
elsewhere. Accordingly, soon after dark, I started for 
home, and arrived safe, without being noticed by any 
person. All is quiet in the city. 

9 Vol. v. 




Wednesday , August 24. —At home all day; received a 
visit from Brothers Newel K. Whitney and Isaac Morley. 

Letter of Governor Carlin to Emma Smith, anent the Prophet's Difficulties 

in Missouri. 

Quincy, August 24, 1842. 
Dear Madam. — Your letter of this date has just been handed to me, 
which recalls to my mind your great solicitude in reference to the 
security and welfare of your husband; but I need not say it recalls to 
my mind the subject matter of your solicitude, because that* subject, 
except at short intervals, has not been absent from my mind. I can 
scarcely furnish you a justifiable apology for delaying a reply so long; 
but, be assured, madam, it is not for want of regard for you and 
your peace of mind that I have postponed,but a crowd of public business 
which has required my whole time, together with very ill bealth, since 
the receipt of your former letter; and it would be most gratifying to my 
feelings now if due regard to publie duty would enable me to furnish 
such a reply as would fully conform to your wishes; but my duty in 
reference to all demands made by executives of other states for the 
surrender of fugitives from justice appears to be plain and simple, con- 
sisting entirely of an executive, and not a judicial character, leaving me 
no discretion or adjudication as to the innocence or guilt of persons so 
demanded and charged with crime; and it is plaiu that the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, in reference to fugitives from justice, 
presumes and contemplates that the laws of the several states are ample 
to do justice to all who may be charged with crime; and the statute of 
this state simply requires, *'That whenever the executive of any other 
state, or of any territory of the United States, shall demand of the 
executive of this state any person as a fugitive from justice, and shall 
have complied with the requisitions of the Act o Congress in that case 


made and provided, it shall be the duty of the executive of this state to 
issue his warrant under the seal of the state to apprehend the said fugi- 
tive," &c. 

With the constitution and laws before me, my duty is so plainly 
marked out that it would be 'impossible to err, so long as I abstain 
from usurping the right of adjudication. I am aware that a strict en- 
forcement of the laws by an executive, or a rigid administration of 
them by a judicial tribunal, often results in hardships to those in- 
volved; and to you it doubtless appears peculiarly so, in the present 
case of Mr. Smith. 

If, however, as you allege, he is innocent of any crime, and the pro- 
ceedings are illegal, it would be the more easy for him to procure an 
acquittal. In reference to the remark you attribute to me that I "would 
not advise Mr. Smith ever to trust himself in Missouri," I can only say, 
as I have heretofore said on many occasions, that I never have enter- 
tained a doubt that, if Mr. Smith should submit to the laws of Missouri, 
the utmost latitude would be allowed him in his defense, and the fulhst 
justice done him; and I only intended to refer, (in the remark made to 
you, when at my house) to the rabble, and not to the laws of 

Very much has been attributed to me, in reference to General Smith, 
that is without foundation in truth; a knowledge of which fact enables 
me to receive what I hear, as coming from him, with great allowance. 

In conclusion, dear madam, I feel conscious when I assure you that 
all my official acts in reference to Mr, Smith have been prompted by a 
strict sense of duty, and in discharge of that duty, have studiously pur- 
sued that course least likely to produce excitement and alarm, both in 
your community and the surrounding public; and I will here acfd that I 
much regret being called upon to act at all and that I hope he will sub- 
mit to the laws and that justice will ultimately be done. 

Be pleased to present my best respects to Mrs. Smith and Miss Snow, 
your companions when at Quincy, and accept of my highest regard for 
yourself and best wishes for your prosperity and happiness. 

Your obedient servant, 

Thos. Carlin. 
To Mrs, Emma Smith: 

Friday, August 26. — At home all day. In the eve- 
ning, in council with some of the Twelve and others. 
I gave some important instructions upon the 
situation of the Church, showing that it was Defense of 
necessary that the officers who could should 
go abroad through the states ; and inasmuch as a great 


excitement had been raised, through the community at 
large, by the falsehoods put in circulation by John C. 
Bennett and others, it was wisdom in God that the Elders 
should go forth and deluge the state with a flood of truth, 
setting forth the mean, contemptible persecuting conduct 
of ex-Governor Boggs of Missouri, and those connected 
with him in his mean and corrupt proceedings, in plain 
terms, so that the world might understand the abusive 
conduct of our enemies, and stamp it with indignation. 

I advised the Twelve to call a special conference on 
Monday next to give instructions to the Elders, and call 
upon them to go forth upon this important mission; mean- 
time that all the affidavits concerning Bennett's conduct 
be taken and printed, so that each Elder could be prop- 
erly furnished with correct and weighty testimony to lay 
before the public. 

Great distress prevails in England on account of the 
dull state of trade. 

Saturday, 27. — In the assembly room with some of the 
Twelve and others, who were preparing affidavits for the 

Emma Smith's Letter to Governor Carlin. — Defense of the Prophet, 
Arraignment of Missouri. 

Nauvoo, August 27, 1842. 
lo his Excellency Governor Carlin: 

Dear Sir: — I received your letter of the 24th in due time, and now 
tender you the sincere gratitude of my heart for the interest which 
you have felt in my peace and prosperty; and I assure you that every 
act of kindness and every word of consolation have been thankfully 
received and duly appreciated by me and my friends also; and I much 
regret your ill health, but still hope that vou will avail yourself of suffi- 
cient time to investigate our cause, and thoroughly acquaint yourself 
with the illegality of the prosecution instituted against Mr. Smith. 
And I now certify that Mr. Smith, myself nor any other person, to my 
knowledge, has ever, nor do we, at tnis time, wish your honor to swerve 
from your duty as an executive in the least. 

But we do believe that it is your duty to allow us, in this place, the 


privileges and advantages guaranteed to us by the laws of this state and 
the United States. This is all we ask; and if we can enjoy these 
rights unmolested, it will be the ultimate end of all our ambition; and 
the result will be peace and prosperity to us, and all the surrounding 
country, so far as we are concerned. Nor do we wish to take any undue 
advantage of any intricate technicalities of law, but honorably and 
honestly to fulfil all of the laws of this state and of the United States; 
and then, in turn to have the benefits resulting from an honorable exe- 
cution of those laws. 

And now, your excellency will not consider me assuming any unbe- 
coming dictation; but recollect that the many persecutions that have 
been got up unjustly and pursued illegally against Mr. Smith, instigated 
by selfish and irreligious motives, have obliged me to know something 
for myself. Therefore, let me refer you to the eleveuth section of our 
city charter — "All power is granted to the city council to make, ordain, 
establish and execute all ordinances, not repugnant to the 
Constitution of the State, or of the United States, or, as they 
may deem necessary, for the peace and safety of said city." 
Accordingly there is an ordinance passed by the city council to prevent 
our people from being carried off by an illegal process; and if any one 
thinks he is illegally seized, under this ordinance, he claims the 
right of habeas corpus, under section 17 of the charter, to try the ques- 
tion of identity, which is strictly constitutional. 

These powers are positively granted in the charter over your own 
signature. And now, dear sir, where can be the justice in depriving 
us of these rights which are lawfully ours, as well as they are the law- 
ful rights of the inhabitants of Quincy, and Springfield and many other 
places, where the citizens enjoy the advantages of such ordinances 
without controversy? 

With these considerations, and many more which might be adduced, 
give us the privilege, and we will show your honor, and the world 
besides, if required, that the Mr. Smith referred to in the demand 
from Missouri, is not the Joseph Smith of Nauvoo, for he was not in 
Missouri; neither is he described in the writ according as the law 
requires; and that he is not a fugitive from justice. Why, then, be so 
strenuous to have mv husband taken, when you know him to be inno- 
cent of au attempt on the life of Governor Boggs, and that he is not a 
fugutive from justice 1 ? 

It is not the fear of a just decision against him that deters Mr. Smith 
from going into Missouri, but it is an actual knowledge that it was 
never intended he should have a fair trial. 

And now, sir, if you were not aware of the fact, I will acquaint you 
with it now, that there were lying in wait, between this place and War- 


saw, twelve men from Jackson county, Missouri, for the purpose of 
taking Mr. Smith out of the hands of the officers who might have him 
in custody. Also those two men from Missouri that were here with 
Messrs. King and Pitman divulged the most illegal and infernal calcu- 
lations concerning taking Mr. Smith into Missouri, the evidence of 
which we can furnish you at any time, if required. 

And, dear sir, our good feelings revolt at the suggestion that your 
excellency is acquainted with the unlawful measures taken by those 
engaged in the prosecution — measures, which, if justice was done to 
others, as it would be done to us, were we to commit as great errors in 
our proceedings, would subject all concerned in the prosecution to the 
penalty of the law, and that without mercy. 

I admit, sir, that it is nest to an impossibility for any onn to know 
the extent of the tyranny, treachery and knavery of a great portion of 
the leading characters of the state of Missouri; yet it only requires a 
knowledge of the Constitution of the United States and statutes of the 
state of Missouri, and a knowledge of the outrage committed by some 
of the inhabitants of that state upon the people called ' 'Mormons, ' r 
and that passed unpunished by the administrators of the law, to know 
that there is not the least confidence to be placed in any of those men 
that were engaged in those disgraceful transactions. 

If the law was made for the lawless and disobedient, and punishment 
instituted for the guilty, why not execute the law upon those that have 
transgressed it, and punish those who have committed crime, and grant 
encouragement to the innocent, and liberality to the industrious and 

And now I entreat your honor to bear with me patiently while I ask 
what good can accrue to this state or the United States, or any part 
of this state, or the United States, or to yourself, or to any other indi- 
vidual, to continue this persecution upon this people, or upon Mr. 
Smith — a persecution that you are well aware, is entirely without any 
just foundation or excuse? 

With sentiments of due respect, I am your most obedient servant, 

Emma Smith. 

Happiness is the object and design of our existence; and will be the 
end theieof, if we pursue the path that leads to it; and this path is vir- 

* It is not positively known what occasioned the writing of this essay; but when 
it is borne in mind that at this time the new law of marriage for the Church — mar- 
riage for eternity, including plurity of wives under some circumstances— was being 
introduced by the Prophet, it is very likely that the article was written with a view 
of applying the principles here expounded to the conditions created by introducing- 
said marriage system. 


tue, uprightness, faithfulness, holiness, and keeping all the command- 
ments of God. But we cannot keep all the commandments without 
first knowing them, and we cannot expect to know all, or more than we 
now know unless we comply with or keep those we have already 
received. That which is wrong under one circumstance, may be, and 
often is, right under another. 

^Gpd said, "Thou shalt not kill;" at another time He said "Thou 
shalt utterly destroy." This is the principle on which the government 
of heaveu is conducted — by revelation adapted to the circumstances in 
which the children of the kingdom are placed. Whatever God requires 
is right, no matter what it is, although we may not see the reason 
thereof till long after the events transpire. If we seek first the king- 
dom of God, all good things will be added. So with Solomon: first he 
asked wisdom, and God gave it him, and with it every desire of his 
heart, even things which might be considered abominable to all who 
understand the order of heaven only in part, but which in reality were 
right because God gave and sanctioned by special revelation^ 

A parent may whip a child, and justly, too, because he stole an 
apple; whereas if the child had asked for the apple, and the parent had 
given it, the child would have eaten it with a better appetite; there 
would have been no stripes; all the pleasure of the apple would have 
been secured, all the misery of stealing lost. 

This principle will justly apply to all of God's dealings with His chil- 
dren. Everything that God gives us is lawful and right; and it is 
proper that we should enjoy His gifts and blessings whenever and 
wherever He is disposed to bestow; but if we should seize upon those 
same blessings and enjoj^ments without law, without revelation, with- 
out conmandment, those blessings and enjoyments would prove curs- 
ings and vexations in the end, and we should have to lie down in sor- 
row and wailings of everlasting regret. But in obedience there is joy 
and peace unspotted, unalloyed; and as God has designed our happi- 
ness — and the happiness of all His creatures, he never has — He n^ver - 
will institute an ordinance or give a commandment to His people thafis 
not calculated in its nature to promote that happiness which He has 
designed, and which will not end in the greatest amount of good and 
glory to those who become the recipients of his law and ordinances^ 
Blessings offered, but rejected, are no longer blessings, but become like 
the talent hid in the earth by the wicked and slothful servant; the 
proffered good returns to the giver; the blessing is bestowed on those 
who will receive and occupy; for unto him that hath shall be given, 
and he shall have abundantly, but unto him that hath not or will not 
receive, shall be taken away that which he hath, or might have 


Be wise today; 'tis madness to defer: 
Next day the fatal precedent may plead. 
Thus on till wisdom is pushed out of time 
Into eternity. 

Our heavenly Father is more liberal in His views, and boundless in His 
mercies and blessings, than we are ready to believe or receive; and, at 
the same time, is more terrible to the workers of iniquity, more awful 
*n the executions of His punishments, and more ready to detect every 
false way, than we are apt to suppose Him to be. He will be inquired 
of by His children. He says: "Ask and ye shall receive, seek and ye 
shall find;" but, if you will take that which is not your own, or which I 
have not given you, you shall be rewarded according to your deeds; but 
no good thing will I withhold from them who wa'k uprightly before me, 
and do my will in all things — who will listen to my voice and to the 
voice of my servant whom I have sent; for I delight in those who seek 
diligently, to know my precepts, and abide by the law of my kingdom; 
for all things shall be made known unto them in mine own due time, 
and in the end they shall have joy. 

Sunday , 28. — At home. James Whitehead, Peter Mel- 
ling, Tarleton Lewis, and Ezra Strong were received into 
the High Priests' quorum at Nauvoo. 

The British convict ship, Waterloo, was wrecked at 
Cape Town, during a gale. Two hundred lives lost. 

Monday, 29 — 

Minutes of a Special Conference, held at Nauvoo. 

This being the day appointed for the conference referred to on the 
26th instant, the elders assembled in the Grove near the Temple. Abo^t 
10 o'clock in the forenoon, President Hyrum Smith introduced the 
object of the conference by stating that the people abroad had been 
excited by John C. Bennett's false statements, and that letters had 
frequently been received inquiring concerning the true nature of said 
reports; in consequence of which it is thought wisdom in God that every 
elder who can, should go forth to every part of the United States, and 
take proper documents with them, setting forth the truth as it is, and 
also preach the gospel, repentance, baptism, and salvation, and tarry 
preaching until they shall be called home. They must go wisely, 
humbly setting forth the truth as it is in God, and our persecutions, by 
which the tide of public opinion will be turned. There are many elders 
here doing little, and many people in the world who want to hear the 
truth. We want the official members to take their staff and go east 


(not west) ; and if a mob should come here, they will only have women 
and children to fight with. When you raise churches, send the means 
you get to build the Temple, and get the people to take stock in the 
Nauvoo House. It is important that the Nauvoo House should be 
finished, that we may have a suitable place wherein to entertain the 
srreat ones of the earth, and teach them the truth. We want the Temple 
built, that we may offer our oblations, and where we can ask forgive- 
ness of our sins every week, and forgive one another, and offer up our 
offering, and get our endowment. The gospel will be turned from the 
Gentiles to the Jews. Sometime ago, almost every person was ordained, 
the purpose was to have you tried and ready to receive your blessings. 
Every one is wanted to be ready in two or three days, and I expect 
there will be a liberal turn out. 

Near the close of Hyrum's remarks, I went upon the 
stand. I was rejoiced to look upon the Saints once more, 
whom 1 have not seen for about three weeks. 
They also were rejoiced to see me, and we all Prophettotke 
rejoiced together. My sudden appearance on 
the stand, under the circumstances which surrounded us, 
caused great animation and cheerfulness in the assembly. 
Some had supposed that I had gone to Washington, and 
some that I had gone to Europe, while some thought I 
was in the city ; but whatever difference of opinion had 
prevailed on this point, we were now all filled with thanks- 
giving and rejoicing. 

When Hyrum had done speaking, I arose and congrat- 
ulated the brethren and sisters on the victory I had once 
more gained over the Missourians. I had told them 
formerly about fighting the Missourians, and about fight- 
ing alone. I had not fought them with the sword, or by 
carnal weapons; I had done it by stratagem, by outwitting 
them; and there had been no lives lost, and there would 
be no lives lost, if they would hearken to my counsel. 

Up to this day God had given me wisdom to save the 
people who took counsel. None had ever been killed who 
abode by my counsel. At Hauns' Mill the brethren went 
contrary to my counsel; if they had not, their lives would 
have been spared. 


I had been in Nauvoo all the while, and outwitted Ben 
nett's associates, and attended to my own business in the 
city all the time. We want to whip the world 
we e ap o a nsof mentally, and they will whip themselves phys- 
ically. The brethren cannot have the tricks 
played upon them that were played at Kirtland and Far 
West. They have seen enough of the tricks of their ene- 
mies, and know better. Orson Pratt has attempted to 
destroy himself, and caused almost all the city to go in 
search of him. Is it not enough to put down all the in- 
fernal influences of the devil, what we have felt and seen, 
handled and evidenced, of this work of God? But the 
devil had influence among the Jews, after all the great 
things they had witnessed, to cause the death of J esus 
Christ, by hanging Him between heaven and earth. They 
would deliver me up, Judas like; but a small band of us 
shall overcome. 

We don't want or mean to fight with the sword of the 
flesh, but we will fight with the broad sword of the Spirit. 
Our enemies say our charter and writs of habeas corpus 
are worth nothing. We say they came from the highest 
authority in the state, and we will hold to them. They 
cannot be disannulled or taken away. 

I then told the brethren I was going to send all the 
elders away, and when the mob came there would only be 
women and children to fight, and they would 
pian of be ashamed. I don't want you to fight, but 

go and gather tens, hundreds, and thousands 
to fight for you. If oppression comes, I will then show 
them that there is a Moses and a Joshua amongst us ; and 
I will fight them, if they don't take off oppression from 
me. I will do as I have. done this time, I will run into 
the woods, I will fight them in my own way. I will send 
Brother Hyrum to call conferences everywhere through- 
out the states, and let documents be taken along and show 
to the world the corrupt and oppressive conduct of Boggs, 

A l>. 1842 J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 139 

Carlin, and others, that the public may have the truth 
laid before them. 

Let the Twelve send all who will support the character 
of the Prophet, the Lord's anointed; and if all who go 
will support my character, I prophesy in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, whose servant I am, that you will prosper in 
your missions. I have the whole plan of the kingdom be- 
fore me, and no other person has. And as to all thatT 
Orson Pratt, Sidney Rigdon, or George W. Robinson can 
do to prevent me, I can kick them off my heels, as many 
as you can name; I know what will become of them. 

I concluded my remarks by saying I have the best of 
feelings towards my brethren, since this trouble began; 
but to the apostates and enemies, I will give a lashing 
every opportunity, and I will curse them. 

During the address, an indescribable transport of good 
feeling was manifested by the assembly, and about 380 
elders volunteeied to go immediately on the proposed 

Treaty signed between Great Britain and China,' Chinese 
to pay $31,000,000, throw open five ports for trade, and 
cede Hong Kong to Great Britain. 

Tuesday, 30. — At home through the day. 

Wednesday, 31. — At home in the forenoon; afternoon 
rode to the Grove with Emma, and attended the Female 
Relief Society's meeting. 

The following minutes were reported by Miss E. R. 
Snow : — 

Minutes of the Female Belief Society' 1 s Meeting — Remarks of the Prophet, 

President Joseph Smith arose and said, "I am happy and thankful 
for the privilege of being present on this occasion. Great exertions 
have been made on the part of our enemies to carry me to Missouri and 
destroy my life; but the Lord has hedged up their way, and they have 
not, as yet, accomplished their purpose. God has enabled me to keep 
out of their hands. I have warred a good warfare, insomuch as I have 
out-generalled or whipped out all Bennett's corrupt host. 

My feeliugs at the present time are that, inasmuch as the Lord Al- 


mighty has preserved me until today, He will continue to preserve me, 
by the united faith and prayers of the Saints, until I have fully accom- 
plished my mission in this life, and so firmly established the dispensa- 
tion of the fullness of the priesthood in the last days, that all the powers 
of earth and hell can never prevail against it. 

This constant persecution reminds me of the words of the Savior, 
when He said to the Pharisees, "Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast 
out devils, and I do cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall 
be perfected." I suspect that my Heavenly Father has decreed that 
the Missourians shall not get me into their power; if they do, it will be 
because I do not keep out of their way. 

I shall triumph over my enemies: I have begun to triumph over them 
at home, and I shall do it abroad. All those that rise up against me 
will surely feel the weight of their iniquity upon their own heads. 
Those that speak evil of me and the Saints are ignorant or abominable 
characters, and full of iniquity. All the fuss, and all the stir, and all 
the charges got up against me are like the jack-a-lantem, which cannot 
be found. 

Although I do wrong, I do not the wrongs that I am charged with 
doing: the wrong that I do is through the frailty of human nature, like 
other men. No man lives without fault. Do you think that even Jesus, 
if He were here, would be without fault in your eyes? His enemies said 
all manner of evil against Him — they all watched for iniquity in Him. 
How easy it was for Jesus to call out all the iniquity of the hearts of 
those whom He was among! 

The servants of the Lord are required to guard against those things 
that are calculated to do the most evil. The little foxes spoil the vines 
— little evils do the most injary to the Church. If you have evil feel- 
ings, and speak of them to one another, it has a tendency to do mis- 
chief. These things result in those evils which are calculated to cut the 
throats of the heads of the Church. 

When I do the best I can — when I am accomplishing the greatest 
good, then the most evils and wicked surmisings are got up against me. 
I would to God that you would be wise. I now counsel you, that if you 
know anything calculated to disturb the peace or injure the feelings of 
your brother or sister, hold your tongues, and the least harm will be 

The Female Relief Society have taken a most active part in my wel- 
fare against my enemies, in petitioning to the governor in my behalf. 
These measures were all necessary. Do you not see that I foresaw what 
was coming, beforehand, by the spirit of prophecy? All these move- 
ments had an influence in my redemption from the hand of my enemies. 
If these measures had not been taken, more serious consequences would 


have resulted. I have come here to bless you. The Society have done 
well: their principles are to practice holiness. God loves you, and your 
prayers in my behalf shall avail much: let them not cease to ascend to 
God continually in my behalf. The enemies of this people will never 
get weary of their persecution against the Church, until they are over- 
come. I expect they will array everything against me that is in their 
power to control, and that we shall have a long and tremendous war- 
fare. He that will war the true Christian warfare against the corrup 
tions of these last days will have wicked men and angels of devils, and 
all the infernal powers of darkness continually arrayed against him. 
When wicked and corrupt men oppose, it is a criterion to judge if a 
man is warring the Christian warfare. When all men speak evil of you 
alsely, blessed are ye, &c. Shall a man be considered bad, when men 
speak evil of him? No. If a man stands and opposes the world of sin? 
he may expect to have all wicked and corrupt spirits arrayed against 
him. But it will be but a little season, and all these afflictions will be 
turned away from us, inasmuch as we are faithful, and are not over- 
come by these evils. By seeing the blessings of the endowment rolling 
on, and the kingdom increasing and spreading from sea to sea, we shall 
rejoice that we were not overcome by these foolish things. 

A few very important things have been manifested to me in my ab- 
sence respecting the doctrine of baptism for the death, which I shall 
communicate to the Saints next Sabbath, if nothing should* occur to 
prevent me. 

President Smith then addressed the throne of grace in fervent prayer. 
The prayers of the society were requested in behalf of Mr. Repshaw. 

President Joseph Smith remarked that Mrs. Repshaw had long since 
been advised to return to her husband. It has been ascertained, by 
good evidence, that she left her husband without just cause — that he is 
a moral man and a gentleman. She has got into a way of having 
revelations, but not the revelations of God. If she will go home and 
do her duty, we will pray for her; but, if not, our prayers will do her 
no good. 

President Smith said, "I have one remark to make respecting the 
baptism for the dead to suffice for the time being, until I have op- 
portunity to discuss the subject at greater length — all persons baptized 
for the dead must have a recorder present, that he may be an eyewit- 
ness to record and testify of the truth and validity of his record. It 
will be necessary, in the Grand Council, that these things be testified to 
by competent witnesses. Therefore let the recording and witnessing of 
baptisms for the dead be carefully attended to from this time forth. 
If there is any lack, it may be at the expense of our friends; they may 
not come forth." 

Closed with prayer by Elder Derby. 




Some time this month [August, 1842] Elder Hyde pub- 
Hyde's lished a pamphlet in the German language, 
pamphlet. j n Germay, entitled "A Cry out of the Wild- 
ness," &c, of about 120 pages, setting forth the rise, 
progress and doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. 

About this time, while I was crossing from Montrose to 
Nauvoo in a boat in company with Brother Hyrum, we 
passed through an immense shoal of fish of considerable 
size. Hundreds jumped in and over the boat; but we 
succeeded in catching about sixteen, which we brought to 

Thursday , September 1, 1842.— During the forenoon in 
the Assembly Eoom, and in the afternoon at home, 
attending to business. wrote the following: 

A Letter jrom the Prophet to the Saints at Nauvoo — Directions on 
Baptism for the Dead* 

To all the Saints in Nauvoo. — Forasmuch as the Lord has revealed 
unto me that my enemies, both in Missouri and this state, were again 
in the pursuit of me; and inasmuch as they pursue me without a cause, 
and have not the least shadow or coloring 1 of justice or right on their 
side, in the getting up of their prosecutions against me; and inasmuch 
as their pretensions are all founded in falsehood of the blackest dye, I 
have thought it expedient and wisdom in me to leave the place for a 
short season, for my own safety and the safety of this people. 

I would say to all those with whom I have business, that I have left 
my affairs with agents and clerks, who will transact all business in a 

* See Doc. and Gov. cxxvii. See also Times and Seasons vol. Ill, page 919. 


prompt and proper manner, and will see that all my debts are cancelled 
in due time, by turning out property, or otherwise, as the case may 
require, or as the circumstances may admit of. When I learn that the 
storm is fully blown over, then I will return to you again. 

2. And as for the perils which I am called to pass through, they 
seem but a small thing to me, as the envy and wrath of man have been 
my common lot all the days of my life; and for what cause it seems 
mysterious, unless I was ordained from before the foundation of the 
world, for some good end, or bad, as you may choose to call it. Judge 
ye for yourselves, God knoweth all these things, whether it be good or 

But, nevertheless, deep water is what I am wont to swim in; it all has 
become second nature to me. And I feel, like Paul, to glory in tribu- 
lation: for to this day has the God of my fathers delivered me out o^ 
them all, and will deliver me from henceforth; for behold, and lo, I 
shall triumph overall my enemies, for the Lord God hath spoken it. 

3. Let all the Saints rejoice, therefore, and be exceedingly glad, for 
Israel's God is their God; and he will mete out a just recompense of 
reward upon the heads of all your oppressors. 

4. And again, verily, thus saith the Lord, let the work of my Tem- 
ple, and all the works which I have appointed unto you, be continued 
on and not cease; and let your diligence and your perseverance, and 
patience, and your works be redoubled; and you shall in no wise lose 
your reward, saith the Lord of Hosts; and if they persecute you, so 
persecuted they the prophets and righteous men that were before you. 
For all this there is a reward in heaven. 

5. And again I give unto you a word in relation to the baptism for 
your dead. 

6. Verily thus saith the Lord unto you concerning your dead: 
when any of you are;baptized for your dead, let there be a 
recorder; and let him be eyewitness of your baptisms; let him hear 
with his ears, that he may testify of a truth, saith the Lord. 

7. That in all your recordings it may be recorded in heaven; whatso- 
ever you bind on earth may be bound in heaven; whateyeryou loose on 
earth shall be loosed in heaven. 

8. For I am about to restore many things to the earth pertaining to 
the Priesthood, saith the Lord of Hosts. 

9. And again, let all the records be had in order, that they may be 
put in the archives of my Holy Temple, to be held in remembrance 
from generation to generation, saith the Lord of Hosts. 

10. I will say to all the Saints, that I desired with exceedingly great 
desire to have addressed them from the stand on the subject of baptism 
for the dead, on the following Sabbath. But inasmuch as it is out of 


my power to do so, I will write the word of the Lord from time to time, 
on that subject aud send it you by mail, as well as many other things. 

11. And now I close my letter for the present, for the want of more 
time; for the enemy is on the alert; and, as the Savior said, the prince 
of this world cometh, but he hath nothing in me. 

12. Behold my prayer to God is, that you all may be saved: and I 
subscribe myself your servant in the Lord, Prophet and Seer of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Joseph Smith, 

The following is from the Times mid Seasons of Sep- 
tember 1st. 

Excerpt from a Communication from William Law, 

Let none suppose that God is angry with His Saints because He suffers 
the hand of persecution to come upon them. He chasteneth those whom 
He loveth, and trieth and proveth every son and daughter, that they 
may be as gold seven times purified. Rejoice then, ye Saints of the 
Most High; for the God of Abraham is your God, and He will deliver 
you from all your enemies. Seek diligently to know His will, and 
observe to do it. Be zealous in the cause of truth, in building up the 
kingdom of Christ upon the earth, in rearing up the Temple of God at 
Nauvuo, and in all works of righteousness. And say not "The Lord 
delayeth His coming;' ' for behold the day draweth near; the hour 
approacheth; be ye ready. 

Be virtuous, be just, be honorable, be full of faith, love and charity; 
pray much and be patient; wait a little season and the voice of God shall 
thunder from the heavens His voice shall be very terrible; then the 
wicked shall tremble and fall back; they shall be taken in their own 
snares, and fall into the pit that they have digged for others; but 
the just shall live by faith, and shall shine forth as the stars in the 
firmament; their glory shall be as the brightness of the sun; for they 
are God's. 

William Law. 

Friday, 2. — Spent the day at home. A report reached 
the city this afternoon that the sheriff was on his way to 
Nauvoo with an armed force. 

Saturday, 3. — In the morning at home, in company 
with John F. Boynton.* 

* John F. Boynton, as will be remembered, was at one time a member of the 
quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the Kirtland period of Church history; see Vol. 
II, pp. 187 and 191. 


[Under this date, the Prophet's secretary wrote the 

An Attempt to Arrest the Prophet. 

A letter was received from Brother HolHster to the effect that theMis- 
sourians were again on the move, and that two requisitions were issued, 
one on the governor of this state, and the other on the governor of Iowa. 
Their movements were represented as being very secret and resolute. 
Soon after 12 o'clock, Pitman, the deputy sheriff, and two other men 
came into the house. It appears that they had come up the riverside, 
and hitched their horses below the Nauvoo House, and then proceeded 
on foot undiscovered, until they got into the house. When they 
arrived, President Joseph Smith was in another apartment 
of the house, eating dinner with his family. John Boynton happened 
to be the first person discovered by the sheriffs, and they began to ask 
him where Mr. Smith was. He answered ,that he saw him early in the 
morning; but did not say that he had seen him since. 

While this conversation was going on, President Joseph Smith passed 
out of the back door, and through the corn in his garden to Brother 
Newel K. Whitney's. He went up stairs undiscovered. Meantime 
Sister Emma went and conversed with the sheriffs. Pitman said he 
wanted to search the house for Mr. Smith. In answer to a question by 
Sister Emma, he said he had no warrant authorizing him to search, but 
insisted upon searching the house. She did not refuse, and accordingly 
they searched through, but to no effect. 

This is another testimony and evidence of the mean, corrupt, illegal 
proceedings of our enemies, notwithstanding the Constitution of the_ 
United States says, Article 4th, "The right of the people to be secure 
in their persons, houses, papeis and effects against unreasonable 
searches and seizures shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue j 
but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particu-, 
arly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to\ 
be seized." 

Yet these men audaciously, impudently and altogether illegally 
searched the house of President Joseph Smith even without 
any warrant or authority whatever. Being satisfied that he 

was not in the house, they departed. They appeared to be well armed, 
and no doubt intended to take him either dead or alive; which we after- 
wards heard they had said they would do; but the Almighty 
again delivered His servant from their bloodthirsty grasp. 

It is rumored that there are fifteen men in the city along with the 
sheriffs, and that they dined together today at Amos Davis's. Soon after 
sundown, Thomas King and another person arrived at the house and 

10 Vol. V. 

146 HISTOKY OF 1'HE CHURCH. [A.D. 1842 

demanded to search, which they immediately did; but, finding nothing 
they also went towards Davis's. Some of them were seen about after- 
wards; but at about ten o'clock all was quiet. 

It is said that they started from Quincy yesterday, expecting and 
fully determined to reach Nauvoo in the nierht, and fall upon the house 
unawares; but report says they lost the road, and got scattered away 
one from another, and could not get along until daylight. This, in all 
probability, is true, as they appeared much fatigued, and complained 
of being weary aud sore from riding. 

President Smith, accompanied by Brother Erastus Derby, left 
Brother Whitney's about nine o'clock, and went to Brother Edward 
Hunter's, where he was welcomed, and made comfortable by the fam- 
ily, and where he can be kept safe from the hands of his enemies. 

Sunday, 4. — Ryrum Smith and William Law left for 
the Eastern States. 

Monday, 5. — The sisters wrote as follows: 

Petition of the Female Relief Society to Governor Carlin. 
Jo his Excellency Thomas Carlin, Governor of the State of Illinois: 

We, the undersigned members of the Nauvoo Relief Society, and 
Ladies of Nauvoo, hearing many reports concerning mobs, threats of 
extermination, aud other excitement, set on foot by John C. Bennett, 
calculated to disturb the peace, happiness and well-being of this com- 
munity, have taken the liberty to petition your Excellency for pro- 

It may be considered irrelevant for ladies to petition your Excellency 
on the above-named subject, and may be thought by you, Sir, to be 
officious, and that it would be more becoming for our husbands, fath- 
ers, brothers and sons to engage in this work, and in our defense. 
This, Sir, we will admit, in ordinary cases is right, and that it would be 
more consistent with the delicacy of the female character to be silent; 
but on occasions like the present, our desires for the peace of society, 
the happiness of our friends, the desire to save the lives of our hus- 
bands, our fathers, our brothers, our children, and our own lives, will 
be a sufiicient palliation, in the estimation of your Excellency, for the 
step we have taken in presenting this petition, in support of the 
one already sent your Excellency by the male inhabitants of this city. 

We would respectfully represent to your Excellency that we have 
not yet forgotten the scenes of grief, misery and woe that we had to 
experience from the hands of ruthless and bloodthirsty mobs in the 
state of Missouri. The cup of misery was prepared by lying, slander 


and misrepresentation. It was wrung: out and filled by tyranny and 
oppression, and by a ruthless, inhuman mob. We had to drink it to 
the dregs. 

Your Excellency will bear with us if we remind you of the cold- 
blooded atrocities that we witnessed in that state. Our bosoms heave 
with horror, our eyes are dim, our knees tremble, our hearts are faint, 
when we think of their horrid deeds; and if the petitions of our hus- 
bands, brothers, fathers, and sons will not answer with your Excel- 
lency, we beseech you to remember that of their wives, mothers, sisters 
and daughters. Let the voice of injured innocence in Missouri speak; 
let the blood of our fathers, our brothers, our sons and our daughters 
speak; let the tears of the widows and orphans, the maimed and im- 
poverished speak; and let the injuries sustained by fifteen thousand 
innocent, robbed, spoiled, persecuted, and injured people speak; let 
the tale of woe be told; [let it be told without embellishment, prejudice or 
color; and we are persuaded there is no heart but will be softened, no 
feelings but will be affected, and no person, but will flee to our relief. 

Far be it from us to accuse your Excellency of obduracy or injustice. 
We believe you to be a humane, feeling, benevolent and patriotic man; 
and therefore we appeal to you. 

Concerning John C. Bennett who is trying with other political dema- 
gogues, to disturb our peace, we believe him to be an unvirtuous man 
and a most consummate scoundrel, a stirrer up of sedition, and a vile 
wretch unworthy the attention or notice of any virtuous man; and his 
published statements concerning Joseph Smith are bare-faced, 
unblushing falsehoods. 

We would further recommend to your Excellency, concerning Joseph 
Smith, that we have the utmost confidence in him, as being a man of 
integrity, honesty, truth, and patriotism. We have never, either in 
public or private, heard him teach any principles but the principles of 
virtue and righteousness. And so we have knowledge, and we know 
him to be a pure, chaste, virtuous and godly man. 

Under these circumstances, we would petition your Excellency to 
exert your privilege in an official capacity, and not to suffer him 
(should he be demanded) to go into the state of Missouri; for we 
know that, if he should, it would be the delivering up the innocent to 
be murdered. We would represent to your Excellency that we are a 
law-abiding people, a virtuous people, and we would respectfully 
refer your Excellency to the official documents of the state during our 
three years' residence in it, in proof of this. If we transgress laws, we 
are willing to be tried by those laws, but we dread mobs, we dread 
illegal process; we dread fermentation, calumny and lies, knowing that 
our. difficulties in Missouri first commenced with these. things. 


We pray that we may not be delivered into the hands of mobs, or 
subjected to illegal proceedings of the militia, but that we may have the 
privilege of self-defense, in case of attack, without having to contend 
with legalized mobs as in Missouri; and we therefore appeal to the honor, 
philanthropy, justice, benevolence and patriotism of your Excellency, to 
afford us all legal protection and to grant us our request; and we, as in 
duty bound, will ever pray. 

Tuesday, September 6, 1842.— I wrote as follows: 

Letter of the Prophet to the Church — Further Directions on Baptism 
for the Dead* 

Nauvuo, September 6, 1842. 

To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, greeting: — 

1. As I stated to you in my letter, before I left my place, that I would 
write to you from time to time, and give you information in relation to 
many subjects, I now resume the subject of the baptism for the dead, 
as that subject seems to occupy my mind, and press itself upon my feel- 
ings the strongest, since I have been pursued by my enemies. 

2. I wrote a few words of revelation to you concerning a recorder. I 
have had a few additional views in relation to this matter, which I now 
certify. That is, it was declared in my former letter that there should 
be a recorder who should be eye-witness, and also to hear with his ears, 
that he might make a record of a truth before the Lord. 

3. Now, in relation to this matter, it would be very difficult for one 
recorder to be present at all times, and to do all the business. To obvi- 
ate this difficulty, there can be a recorder appointed in each ward of the * 
city, who is well qualified for taking accurate minutes; and let him be 
very particular and precise in taking the whole proceedings, certifying 
in his record that he saw with his eyes and heard with his ears, giving 
the date, and names, &c, and the history of the whole transaction; 
naming also, some three individuals that are present, if there be any 
present, who can at any time, when calledupou, certify to the same, that 
in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 

4. Then let there be a general recorder, to whom these other records 
can be handed, being attended with certificates over their own signa- 
tures, certifying that the record they have made is true. Then the general 
church recorder can enter the record on the general church book, 
with the certificates and all the attending witnesses, with his own state, 
ment that he verily believes the above statement and records to be true, 
from his knowledge of the general character and appointment of those 

* See Doc. and Cov. sec. cxxviii. 


men by the Church. And when this is done on the general church 
book, the record shall be just as holy, and shall answer the ordinance 
just the same as if he had seen with his eyes, and heard with his"ears, 
and made a record of the same on the general church book. 

5. You may think this order of things to be very particular; Jbut let 
me tell you that it is only to answer the will of God, by conforming to 
the ordinance and preparation that the Lord ordained and prepared be- 
fore the foundation of the world, for the salvation of the dead who 
should die without a knowledge of the gospel. 

6. And further, I want you to remember that John the Revelator was 
contemplating this very subject in relation to the dead, when he de- 
clared, as you will find recorded in Revelation xx, 12: "And I saw the 
dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened; 
and another book was opened, which was the book of life; and the dead 
were judged out of those things which were written in the books, ac- 
cording to their works." 

7. You will discover, in this quotation, that the books were opened; 
and another book was opened, which was the book of life; but the dead 
were judged out of those things which were written in the books; ac- 
cording to their works: consequently, the books spoken of must be the 
books which contained the record of their works; and refer to the 
records which are kept on the earth. And the book which was the book 
of life is the record which is kept in heaven; the principle agreeing pre- 
cisely with the doctrine which is commanded you in the revelation con- 
tained in the letter which I wrote to you previously to my leaving my 
place, that in all your recordings it may be recorded in heaven. 

8. Now, the nature of this ordinance consists in the power of the 
priesthood, by the revelation of Jesus Christ; wherein it is granted 
that whatsoever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and what- 
soever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Or in other words, 
taking a different view of the translation, whatsoever you record on 
earth shall be recorded in heaven, and whatsoever you do not record on 
earth shall not be recorded in heaven; for out of the books shall your 
dead be judged, according to their own works, whether they themselves 
have attended to the ordinances in their own propria persona or by the 
means of their own agents, according to the ordinance which God has 
prepared for their salvation from before the foundation of the world, 
according to the records which they have kept concerning their dead. 

9. It may seem to some to be a very bold doctrine that we talk of — a 
power which records or binds on earth, and binds in heaven: neverthe- 
less, in all ages of the world, whenever the Lord has given a dispensa- 
tion of the priesthood to any man by actual revelation, or any set of 
men, this power has always been given. Hence, whatsoever those men 


did in authority, in the name of the Lord, and did it truly and faith- 
fully, and kept a proper and faithful record of the same, it became a 
law on earth and in heaven, and could not be annulled, according to the 
decrees of the great Jehovah. This is a faithful saying — who can 
hear it? 

10. And again, for a precedent, Matthew xvi: 18, 19. "And I also 
say unto thee, that thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my 
church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it: and I will give 
unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt 
bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose 
on earth shall be loosed in heaven. n 

11. Now the great and grand secret of the whole matter, and the sum- 
mum bonum of the whole subject that is lying before us, consists in ob- 
taining the powers of the holy priesthood; for him to whom these keys 
are given, there is no difficulty in obtaining a knowledge of facts in 
relation to the salvation of the children of men, both as well for the 
dead as for the living. 

12. Herein is glory, and honor, and immortality, and eternal life: 
The 'ordinance of baptism by water, to be immersed therein in order to 
answer to the likeness of the dead, that one principle might. accord with 
the other. To be immersed in the water and come forth out of the 
water is in the likeness of the resurrection of the dead, in coming forth 
out of their graves. Hence, this ordinance was instituted to form a re- 
lationship with the ordinance of baptism for the dead, being in likeness 
of the dead. 

13. Consequently, the baptismal font was instituted as a simile of the 
grave, and was commanded to be in a place underneath where the living 
are wont to assemble, to show forth the living and the dead, and that 
all things may have their likeness, and that they may accord one with 
another, — that which is earthly conforming to that which is heavenly, 
as Paul hath declared, I Cor, xv: 46, 47, and 48. 

14. "Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is 
natural, and afterwards that which is spiritual. The first man is of the 
earth, earthy; the second man is the Lord from heaven. As is the 
earthy, such are they also that are earthy; and as is the heavenly, such 
are they also that are heavenly. " And as are the records on the earth 
in relation to your dead, which are truly made out, so also are the 
records in heaven. This, therefore, is the sealing and binding power, 
and, in one sense of the word, the keys of the kingdom, which consist 
in the key of knowledge. 

15. And now, my dearly beloved brethren and sisters, let me assure 
you that these are principles, in relation to the dead and the living, that 
cannot be lightly passed over, as pertaining to our salvation. For their 


salvation is necessary and essential to our salvation, as Paul says con- 
cerning the fathers, "that they without us cannot be made perfect;" 
neither can we without our dead be made perfect. 

16. And now, in relation to the baptism for the dead, I will give you 
anotner quotation of Paul, I Corinthians xv: 29: "Else what shall 
they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why 
are tbev theu baptized for the dead?" 

17. /And again, in conuection with this quotation, I will give you a 
quotation from one of the prophets, who had his eye fixed on the res- 
toration of the priesthood, the glories to be revealed in the last days, and 
in an especial manner this most glorious of all subjects belonging to the 
everlasting gospel, viz., the baptism for the dead; for Malachi says, 
last chapter, verses 5th and 6th, * 'Behold I will send you Elijah the 
prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord; 
and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart 
of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a 
curse /Q 

18. I might have rendered a plainer translation to this, but it is suf- 
ficiently plain to suit my purpose as it stands. It is sufiicient to know, 
in this case, that the earth will be smitten with a curse, unless there is 
a welding link of some kind or other between the fathers and the chil- 
dren, upon some subject or other: and behold, what is that subject? It 
is the baptism for the dead. For we without them cannot be made per- 
fect; neither can they without us be made perfect. Neither can they 
nor we be made perfect without those who have died in the gospel also; 
for it is necessary, in the ushering in of the dispensation of the fullness 
of times, which dispensation is now beginning to usher in, that a whole 
and complete, and perfect union, and welding together of dispensations, 
and keys, and powers, and glories should take place, and be revealed, 
from the days of Adam even to the present time; and not only this, but 
those things which never have been revealed from the foundation of the 
world, but have been kept hid from the wise and prudent, shall be 
revealed unto babes and sucklings in this the dispensation of the fullness 
of times. 

19. Now, what do we hear in the gospel which we have received? 
"A voice of gladness! A voice of mercy from heaven, and a voice of 
truth out of tne earth; glad tidings for the dead; a voice of gladness 
for the living and the dead; glad tidings of great joy. How beautiful 
upon the mountains are the feet of those that bring glad tidings of good 
things, and that say unto Zion, Behold! thy God reigneth. As the dews 
of Carmel, so shall the knowledge of God descend upon them." 

20. And again, what do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah! 
Moroni, an angel from heaveu, declaring the fulfillment of the prophets 


— the book to be revealed. A voice of the Lord in the wilderness of 
Fayette, Seneca county, declaring: the three witnesses to bear record of 
the book. The voice of Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna, de- 
tecting the devil when he appeared as an angel of light. The voice'of 
Peter, James, and John, in the wilderness between Harmony, Susque- 
hanna county, and Colesville, Broome county, on the Susquehanna 
river, declaring themselves as possessing the keys of the kingdom and 
of the dispensation of the fullness of times. 

21. And again, the voice of God in the chamber of old Father Whitmer 
in Fayette, Seneca county, and at sundry times and in divers places, 
through all the travels and tribulations of this Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. And the voice of Michael, the Archangel, the 
voice of Gabriel and of Raphael, and of divers angels from Michael or 
Adam down to the present time, all declaring their dispensation, their 
rights, their keys, their honors, their majesty and glory, and the 
power of their Priesthood; giving line upon line, precept upon precept; 
here a little, and there a little; giving us consolation by holding forth 
that which is to come, confirming our hopes. 

22. Brethren, shall we not go on in so great a cause? Go forward 
and not backward? Courage, brethren, and oq, on to the victory I 
Let your hearts rejoice, and be exceeding glad. Let the earth break 
forth into singing. Let the dead speak forth anthems of eternal praise 
to the King Immanuel, who hath ordained before the world was, that 
which would enable us to redeem them out of their prisons; for the 
prisoners shall go free. 

23. Let the mountains shout for joy, and all^ye valleys cry aloud; 
and all ye seas and dry lands tell the wonders of your eternal King. And 
ye rivers, and brooks, and rills flow down with gladness. Let the 
woods and all the trees of the field praise the Lord; and ye solid rocks 
weep for joy. And let the sun, moon, and the morning stars sing 
together, and let all the sons of God shout for joy. And let the eternal 
creation declare His name for ever and ever. And again I say, how 
glorious is the voice we hear from heaven, proclaiming in our ears, 
glory, and salvation, and honor, and immortality and eternal life, king- 
doms, principalities and powers. 

24. Behold the great day of the Lord is at hand; and who ean abide 
the day of His coming, and who can stand when He appeareth? For 
He is like a refiner's fire, and like fuller's soap; and He shall sit as a 
refiner and purifier of silver, and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and 
purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the Lord an 
offering in righteousness. Let us, therefore, as a Church and a people, 
and as Latter-day Saints, offer unto the Lord an offering in righteous- 
ness, and let us present, in His holy Temple, when it is finished, a 


book containing the records of our dead, which shall be worthy of all 

25. Brethren, I have many things to say to you on the subject, but 
shall now close for the present, and continue the subject another 

I am, as ever, your humble servant, and never deviating friend, 

Joseph Smith. 

The important instructions contained in the foregoing 
letter made a deep and solemn impression on The Letter > s 
the minds of the Saints ; and they manifested Effect 
their intentions to obey the instructions to the letter. 

In the evening, William Clayton and Bishop Whitney 
called to see me concerning a settlement with Edward 
Hunter. Also Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and 
Amasa Lyman, called to counsel concerning their mission 
to the branches and. people abroad. 

Wednesday, September 7. — Early this morning Elders 
Adams and Rogers, of New York, brought me several 
letters — one from Dr. Willard Richards, who, referring 
to his visit with James Arlington Bennett, Esq., of Ar- 
lington House, says, he "would be pleased to receive a 
letter of President Joseph's own dictation, signed by his 
own hand;" which request I was disposed to comply 
with, but deferred it till the next day. 

Governor Carlin wrote as follows : 

Governor Carlin^s Letter to Emma Smith — Nauvoo's Charter and the 
Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

Quincy, September 7, 1842. 
Dear Madam. — Your letter of the 27th ultimo was delivered to me 
on Monday, the 5th instant, and I have not had time to answer it until 
this evening; and I now appropriate a few moments to the difficult task 
of replying satisfactorily to its contents, every word of which evinces 
your devotedness to the interest of your husband, and pouring forth the 
effusions of a heart wholly his. I am thus admonished that I can say 
nothing, that does not subserve his interest that can possibly be satis- 
factory to you; and before I proceed, I will here repeat my great 


regret that I have been officially called upon to act in reference to Air. 
Smith in any manner whatever. 

I doubt not your candor when you say you do not desire me "to 
swerve from my duty as executive in the least," and all you ask is to be 
allowed the privileges and advantages guaranteed to you by the Con- 
stitution and laws. You then refer me to the 11th Section of the 
Charter of the city of Nauvoo, and claim for Mr. Smith the right to be 
heard by the Municipal Court of said city, under a writ of habeas cor- 
pus emanating from said court, when he was held in custody under an 
executive warrant. 

The Charter of the city of Nauvoo is not before me at this time; but I 
have examined both the Charters and city ordinances upon the subject 
and must express my surprise at the extraordinary assumption of 
power by the board of aldermen as contained in said ordinance! From 
my recollection of the Charter it authorizes the Municipal Court to 
issue writs of habeas corpus in all cases of imprisonment or custody 
arising from the authority of the ordinances of said city, but that the 
power was granted, or intended to be granted, to release persons held 
in custody under the authority of writs issued by the courts or the execu- 
tive of the state, is most absurd and ridiculous; and to attempt to exer- 
cise it is a gross usurpation of power that cannot be tolerated. 

I have always expected and desired that Mr. Smith should avail him- 
self of the benefits of the laws of this state, and, of course, that he 
would be entitled to a writ of habeas corpus issued by the Circuit 
Court, and entitled to a hearing before said court; but to claim the 
right of a hearing before the Municipal Court of the city of Nauvoo is 
a burlesque upon the city Charter itself. 

As to Mr. Smith's guilt or innocence of the crime charged upon him, 
it is not my province to investigate or determine; nor has any court on 
earth jurisdiction of his case, but the courts of the state of Missouri; 
and as stated iu my former letter, both the Constitution and laws pre- 
sume that each and every state in this Union are competent to do 
justice to all who may be charged with crime committed in said 

Your information that twelve men from Jackson county, Missouri, 
were lying in wait for Mr. Smith between Nauvoo and Warsaw, for 
the purpose of taking him out of the hands of the officers who might 
have him in custody, and murdering him, is like many other marvel- 
ous stories that you hear in reference to him — not one word of it true; 
but I doubt not that your mind has been continually harrowed up with 
fears produced by that and other equally groundless stories. That that 
statement is true is next to impossible; and your own judgment, if 
you will but give it scope, will soon set you right in reference to it. 


If any of the citizens of Jackson county had designed to murder Mr. 
Smith, they would not have been so simple as to perpetrate the crime 
in Illinois, when he would necessarily be required to pass through to 
the interior of the state of Missouri, where the opportunity would 
have been so much better, and the prospect of escape much more 
certain. That is like the statement made by Mr. Smith's first messen- 
ger, after his arrest, to Messrs. Ralston and Warren, saying that I had 
stated that Mr. Smith should be surrendered to the authorities of 
Missouri, dead or alive; not one word of which was true. I have not 
the most distant thought that any person in Illinois or Missouri con- 
templated personal injury to Mr. Smith by violence m any manner 

I regret that I did not see GTeneral Law when last at Quincy. A 
previous engagement upon business that could not be dispensed with 
prevented, and occupied my attention that evening until dark. At 
half-past one o'clock p. m., I came home, and learned that the General 
had called to see me; but the hurry of business only allowed me about 
ten minutes time to eat my dinner, and presuming, if he had business 
of any importance, that he would remain in the city until I returned. 

It may be proper here, in order to afford you all the satisfaction in 
my power, to reply to a question propounded to my wife by General 
Law, in reference to Mr. Smith, — viz., whether any other or additional 
demand had been made upon me by the Governor of Missouri for the 
surrender of Mr. Smith. I answer, none. No change whatever has 
been made in the proceedings. Mr. Smith has been held accountable 
only for the charge as set forth in my warrant under which he was 

In conclusion you presume upon my own knowledge of Mr. Smith's 
innocence; and ask why the prosecution is continued against him. 
Here I must again appeal to your own good judgment; and you will 
be compelled to answer that it is impossible I could know him to be 
innocent; and, as before stated, it is not my province to investigate as 
to his guilt or innocence. But could I know him innocent, and were 
he my own son, I would nevertheless, (and the more readily) sur- 
render him to the legally constituted authority to pronounce him 

With sentiments of high regard and esteem, your obedient servant, 

Thomas Carlin. 
To Mrs. Emma Smith. 

Brothers Adams and Rogers called again this after- 
noon, and I related to them many interpositions of Divine 
Providence in my favor, &c. 


Thursday, 8. — I dictated the following: 

Ihe PropheVs Letter to James Arlington Bennett — The Forthcoming Book 
of John G. Bennett. 

NAuvoo, September 8, 1842. 

I have just received your very consoling letter, dated August 16, 
1842, which is, I think, the first letter you ever addressed to me, in 
which you speak of the arrival of Dr. Willard Richards, and of his 
personality very respectfully. In this I rejoice, for lam as warm a friend 
to Dr. Richards as he possibly can be to me. And in relation to his 
almost making a * 'Mormon" of yourself, it puts me in mind of the say- 
ing of Paul in his reply to Agrippa, Acts xxvi: 29, "I would to God 
that not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, were both almost 
and altogether such as I am, except these bonds." And I will here 
remark, my dear sir, that "Mornionism" is the pure doctrine of Jesus 
Christ; of which I myself am not ashamed. 

You speak also of Elder Foster, President of the Church in New 
York, in high terms; and of Dr. Bernhisel, in New York. These men 
I am acquainted with by information; and it warms my heart to know 
that you speak well of them, and, as you say, could be willing to asso- 
ciate with them for ever, if you never joined their Church or acknowl- 
edged their faith. This is a good principle; for when we see virtuous 
qualities in men, we should always acknowledge them, let their under- 
standing be what it may in relation to creeds and doctrine; for all 
men are, or ought to be free, possessing unalienable rights, and the high 
and noble qualifications of the laws of nature and of self-preservation, 
to think, and act, and say as they please, while they maintain a due 
respect to the rights and privileges of all other creatures, infringing 
upon none. 

This doctrine I do most heartily subscribe to and practice, the testi- 
mony of mean men to the contrary notwithstanding. But, sir, I will 
assure you that my soul soars far above all the mean and groveling 
dispositions of men that are disposed to abuse me and my character, I 
therefore shall not dwell upon that subject. 

In relation to those men you speak of referred to above, I will 
only say that there are thousands of such men in this Church, who, if a 
man is found worthy to associate with, will call down the envy of a 
mean world, because of their high and noble demeanor; and it is with 
unspeakable delight that I contemplate them as my friends and 
brethren. I love them with a perfect love; and I hope they love me, 
and have no reason to doubt that they do. 

The next in consideration is John C. Bennett. I was his friend; I 
am yet his friend, as I feel myself bound to be a friend to all the sons 


of Adam. Whether they are just or uujust, they have a degree of 
my compassion and sympathy. If be is my enemy, it is his own fault; 
and the responsibility rests upon his own head; and instead of arraign- 
ing his character before you, suffice it to sa^ that his own conduct, 
wherever he goes,will be sufficient to recommend him to an enlightened 
public, whether for a bad man or a good one. 

Therefore whosoever will associate themselves with him, may be 
assured that I will not persecute them; but I do not wish their associa- 
tion, and what I have said may suffice on that subject, so far as his 
character is concerned. Now, in relation to his book that he may 
write. I will venture to prophesy that whoever has any hand in the 
matter, will find themselves in a poor fix in relation to the money mat- 
ters; and as to my having any fears of the influence that he or any other 
man or set of men may have against me — I will say this is most foreign 
from my heart; for I never knew what it was, as yet, to fear the face 
of clay, or the influence of man. My fear, sir, is before God. I fear 
to offend Him, and strive to keep His commandments. I am really 
glad that you did not join John C. Bennett in relation to his book, 
from the assurances which I have that it will prove a curse to all 
those who touch it. 

In relation to the honor that you speak of, both foi yourself and 
James Gordon Bennett, of the Herald, you are both strangers to me; 
and as John C. Bennett kept all his letters which he received from you 
entirely to himself, and there was no correspondence between you and 
me, that I know of, I had no opportunity to share very largely in the get- 
ting up of any of those matters. I could not, as I had not sufficient knowl- 
edge to enable me to do so. The whole, therefore, was at the insti- 
gation of John C. Bennett, and a quiet submission on the part of the 
rest, out of the best of feelings; but as fur myself, it was all done at a 
time when I was overwhelmed with a great many business cares, as 
well as the care of all the churches. I must be excused, therefore, for 
any wrongs that may have taken place in relation to this matter; 
and so far as I obtain a knowledge of that which is right, it shall meet 
with my hearty approval. 

I feel to tender you my most hearty and sincere thanks for every 
expression of kindness you have tendered towards me or my breth- 
ren, and would beg the privilege of intruding myself a little while upon 
your patience, in offering a short relation of my circumstances. I am 
at this time persecuted the worst of any man on the earth, as well as 
this people, here in this place, and all our sacred rights are trampled 
under the feet of the mob. lam now hunted as a hart by the mob, 
under the pretense or shadow of law, to cover their abominable 
deeds. ******** 


I now appeal to you, sir, inasmuch as you have subscribed yourself our 
friend: Will you lift your yoice and your arm with indignation against 
such unhallowed oppression? I must say, sir, that my bosom swells with 
unutterable anguish when I contemplate the scenes of horror that we have 
passed through in the state of Missouri, and then look, and behold, and 
see the storm and cloud gathering ten times blacker, ready to burst 
upon the heads of this innocent people. Would to God that I were" 
able to throw off the yoke. Shall we bow down and be slaves? Are 
there no friends of humanity in a nation that boasts itself so much? 
Will not the nation rise up and defend us? If they will not defend us, 
will they not grant to lend a voice of indignation against such unhal- 
lowed oppression? Must the tens of thousands bow down to slavery and 
degradation? Let the pride of the nation arise and wrench these 
shackles from the feet of their fellow citizens, and their quiet, and 
peaceable, and innocent and loyal subjects. But I must forbear, for I 
cannot express my feelings. 

The legion would all willingly die in the defense of their rights; 
but what would this accomplish? I have kept down their indignation, 
and kept a quiet submission on all hands, and am determined to do so 
at all hazards. Our enemies shall not have it to say that we rebel 
against government or commit treason. However much they may lift 
their hands in oppression and tyranny, when it comes in the form of 
government we tamely submit, although it lead us to the slaughter and 
to beggary; but our blood be upon their garments: and those who look 
tamely on and boast of patriotism shall not be without their condemna- 

And if men are such fools as to let once the precedent be established, 
and through their prejudices give assent to such abominations, then let 
the oppressor's hand lay heavily throughout the world, until all flesh 
shall feel it together, and until they may know that the Almighty takes 
cognizance of such things. And then shall church rise up against 
church, and party against party, mob agaiust mob, oppressor against 
oppressor, army against army, kingdom against kingdom, and people 
against people, and kindred against kindred. 

And where, sir, will be your safety or the safety of your children, if 
my children can be led to the slaughter with impunity by the hand of 
murderous rebels? Will they not lead yours to the slaughter with the 
same impunity? Ought not, then, this oppression, sir, to be checked in 
the bud, and to be looked down [upon] with just indignation by an en- 
lightened world, before the flame become xinextinguishable, and the fire 
devours the stubble? 

But again I say I must forbear, and leave this painful subject. I wish 
you would write to me in answer to this, and let me know your views. 


On my part, I am ready to be offered up a sacrifice in that way that 
can bring to pass the greatest benefit and good to those who must nec- 
essarily be interested in this important matter. I would to God that 
you could know all my feelings on this subject, and the real facts iu 
relation to this people, and their unrelenting persecution. Aud if any 
man feels an interest in the welfare of their fellow- beings, and would 
think of saying or doing anything in this matter, I would suggest the 
propriety of a committee of wise men being sent to ascertain the justice 
or injustice of our cause, to get in possession of all the facts, and then 
make report to an enlightened world whether we, individually or col- 
lectively, are deserving such high-handed treatment. 

In relation to the books that you sent here, John C. Bennett put them 
into my store, to be sold on commission, saying that, when I was able, 
the money must be remitted to yourself. Nothing was said about any 
consecration to the Temple. 

Another calamity has befallen us. Our post office in this place is 
exceedingly corrupt. It is with great difficulty that we can get our let- 
ters to or from our friends. Our papers that we send to our subscribers 
are embezzled and burned, or wasted. We get no money from our 
subscribers, and very little information from abroad; and what little we 
do get, we get by private means, in consequence of these things: and I 
am sorry to say, that this robbing of the post office of money was 
carried on by John C. Bennett: and since he left here, it is carried on 
by the means of his confederates. 

I now subscribe myself your friend, and a" patriot and lover of my 
country, pleading at their feet for protection and deliverance, by the 
justice of their Constitution, 

I add no more. Your most obedient servant, 

Joseph Smith. 




Friday, September 9, 1842. — At 10 p. m. I received a 
very interesting visit from Emma, Amasa Lyman, George 
A, Smith and Wilson Law. 

I counseled George A. Smith and Amasa Lyman to stay 

in Illinois and preach in the principal cities against moboc- 

M racy, and to notify the Twelve that it was my 

Movements of J 1 J J 

the Prophet wish that they should also labor in Illinois. 
After a conversation of two hours, I accom- 
panied the brethren and Emma to my house, remaining 
there a few minutes to offer a blessing upon the heads of 
my sleeping children ; then called a few minutes at the 
house of my cousin George A. Smith, on my way to my 
retreat at Edward Hunter's. John D. Parker accompanied 
me as -guard. 

Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Amasa Lyman, 
George A. Smith, and Charles 0. Rich declared to the 
city council their intention of absence for three months or 
more, and others were appointed to fill their places during 
their absence. John P. Greene, Lyman Wight, and Wil- 
liam Law were absent, and their places were filled. The 
object of the absence of these brethren was to preach the 
gospel in different states, and show up the wickedness and 
falsehood of the apostate John C. Bennett. 

An ordinance relative to the returns of writs of habeas 
corpus was passed by the city council as follows : 


An ordinance relative to the return of writs of Habeas Corpus. 

Sec. 1, Be it, and it is hereby ordained by the city council of the city 
of Nauvoo, that the Municipal Court, in issuing writs o'f Habeas Corpus, 
may make the same returnable forthwith. 

Sec. 2. This ordinance to take effect, and be in force from, and after 
its passage, passed September 9th, 1842. 

Geo. W. Harris, 

President pro tern. 
James Sloan, Recorder. 

President Young started on his mission. 

Saturday, 10. — Heber C. Kimball, George A. Smith, 
and Amasa Lyman started on their mission, and proceeded 
as far as Lima, where they met Brigham Young, who was 
preaching to a congregation. This was the day for the 
training of the companies of the Nauvoo Legion ; and, lest 
I should be observed by the multitude passing and repas- 
ing, I kept very still. After dark, my wife sent a mes- 
senger and requested me to return home, as she thought 
I would be as safe there as anywhere ; and I went safely 
home undiscovered. 

Sunday, 11. — I was at home all day. My letter of the 
6th of September was read to the Saints, at the grove near 
the temple. The High Priests' quorum met. Several had 
gone on missions; others were preparing to go, but few 
were present, and the meeting adjourned sine die. 

Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, George A. 
Smith and Amasa Lyman addressed a large assembly in 
the grove in Lima, in relation to the slanderous reports of 
John C. Bennett. 

Monday, 12. — 

Letter from Brigham Young and Heber G. Kimball — Reporting their 


To the Editor of the limes and Seasons: 

Dear Brother: — Having commenced our mission yesterday, we held 
our first conference at Brother Isaac Morley's. We had a good time. 
The- brethren here are in good spirits. We ordained nineteen elders, 
and baptized twelve. We expect next Saturday and Sunday to hold a 

1 1 vol. v. 


two days 7 meeting in Quincy, being the 17th and 18th instant; on the 
24th and 25th, at Payson; the 1st and 2nd of October, at Pleasant Vale; 
the Sth and 11th October, at Pittsfield, the 15th and 16th October, at 
Apple Creek in Green county. From thence we shall proceed to Jack- 
sonville and Springfield. 

If you please, notice the above in your paper for the benefit of those 
friends scattered abroad. 

Yours in the everlasting covenant, 

Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball. 
Morley Settlement, September 12, 1842. 

I was at home all day in company with Brothers Adams 
and Rogers, and counseled Brother Adams to write a letter 
to the governor. In the evening, Emma received governor 
Carlin's letter of the 7th instant. 

Tuesday, 13. — At home all day. Settled with Edward 

Wednesday, 14. — At home. Mr. Remmick gave me a 
deed of one half his landed property in Keokuk, though 
it will be a long time, if ever, before it will be of any 
benefit to me. Had a consultation with Calvin A. Warren, 
Esq. In the evening I received the following letter from 
General James Arlington Bennett: 

Letter of James Arlington Bennett — Treating Chiefly of John C. Bennett 

and his Book. 

Arlington House, September 1, 1842. 
Lieutenant General Smith: 

Dear Sir: — Mrs. Smith's letter to Mrs. Bennett, containing a very 
lucid account of Dr. John C. Bennett, has been received; and the only 
thing concerning him that I regard of importance is that you found it 
necessary to expose him. I wish most ardently that you had let him 
depart in peace, because the public generally think no better of either 
the one party or the other, in consequence of the pretended exposures 
with which the newspapers have teemed. But then, in the long run, 
you will have the advantage, inasmuch as the universal notoriety which 
you are now acquiring will be the means of adding to Nauvoo three 
hundred fold. 

That you ought to be given up to the tender mercies of Missouri no 


rnau in his senses will allow, as you would be convicted on the shadow 
of evidence when the people's passions and prejudices are so strongly 
enlisted against you; and, under such a state of things, how easily it 
would be to suborn witnesses against you, who would seal your fate! 
Add to this, too, the great difficulty under which an impartial jury, if 
such could be found, would labor in their attempt to render an honest 
verdict, being coerced by surroundiug public prejudice and malice. And 
yet, as you are now circumstanced, it will not do to oppose force to 
force for your protection, as this in the present case would be treason 
against the state, and would ultimately bring to ruin all those con- 

Your only plan, I think, will be to keep out of the way until this ex- 
citement shall have subsided, as, from all I can understand, even from 
the Dr. himself, there is no evidence on which an honest jury could find 
a verdict against you; and this opinion I have expressed to him. 

I most ardently wish that you had one hundred thousand true men at 
Nauvoo, and that I had the command of them, times and things would 
soon alter. I hope to see the day, before I die, that such an army will 
dictate terms from Nauuoo to the enemies of the Mormon people. I say 
this in the most perfect candor, as I have nothing to gain by the Mor- 
. mons, nor am I a Mormon in creed; yet I regard them in as favorable a 
light (and a little more so,) as I do any other sect. In fact, I am a 
philosophical Christian, and wish to see an entire change in the religious 
world . 

I have been long a Mormon in sympathy alone, and probably can 
never be one in any other way; yet I feel that I am a friend of the peo- 
ple, as I think them honest and sincere in their faith; and those I know 
[are] as good and honorable men as any other professing Christians. 

Dr. Bennett has been the means of bringing me before your people, 
you will therefore see, for this act, I am in honor bound to say, "Peace 
to his manes." To act otherwise would be ungrateful and dishonorable 
both of which qualities are strangers to my nature: nevertheless, by 
leaving him as he is, I can still be your friend; for be assured that 
nothing I have seen yet from his pen has in the least altered my opinion 
of you. I well know what allowances to make in such cases. 

Dr. Bennett and Bachelor are now delivering lectures in New York 
against you and your doctrines and asserted practices at Nauvoo. 

Elder Foster told me, this forenoon, that the seats have been torn to 
pieces out of his church in Canal-street, and that the congregation had 
to move to another place. 

I intimated to you, in my last, that Bennett of the Herald was about 
to publish, conjointly with the Doctor, his Book of Exposures; but since, 
have learned that it is about to come out in Boston. He expects to 


make a fortune out of it, and I presume he needs it; but I feel sure 
that it will make converts to the Mormon faith. He has borrowed largely 
from Com. Morris' lascivious poems. 

A general order, signed by Hugh McFall, Adjutant-General, and 
authorized by you, has appeared in the Herald, ordering me to repair 
to Nauvoo, to take command of the Legion, and to bring with me Brig.- 
Gen. J. G. Bennett, which states that, if the requisition be persisted in, 
blood must be shed. I have assured Bennett of the Herald that I deem 
it a hoax, but he insists upon it that it is genuine. My reply to it has , 
appeared to day in that paper. I have there stated that I have written 
to Gov. Carlin for instructions. This is not so: it is only a rub. 

On the whole, you will only be made a greater prophet and a greater 
man — a great Emperor, by the affliction and consideration of your good 

My respects, with those of Mrs. B., to your lady. 

I am, dear sir, your sincere friend, 

James Arlington Bennett. 

This letter was placed in the hands of General Hugh 
McFall, who immediately wrote a refutation of the clause, 
concerning himself to Governor Carlin, and also one for 
the Wasp. The general order was not written by McFall, 
neither had he a knowledge of its existence until shown 
to him in the letter. It was evidently got up by our ene- 
mies to increase excitement and anger, and is barely an- 
other addition to the many slanderous reports put in circu- 
lation by evil and designing men. 

Thursday, 15. — In council with C. A. Warren, Esq. 
Also counseled Uncle John Smith and Brother Daniel C. 
Davis to move immediately to Keokuk, and help to build 
up a city. 

Friday, 16. — At home with Brother Rogers, who was 
painting my likeness. 

Saturday, 17. — I was at home with Brother Rogers, who 
continued painting my portrait. Elder William Clayton 
wrote Governor Carlin- a long letter, showing up the Mis- 
souri persecution and my sufferings in their true colors. 

Ship Sidney sailed from Liverpool for New Orleans with 
180 Saints. 


Sunday, 18. — At home. In the evening, received a visit 
from my mother. 

Monday, 19, and Tuesday, 20. — With Brother Sogers, 
painting at my house. 

Wednesday , 21. — In the large room over the store. In 
the evening had a visit from Elder John Taylor, who is 
just recovering from a long and very severe attack of sick- 
ness. I counseled Elder Taylor concerning the printing 
office, removing one press to Keokuk, &c. 

Thursday, 22. — At home, arranging with Remmick 
concerning moving printing press to Keokuk, buying 
paper, &c. 

Friday, 23. — At home. Visited by Elder Taylor. 

Colonel George Miller was elected Bigadier-General of 
the 1st Cohort, Nauvoo Legion, to fill the vacancy of 
General Wilson Law, promoted. 

Saturday, 24. — The legion was called out for general 
parade, and reviewed by General Law. In the evening, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Stephen Markham was elected Colonel 
of the 1st Regiment, 1st Cohort, to fill the place of Colonel 
George Miller, promoted; and Captain John D. Parker 
elected to fill his place ; and Captain Thomas Rich to fill 
the place of Major Wightman, deceased. 

At home. Had a visit from Mr. Joseph Murdock, Sen., 
and lady concerning some land, &c, at St. Joseph. 

Sunday, 25. — At the Grove. Spoke more than two 
hours, chiefly on the subject of persecution. 

Ship Medforci sailed from Liverpool for New Orleans 
with 214 Saints. 

Monday, 26. — The office of Notary Public for the city 
of Nauvoo was created by the city council, and James 
Sloan was elected. A seal for the Municipal Court was 
ordered by the council. 

Tuesday, 27, and Wednesday, 28. — At home. Nothing 
of importance transpired. 28.- Ship Henry sailed from 
Liverpool for New Orleans with 157 Saints. 

September 28, 1841 : 


A Baptist Excommunication. 

Resolved, that William Seichrist be excluded from the fellowship of 
this [the first regular Baptist] church [of the city of Alleghany, Alle- 
ghany county, Pennsylvania,] for embracing and maintaining a heresy, — 
to wit, doctrines peculiar to a late sect called Mormons or Latter-day 
Saints, that miracles can be wrought through the instrumentality of 
faith; that special revelations from God are now given to men; and that 
godly men are now endowed with the gift of prophecy, such as to fore- 
tell future events. William Bensun, Church Clerk. Deacon John Beck 
was moderator of the meeting. 

Thursday, 29. — This day, Emma began to be sick with 
fever; consequently I kept in the house with her all day. 

Friday, 30. — Emma is no better. I was with her all 

Saturday, October 1. — This morning I had a very severe 
pain in my left side, and was not able to be about. Emma 
Temple Com- sick as usual. I had previously sent for the 
mitte Affairs. Temple committee to balance their accounts 
and ascertain how the Temple business was going on. 
Some reports had been circulated that the committee was- 
not making a righteous disposition of property consecrated 
for the building of the Temple, and there appeared to be 
some dissatisfaction amongst the laborers. After care- 
fully examining the accounts and enquiring into the man* 
ner of the proceedings of the committee, I expressed my- 
self perfectly satisfied with them and their works. The 
books were balanced between the trustee and committee, 
and the wages of all agreed upon. 

I said to the brethren that I was amenable to the state 
for the faithful discharge of my duties as trustee-in-trust, 
and that the Temple committee were accountable to me, 
and to no other authority ; and they must not take notice 
of any complaints from any source, but let the complaints- 
be made to me, if any were needed, and I would make 
things right. The parties separated perfectly satisfied, 
and I remarked that I would have a notice published, stat- 
ing that I had examined their accounts and was satisfied ? 


&c. It was also agreed that the recorder's office should 
be moved to the Temple, for the convenience of all. 

In this day's Wasp I noticed ihe following letter from 
Elder Pratt: 

Letter of Elder Orson Prah — Denying any Relations ivith John 
C. Bennett, 

City of Nauyoo, Illinois, September 26, 1842. 
Mr. Editor: 

Dear Sir: — I noticed in the last week's Wasp a letter from Dr. R. 
D. Foster, written from New York city, which states that Dr. John C. 
Bennett had declared in said city that he had received a letter from me 
and from my wife, and that we were preparing to leave and expose 

I wish through the medium of your paper to say to the public that 
said statements are entirely false. We have never at any time written 
any letter or letters to Dr. J. C. Bennett, on any subject whatever. 
Neither are we "preparing to leave and expose Mormonism," but intend 
to make Nauvoo our residence, and Mormonism our motto. 


Orson Pratt. 

Sunday , 2. — About ten o'clock in the forenoon, a mes- 
senger arrived from Quincy, stating that the governor had 
offered a reward of $200 for Joseph Smith, R ewa rd offer- 
Jun., and also $200 for Orrin P. Rockwell. f rr f e ° s r t * e the 
This report was fully established on receipt of Pr °p^et. 
the mail papers. The Qitincy Whig also stated that Gov- 
ernor Reynolds has offered a reward, and published the 
governor's proclamation offering a reward of $300 for 
Joseph Smith, Jun., and $300 for Orrin P. Rockwell. It 
is not expected that much will be effected by the rewards. 

Emma continued very sick. I was with her all day. 

Monday , 3. — Emma was a little better. I was with her 
all day. 

Tuesday, 4.— Emma is very sick again. I attended with 
her all the day, being somewhat poorly myself. 

Wednesday , 5.— My dear Emma was worse. Many fears 
were entertained that she would not recover. She_ %as- 


baptized twice inj^h£jiyaiv-wh4ch^ev^ did her much 

The mness of good. She grew worse again at night, and con- 
Emma smith, tinued very sick indeed. 1 was unwell, and 
much troubled on account of Emma's sickness. 

Elder Rigdon called Elder William Clayton into his 
office, and said he had some matters to make known. He 
Rigdon's Re- had been at Carthage and had conversation 
ports of Plots, with Jugde Douglas concerning Governor Car- 
lin' s proceedings, &c, and had ascertained that Carlin 
had intentionally issued an illegal writ, expecting thereby 
to draw President Joseph to Carthage to get acquitted by 
habeas corpus before Douglas, and having men there 
waiting with a legal writ to serve on Joseph as soon as he 
^vas released under the other one, and bear him away to 
Missouri, without further ceremony. Elder Rigdon asked 
what power the governor's proclamation gave to any man 
or set of men who might be disposed to take President 
Joseph. He was answered, "Just the, same power and 
authority which a legal warrant gave to an officer." 

It is more and more evident that Carlin is determined 
to have me taken to Missouri, if he can. But may the 
Almighty Jehovah shield and defend me from all their 
power, and prolong. my days in peace, that I may guide 
His people in righteousness, until my head is white with 
old age. Amen. 

Thursday , 6. — Emma is better; and although it is the 
day on which she generally grows worse, yet she appears 
considerably easier. May the Lord speedily raise her to 
the bosom of her family, that the heart of His servant 
may be comforted again. Amen. My health is comfort- 

Friday, 7. — This morning Elder Elias Higbee states 
about the same things as were stated by Elder Rigdon two 
More Missouri days ago, and also that he had been informed 
plots. that many of the Missourians are coming to 

unite with the militia of this state voluntarily, and at their 
own expense; so that after the court rises at Carthage, if 


they don't take rae there, they will come and search the 
city, &c. It is likely that this is only report. 

Emma is somewhat better. I am cheerful and well. 

From the situation and appearance of things abroad, I 
concluded to leave home foi a short season, until there 
should be some change in the proceedings of The Prophet > s 
my enemies. Accordingly, at twenty minutes KatherTay- 
after eight o'clock in the evening, I started lor ' s - 
away in company with Brothers John Taylor, Wilson Law, 
and John D. Parker, and traveled through the night and 
part of next day; and, after a tedious journey, amved at 
Father James Taylor's well and in good spirits. 

This day the teachers met in Nauvoo, and organized 
into a quorum, by appointing Elisha Averett, president; 
James Huntsman and Elijah Averett, counselors; Samuel 
Eggleston, scribe; and eleven members. 

Monday, 10. — Elder Taylor returned to Nauvoo and 
found Emma gaining slowly. My health and spirits are 

Tuesday, 11. — From the Times and Seasons: — 

Announcement Concerning Temple Committee -Affairs. 

lo the Saints at Nauvoo and Scattered Abroad: 

This may certify that President Joseph Smith, the trustee-in-trust 
for the Temple, called upon the Temple committee on the 1st instant to 
present their books and accounts for examination, and to give account 
of their work at the temple. After carefully and attentively examin- 
ing and comparing their books and accounts, the trustee expressed him- 
self well satisfied with the proceedings and labors of the committee, 
and ordered that this be published in the Times a/id Seasons, that the 
Saints may know the facts, and be thereby encourged to double their 
exertions and forward means to roll on the building of the Temple in 
Nauvoo. It was also ordered that the recorder's office be henceforth re- 
moved to the committee house near the Temple. All property and 
means must therefore be brought to that place, where it will be recorded 
in due form. 

William^ Clayton. 

Clerk and Recorder of the Temple. 
Nauvoo, October 11. 1842. 

Thursday, 13. — The brethren arrived from Wisconsin 


with a raft of about 90,000 feet of boards and 24,000 
cubic feet of timber for the Temple and Nauvoo House. 

Saturday 15. — Brother John D. Parker returned to 
Nauvoo and informed my friends that I was well. 

Sunday, 16. — I copy the following from the New York 


Arlington House, October 16, 1S41. 
General J. G. Bennett- 

Sir: — Some time since I addressed a letter to Joseph Smith, the 
Mormon Prophet, in answer to a letter of his introducing to "my kind 
attention," a friend of his from the holy city of Nauvoo. 

In this letter I expressed my regret that the quarrel between him and 
John C. Bennett should have at all found its way to the public eye, 
this being the sole cause of placing him in his present awkward situ- 
ation. I likewise commiserated with him in his affliction, and signed 
myself at the conclusion of my letter, as his friend, which I really am, 
and the friend of all good Mormons, as well as other good men. 

Why should I not be Joseph Smith's friend? He has done nothing 
to injure me, nor do I believe he has done anything: to injure ex- 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri. The governor, no doubt, under strong 
feelings, may have thought and believed that Smith had preconcerted 
the plan for his assassination; but there is no legal evidence whatever of 
that fact — none by which an unprejudiced jury would convict any man; 
yet to send this man into Missouri, under the present requisition, would 
be an act of great injustice, as his ruin would be certain. 

How could any man, against whom there is a bitter religious prej- 
udice escape ruin, being in the circumstances of Smith? Look at the 
history of past ages — see the force of fanaticism and bigotry in bring- 
ing to the stake some of the best of men; and in all these cases the 
persecutors had they* pretexts, as well as in the case of the Mormon 
chief. Nothing follows its victim with such deadly aim as religious 
zeal, and therefore nothing should be so much guarded against by the 
civil power. 

Smith, I conceive, has just as good a right to establish a church, if 
he can do it, as Luther, Calvin, Wesley, Fox, or even King Henry the 
Eighth. All these chiefs in religion had their opponents, and their peo 
pie their persecutors. Henry the Eighth was excommunicated, body 
and bones, soul and all, by his holiness, the Pope; still the church of 
England has lived as well as all the other sects. 
Just so it will be with the Mormons. They may kill one prophet and 


confine in chains half his followers, but another will take his place, 
and the Mormons will still go ahead. One of their Elders said to me, 
when conversing on this subject, that they were like a mustard plant, 
— "If yon don't disturb it, the seed will fall and multiply; and if you 
kick it about, you only give the seed more soil, and it will multiply the 

Undertake to convince them that they are wrong", and that Smith is 
an impostor, and the answer is, laying the hand, on the heart, "I know 
in my own soul that it is true, and want no better evidence: I feel 
happy in my faith; and why should I be disturbed?" 

Now, I cannot see but what this is the sentiment that governs all 
religiously disposed persons, their object being heaven and happiness, 
no matter what their church and creed. . They, therefore, cannot be 
put down while the Constitution of the United States offers them pro- 
tection in common with all other sects, and while they believe that 
their eternal salvation is at stake. From what I know of the people, I 
fully believe that all the real, sincere Mormons would die sooner than 
abandon their faith and their religion. 

General John C. Bennett has stated that to conquer the Mormon 
Legion it would require five to one against them, all things taken 
into consideration, and that they will die to a man sooner than give up 
their Prophet. 

Now, is the arrest of this man worth such a sacrifice of life as must 
necessarily follow an open war with his people? The loss of from one 
to three thousand lives will, no doubt, follow in an attempt to accom- 
plish an object not in the end worth a button. Persecute them, and 
you are sure to multiply them. This is fully proved since the Missouri 
persecution, as since that affair they have increased one hundred fold- 

It is the best policy, both of Missouri and Illinois, to let them alone; 
for if they are drove farther west, they may set up an independent 
government, under which they can worship the Almighty as may suit 
their taste. Indeed, I would recommend to the Prophet to pull up 
stakes and take possession of the Oregon teriitory in his own right, and 
establish an independent empire. In one humdred years from this 
time, no nation on earth could conquer such a people. Let not the his- 
tory of David be forgotten. If the Prophet Joseph would do this, mil- 
lions would flock to his standard and join his cause. He could then 
make his own laws by the voice of revelation, and have them executed 
like the act of one man. 

With respect to myself, I would just repeat that I am the Prophet's 
friend, and the friend of his people, merely from sympathy, as my arm 
has ever been lifted on the side of the persecuted and oppressed. I 
have never in my life followed the fat ox, nor bowed for a favor on my 


own account to mortal man. While I despise the purse-proud man, I 
am proud to the proud man, and humble to the humble; and where 
men were contending, have ever thrown myself on the weakest side. 

By inserting this communication, it is presumed that no one will 
hold the Herald responsible for the sentiments it contains; yet I have 
no doubt that there are thousands of independent, liberal-minded men 
in this country who think'as 1 do. Neither the Mormon Prophet nor 
his people can add anything to my fortune or reputation. I expect 
nothing from them; they are a poor and industrious people, and have 
nothing to give. I am influenced in my conduct towards them by a 
spirit of benevolence and mercy, and hope the governor and state of 
Illinois will act in the like manner. It is true I was commissioned in 
tbeir Legion, through the instrumentality of their enemy, General John 
C. Bennett, an act entirely of their own, without my agency; but I was 
as much their friend before as since. 

The Missouri persecution fixed my attention and commiseration on 
the people. It must be recollected, too, that the Mormon Prophet and 
his people are the most ardent friends and promoters of literature and 
science. These are elementary principles in their social system, and 
this certainly is contrary to everything like despotism. 

I hope, therefore, and with great deference express that hope, that 
ex-Governor Boggs will withdraw his demand fdr the Prophet, and let 
those poor people rest in peace. Both he and Governor Carlin will 
feel much more at peace with themselves by quashing the whole pro- 

Most respectfully, 

Your humble servant, 

James Arlington Bennett. 
Counselor at Law, &c. 

By this I discover a spark of liberty burning in the 
bosom of the writer. May it continue to burn and burn, 
till it once more fires the whole land with its heavenly 

Thursday, 20. — Early this morning I arrived at home 
on a visit to my family. During the day I was visited by 
several of the brethren, who rejoiced to see me once 
more. Emma is still getting better, and is able to 
attend to a little business, having this day closed contract 
and received pay for a quarter section of land of Brother 
Job V. Barnum. 


Justin Butter fields Legal Opinion on the Efforts to Drag Joseph Smith 

into Missouri. 

Chicago, October 20, 1842. 
Sidney Rigdon, Esq. 

Dear Sir: — In answer to your favors of the 17th instant, Mr. War- 
ren was correct in the information he gave you of my opinion of the 
illegality of the- requisition made by the governor of Missouri upon the 
governor of this state for the surrender of Joseph Smith, and that the 
governor of this state should cause him to be arrested for the purpose 
of being surrendered. I had no doubt but the supreme court of this 
state would discharge him upon habeas corpus. Subsequent examination 
has confirmed me in that opinion. 

I understand from your letter, and from the statement of facts made 
to me by Mr. Warren, that the requisition of the governor of Missouri 
is accompanied by an affidavit of ex-Governor Boggs, stating in sub- 
stance that on the 6th day of May last he was shot while sitting in his 
house, with intent to kill; and, as he verily believes, the act was com- 
mitted by 0. P. Rockwell; and that Joseph Smith was accessory to the 
crime before its commission; and that hp has fled from justice. That it 
can be proved that Joseph Smith was not in the state of Missouri at 
the time the crime was committed, but was in this state; that it is 
untrue that he was in the state of Missouri at the time of the commis- 
sion of the said crime, or has been there at any time since. He could 
not, therefore, have fled from that state since the commission of said 

The light on the part of the governor of Missouri to demand Smith, 
and the duty on the part of the governor of this state to deliver him up, 
if they exist, are eriven and imposed by that clause of the Constitution 
of the United States which declares "that a person charged in any state 
with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice and be 
found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of 
the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state 
having jurisdiction of the crimes. 

It is unnecessary to refer to the act of Congress in relation to the 
delivery up of fugitives from justice, as Congress has just so much 
power, and no more, than is expressly given by the said clause in the 
Constitution. The Constitution is the best exponent of itself. What 
persons, then, can be surrendered up by the governor of one state to 
the governor of another? 

First. He must be a person charged with treason, felony, or other 
crime. ''It is sufficient if he be charged with the commission of crime, 
either by indictment found or by affidavit. Second. He must be a 
person who shall flee from justice and be found in another state." 


It is not sufficient to satisfy this branch of the Constitution, that he 
should be "charged" with having fled from justice. Unless he has 
actually fled from the state where the offense was committed, to 
another state, the governor of this state has no jurisdiction over his 
person, and cannot deliver him up, 

When Mr. Smith is brought up on a habeas corpus, he will have a 
right, under the 3rd section of our habeas corpus act, to introduce testi- 
mony, and show that the process upon which he is arrested was 
obtained by false pretense ; that it is untrue that he fled from the state 
of Missouri, to evade being brought to justice there, for the crime of 
which he is charged. He will have the right to place himself upon the 
platform of the Constitution of the United States, and say, 
I am a citizen of the state of Illinois; I have not fled from the state 
of Missouri, or from the "justice" of that state, on account of the com- 
mission of the crime with which I am charged. I am ready to prove 
that the charge of having fled from that state is false, and I am not, 
therefore, subject under the Constitution of the United States, to be 
delivered up to that sta^e for trial. 

You say, in your letter to me, that you doubt whether ou a habeas 
corpus the court would have a right to try the question, whether Smith 
was in Missouri at the time of the commission of the crime of which he 
is charged. To this I answer, that upon a habeas corpus, the court 
would be bound to try the question, whether Smith fled from justice 
from Missouri to this state. The affidavit of Mr. Boggs is not con- 
clusive on this point. It maybe rebutted. Unless Smith is a person who 
has fled from justice, he is not subject to be delivered up, under the 
express provisions of our own habeas corpus act. He has a right to 
show that the affidavit is false, and that the order for his arrest was 
obtained by false pretenses. Again, the affidavit on its face was not 
sufficient to authorize the arrest of Smith. It is evasive and deceptive. 
It does not show that he fled from the state of Missouri to evade justice 
for the commission of the crime of which he is charged by Governor 

Robert G. Williams, in the year 1835, was indicted in the state of 
Alabama for attempting to incite rebellion and insurrection in that 
state. He was demanded by the governor of that state of the governor 
of New York, and the requisition stated that he had fled from justice. 
The governor of the state of New York (Marcv^ took notice that the 
said Williams was a citizen of the state of New York, and had not fled 
from justice from Alabama, and on that ground alone refused to sur- 
render him up. This was a stronger case than that of Smith, as an 
indictment had been Jound. Governor Marcy puts his refusal upon the 
express ground that, by the Constitution of the United States, the gov- 


ernor of one state had no right to demand, nor the governor of another 
state a right to surrender up, one of his citizens, unless he had fled 
from justice; and it was the right and duty of the governor upon whom 
the demand was made to inquire into the fact whether he had fled from 
justice before he made the surrender. 

I have the book containing all the proceedings in this case of Wil- 
liams. There are several other cases equal in point, and they proceed 
upon the ground that a governor of a state has no jurisdiction over the 
body of a citizen to arrest and surrender him tip to a foreign state, 
unless he is a fugitive from that state, unless he has fled from the state 
to evade ''justice," or, in other words, to evade being tried for the 
offense with which he is charged. 

In a despotic form of government, the sovereign power is the will of 
the monarch, who can act in every instance as may suit his pleasure. 
But can the governor of one of our states, of his own mere will, with- 
out auy authority from the Constitution, or the legislative power of the 
state, arrest and deliver up to a foreign government any person what- 
ever? If he can do this, then is the liberty of the citizen wholly at his 

The writ of habeas corpus is a suit which every person imprisoned or 
unlawfully detained has a right to prosecute for the recovery of his 
liberty; and, if he is in custody by process from a competent power, he 
is entitled to his discharge when the jurisdiction has been executed. 

The government of this state has no power or jurisdiction over the 
person of a citizen of this state to arrest and cause him to be delivered 
up and transported to another state, except the power is expressly given 
to him by the Constitution of the United States. And what is that 
power? It only authorizes the governor of one state to surrender up a 
fugitive from justice, to return him back to the state from whence he 
has fled. 

First. The person to be surrendered up must be a fugitive from the 
state to which it is attempted to surrender him. 

Second. He must be a fugitive jrom justice; in other words, he must 
have been in the state when and where the crime was committed, and 
have fled from the state to evade being apprehended and tried for that 

Third. Unless he is, in fact, such a fugitive from justice, the gover- 
nor has no power, by the laws and Constitution, to deliver him up. 

Fourth. If he is charged with being a fugitive from justice, and the 
governor cause him to be apprehended on that charge, he has a right to 
sue out a habeas corpus; and when brought up on that writ, he has the 
undoubted right of showing that the governor has no constitutional 
power to deliver him up to another state; that he has not "fled from 


justice into this state," and is not such a person as the Constitution 
authorizes the governor to deliver up; and that it would be an excess- 
of jurisdiction on the part of the governor to deliver him up. 

The question to be examined into, upon the return of the habeas 
corpus, would be a mere question of locality. The question would be 
was Smith in this state, or not, at the time the crime was committed in 
Missouri? If he was in this state at that time, then he could not be a 
fugitive from justice from Missouri, in the sense of the Constitution* 
and the governor would have no power to deliver him up. 

The argument that because Governor Boggs has made affidavit that 
Smith has fled from justice, his affidavit is to be taken as conclusive on 
that point, and that upon the return of a habeas corpus, Smith would 
be precluded from controverting or showing the falsity of that affidavit, 
is too absurd to require a serious answer. 

The liberties of the citizens of this state are not held on quite so 
feeble a tenure, nor does the Constitution authorize the governor to 
transport the citizens of this state upon a mere * 'charge" made by a 
citizen of another state. Such is not the reading of the Constitution. 
That instrument only authorizes the delivery up of such persons, "who 
shall flee," upon the demand of the executive authority of the state 
from which they "fled." There must have been a "flight" in fact and 
in deed from the state where the offense was committed, or the gov- 
ernor has no jurisdiction to "deliver up." 

If the charge of having "fled" is made and the governor acting in 
pais* is attempting to deliver up upon that charge, the person attempted 
to be made the victim has a clear, undoubted, constitutional right by 
means of a writ of habeas corpus, to test its truth before a judicial 
tribunal of the country; and, if the charge is proven to be false, the 
governor is ousted of his jurisdiction over the person of the prisoner, 
and he is restored to his liberty before he has undergone the penalty of 
the transportation to a foreign country upon the mere charge of an 
interested or partial witness. 

The power of the executive of a state to surrender up a citizen to be 
transported to a foreign state for trial, is a most tremendous power, 
which might be greatly abused, were it not limited by constitutional 
checks, and the citizens secured against its despotic exercise by the writ 
of habeas corpus. 

In the case of Williams, the governor of New York, in his reply to 
the governor of Alabama, says, "What occurs daily in the ordinary 
course of criminal proceedings, may take place in regard to persons 
transported to a distant jurisdiction for trial. It may happen that an 
innocent man will be accused; and, if demanded, he must be delivered 

* A judicial act outside of court and not recorded. — Century Dictionary. 


up, should your exposition of the Constitution be sanctioned. Under 
these circumstances, his condition would be perilous indeed, — dragged 
from his home, far removed from friends, borne down by the weight of 
imputed guilt, and unable, probably, to obtain the evidence by which 
he might vindicate his innocence. If appearances were against him, he 
could scarcely hope to escape unmerited condemnation. 7 ' 

The American colonists regard the exercise of this power as an act of 
revolting tyranny, and assigned it in the Declaration of Independence 
as one of the prominent causes that impelled them to a separation from 
the British Empire. A power which may be thus oppressively used 
should be resorted to with the greatest caution. When its exercise is 
invoked, it is not sufficient that the case may apparently come within 
the letter of the Constitution. It is the duty of the Executive before 
yielding a blind obedience to the letter of the law, to see that the case 
comes within the spirit and meaning of the Constitution. 

It may be pleasing as well as instructive to look into the proceedings 
of the executive of our sister state, and witness that, by faithfully 
administering the law in relation to the delivering up of fugitives from 
justice, according to its spirit and meaning, they have saved at least 
two of the citizens of Illinois from becoming victims to its abuse. In 
the year 1839, the governor of the state of New York was presented 
with the copy of an indictment by a grand jury in the city of New York 
against John and Nathan Aldrich, for fraud in obtaining goods by false 
pretenses, and was requested to make a requisition upon the governor 
of Illinois to surrender them up as fugitives from justice. 

Now, here was a case which came exactly within the letter of the law 
of Congress in relation to fugitives from justice. An indictment had 
been found charging them with having committed a crime. But did the 
governor of New York make the "requisition?" No; he referred the 
application to the Hon. John C. Spencer, now Secretary of War, and 
one of the most enlightened lawyers of the age. 

Extract of Mr, Spencer's Opinion upon the Case, 

The constitutional provision under which requisitions may be made by 
the governor of one state upon the governor of another was a substi- 
tute for the principle recognized by the law of nations, by which one 
sovereign is bound to deliver to another fugitives who have committed 
certain offenses. These offenses are of the deepest grade of criminality, 
and robbers, murderers and incendiaries, and those enumerated as 
proper to be surrendered. Following the analogy thus suggested, the 
provisions in our Constitution, it would seem, should be construed 
to embrace similar cases only, except, perhaps, those offenses which 
arise from an abuse of the same constitutional provision. That pro- 

12 Vol. V. 


vision must be guarded with the utmost care, or it will become intoler- 
able. I do not think the circumstances of the case before me are of 
such grave import, or the offense itself of such high grade, as to justify 
the requisition desired. The power given by the Constitution ought 
not to be cheapened or applied to trifling offenses, or indeed to any 
that was not originally contemplated. 

For the reasons stated in Mr. Spencer's opinion, the governor of 
New York refused to make the requisition upon the governor of Illi- 
nois. The case certainly came within the letter of the law, but not with- 
in the spirit and meaning. So with the affidavit of Governor Boggs, 
when he swears that Smith has fled from justice. It may come within 
the letter of the Constitution; but does it come within its spirit and 
meaning? Does it show that Smith was in Missouri at the time of the 
commission of the crime, and that he fled from that state to evade being 
brought to justice for that crime? Or does it refer to the flight of 
Smith and the Mormons from Missouri some years since? 

I will refer to one more case of a similar nature. Lord Campbell, 
formerly attorney-general of England, in a recent debate in Parlia- 
ment upon the subject of the Creole, made the following remarks: 

4 'To show how cautious states should be in making such concessions 
one to the other reciprocally, he would mention a case that occurred 
when he was attorney-general. A treaty had been agreed upon 
between the state of New York and the province of Canada, by which 
the government of each agreed reciprocally to deliver up the citizens 
or subjects of the other against whom grand juries had found a bill, and 
who had sought refuge within the territories of the other. It happened 
that a slave had escaped from his master in New York, and had got to 
Canada. To facilitate his escape, he rode a horse of his master's for a part 
of the way, but turned him back on reaching the frontier. The author- 
ides of New York well knew that England would not give up a run- 
away slave, and that as they could not claim him under the treaty, they 
therefore had a bill of indictment against him, before a New York 
grand jury for stealing the horse, though it was clear the animus fur- 
andi was wanting. The grand jury, however, found a true bill against 
him for the felony, and he was claimed under the treaty. The governor, 
under such circumstances refused to give him up until he had consulted 
the government in England. He (Lord Campbell) was consulted, and 
gave it as his opinion that the man ought not to be given up, as the 
true bill, where no felony had been committed, did not briug the case 
within the treaty. The man was not given up, and there the matter 
rested. This, he repeated, showed the necessity of the greatest caution 
where reciprocal rights of surrender were granted between states. 

It is not to be presumed that the executive of this state would know- 


ingly, lend his aid in dragging one of our citizens, who is not a fugitive 
from justice, into a foreign state for trial. The governor has undoubt- 
edly been misled by the evasive affidavit which accompanied the 

I would advise that Mr. Smith procure respectable and sufficient 
affidavits to prove beyond all question, that he was in the state and not 
in Missouri, at the time the crime with which he is charged was com- 
mitted, and upon these affidavits, apply to the governor to counter- 
mand the warrant he has issued for his arrest. 

if he should refuse so to do, I am clearly of the opinion that, upon 
the above state of facts, the supreme court will discharge him upon 
habeas corpus. 

Eespectfully your obedient servant, 
Justin Butte rfi eld. 

The feregoing letter of Mr. Butterfield (United States' 
attorney for the district of Illinois,) shows, in a very 
lucid manner, what our rights and privileges are, pertain- 
ing to the habeas corpus, and accords with the opinion 
of every intelligent man, — the opinions of ex-Governor 
Boggs, Governor Reynolds, of Missouri, and Governor 
Carlin, to the contrary, notwithstanding. 




Friday, October 21, 1842. — This evening I returned, in 
company with John D. Parker, to Father Taylor's, judg- 
ing it wisdom to keep out of the way of my enemies a 
while longer at least, although all is peace and quiet, and 
a prospect that my enemies will not trouble, me much 
more at present. 

Sunday, 23. — This day the Temple committee laid 
before the Saints the propriety and advan- 

Temporary n • i m 

Floor m the - tages of laying a temporary floor in the Tem- 
ple, that the brethren might henceforth meet 
in the Temple to worship, instead of meeting in the 
Grove. This was my instructions, and the Saints seemed 
to rejoice at this privilege very much. 

Monday, 24. — Printing office took fire, which was 
extinguished with difficulty. 

Tuesday, 25. — Ship Emerald sailed from Liverpool 
with 250 Saints for New Orleans. 

Friday, 28. — Soon after daylight this morning, I 
returned home again to visit my family. I found Emma 
worse; the remainder of the family well. In the afternoon I 
rode out into the city and took a little exercise. From 
the appearance of things abroad, we are encouraged to 
believe that my enemies will not trouble me much more 
at present. 

This day the brethren finished laying the temporary 
floor, and seats in the Temple, and its appearance is 


truly pleasant and cheering. The exertions of the breth- 
ren during the past week to accomplish this thing are 
truly praiseworthy. 

Saturday, 29. — About ten in the forenoon I rode up 
and viewed the Temple. I expressed my satisfaction at 
the arrangements, and was pleased with the progress 
made in the sacred edifice. After conversing 

° The Prophet 

with several of the brethren, and shaking at the Tem- 


hands with numbers who were very much 
rejoiced to see their Prophet again, I returned home; but 
soon afterwards went over to the store, where a number 
of brethren and sisters were assembled, who had arrived 
this morning from the neighborhood of New York, Long 
Island, &c. After Elders Taylor, Woodruff, and Samuel 
Bennett had addressed the brethren and sisters, I spoke 
to them at considerable length, showing them the proper 
course to pursue, and how to act in regard to making pur- 
chases of land, &c. 

I showed them that it was generally in consequence of 
the brethren disregarding or disobeying counsel that they 
became dissatisfied and murmured : and many mi n , , 

' The Prophet's 

when they arrived here, were dissatisfied with Advice to 
the conduct of some. of the Saints, because 
everything was not done perfectly right, aud they get 
angry, and thus the devil gets advantage over them to 
destroy them. I told them I was but a man, and they 
must not expect me to be perfect ; if they expected per- 
fection from me, I should expect it from them; but if 
they would bear with my infirmities and the infirmities 
of the brethren, I would likewise bear with their infirm- 

I told them it was likely I would have again to hide up 
in the woods, but they must not be discouraged, but build 
up the city, the Temple, &c. When my enemies take away 
my rights, I will bear it and keep out of the way; but if 
they take away your rights, I will fight for you. I blessed 
them and departed. 


Dr. Willard Biekards returned to Nauvoo with his fam- 
ily, having visited most of the churches in 

Return of Dr. J ' ° 

Richards to the Eastern btates, and preached to them 
the necessity of building the Temple and 
gathering to this place, in obedience to the command- 
ment of God to His people. 

Sunday, 30. — The Saints met to worship on a tempor- 
ary floor, in the Temple, the walls of which were about 
four feet high above the basement; and notwithstanding 
its size, it was well filled. It had been expected that I 
would address them, but I sent word that I was so sick 
that I could not meet with them; consequently Elder John 
Taylor delivered a discourse. In the evening I went to 
visit the sick, &c. 

Monday, 31. — I rode out to my farm with my children, 
and did not return until after dark. 

Tuesday, Nov. 1, 1842. — I rode with Emma to the 
Temple for the benefit of her health. She is rapidly 
gaining. In the afternoon went to see Dr. Willard Rich- 
ards, who was very sick at Elder Woodruff's; afterwards, 
accompanied by my children and William 

Accident to 

the Prophet's Clayton, rode out towards the farm. When 
going down the hill, near Casper's the car- 
riage got over-balanced and upset. I was thrown some 
distance from the carriage, and all three of the children 
almost under it. I arose and enquired if any of the chil- 
dren were killed; but upon examination, there was no 
one seriously hurt. Frederick G. Williams had his cheek 
bruised, which was the worst injury received. 

It seemed miraculous how we escaped serious injury 
from this accident; and our escape could not be attributed 
to any other power than that of Divine Providence. I 
feel thankful to Gk>d for this instance of His kind and 
watchful care over His servant and family. 

The carriage was so much broken, we left it, and put- 
ting the children in Brother Stoddard's buggy, returned. In 
the evening I rode to the Temple with two of my children. 


Wednesday, 2. — Spent this forenoon in removing the 
books, desk, &c, from rny store over to my house. In 
the afternoon rode out to my farm, and spent the time 
plowing, &c. 

Thursday, 3. — Rode out with Emma to the Temple. 

Friday, 4, — Eode out with Lorin Walker to examine 
his timber north of the city. 

Brothers Hyrum Smith and Wilson Law returned from 
their mission to the East. They bring very Return of Hy _ 
good reports concerning the public feeling, and\v?ison 
and say that John C. Bennett's expose has Law - 
done no hurt, but much good. 

President Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball George 
A. Smith and Amasa Lyman, of the Twelve, also returned 
from their missions, and brought a similar re- 

__ !-,..,,„ Return of 

port. They had visited the conferences ac- Brigham 
cording to the notice which they had pub- 
lished on September J 2th, and had also visited many of 
the principal places in the state, delivered addresses to 
the people, and found a friendly feeling in most cases, 

Saturday, 5. — I tarried at home on account of the rain. 
I received a visit from some Indians, who were accom- 
panied by a negro interpreter. They expressed great 
friendship for the Mormon people, and said they were 
their friends. After considerable conversation and par- 
taking of victuals, they departed, evidently highly grati- 
fied with their visit. 

I told Dr. Richards the Mississippi would be frozen over 
in less than a month, although the weather was then 
warm and pleasant. 

Sunday, 6. — At home all day. My brother Hyrum 
preached. Afternoon received a visit from Dr. Willard 

Monday, 7. — Spent the forenoon in council with 
Brother Hyrum Smith and some of the Twelve, and in 
giving instructions concerning the contemplated journey 
to Springfield on the 15th December next, and what 


course ought to be pursued in reference to the case of 
The Prophet's bankruptcy. In the afternoon Calvin A. War- 
SthCaWnA. ren > Esq., arrived, and I called upon some of 
warren. ^ Twelve and others to testify before 

Squire Warren what they knew in reference to the 
appointment of trustee-in-trust, &c, showing also from 
the records that I was authorized by the Church to pur- 
chase and hold property in the name of the Church, and 
that I had acted in all things according to the counsel 
given to me. 

Tuesday , 8. -This afternoon called upon Windsor P. 
Lyons and others to make affidavits concerning the frauds 
and irregularities practiced in the post office 
Affairs at in Nauvoo. A petition was drawn and signed 

by many, and sent by Squire Warren to 
Judge Young, [U. S. senator from Illinois] with a re- 
quest that the latter should present the same to the post- 
master general, and use his influence to have the present 
postmaster removed, and a new one appointed. I was 
recommended for the appointment. In the afternoon 
officiated in court as mayor at my house. 

Wednesday, 9.— Paid E. Rhodes $436.93, it being the 
amount of three notes due for the north-west quarter of 
Sec. 9, 6 N. 8 W., and presided in city council, a special 
meeting to investigate the writ of habeas corpus. 

Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, 10, 11, 12. — Presided 
at adjourned session of the city council at my house. 

Sunday, 13. — I was at home through the day. 

Letter of George D, Watt, Reporting Arrival of Emigrants, 

Ship Sidney, New Orleans, November 13, 1842. 
Dear Brother. — We have had a passage of fifty-six days— fine 
weather — with a kind captain and crew, who allowed us every reason- 
able privilege. There have been five deaths out of the company, and 
one sailor who fell from the yard arm and was killed. Brother Yates 1 
eldest child, Sister Cannon, Brother Browne's child, and two children 
belonging to a man not in the Church. 


We stuck upon the bar at the mouth of the river, thirty-four hours. 
About two hours after we got off, the Medford came on the bar, where 
she stuck thirty hours. We landed here on the 11th instant, and the 
Medford arrived today, 13th. She lies about ten yards from us. They 
have had two deaths. Upon the whole, a good passage. 

We have taken one of the largest and best steamboats in this port. 
We pay two and a half dollars per head, and twenty-five cents per cwt. 
above the weight allowed each person, which is one hundred pounds. 
We are all going up together. 

Yours truly, 

George D. Watt. 

Monday, 14. — Presided at city council, when was 
passed the following " Ordinance regulating the proceed- 
ings on writs of habeas corpus." 

Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the city council of the city of Nauvoo, 
that if any person or persons shall be or stand committed or detained 
for any criminal or supposed criminal matter, it shall and may be law- 
ful for him, her, or them to apply to the municipal court, when in 
session, or to the clerk thereof in vacation, for a writ of habeas corpus; 
which application shall be in writing and signed by the prisoner, or 
some person on his, her, or their behalf, setting forth the facts concern- 
ing his, her, or their imprisonment, and in whose custody he, she, or 
they are detained; and shall be accompanied by a copy of the warrant, 
or warrants of commitments, or an affidavit that the said copy had 
been demanded of the person or persons in whose custody the prisoner 
or prisoners are detained, and by him or them refused or neglected 
to be given. The said court or clerk to whom the application shall be 
made, shall forthwith award the said writ of habeas corpus, unless it 
shall appear from the petition itself, or from the documents annexed, 
that the party can neither be discharged nor admitted to bail, nor in 
any other manner relieved, which said writ shall be issued under the 
hand of the clerk, and the seal of the court; which seal may be a writ- 
ten one, until another shall be obtained, and shall be in the following 
words, to wit: "Seal of the Municipal Court of the city of Nauvoo." 

State of Illinois, | 
City of Nauvoo, J ss * 

lo the People of the State of Illinois, to the Marshal of said City, Greet- 
Whereas application has been made before the municipal court of 


said city that the body (or bodies) of A B, &c, is or are in the custody 
of C D, &c, of &c, these are therefore to command, the said C D, &., 
of &c, to safely have the body (or bodies) of said A B, &c, in his- 
custody, detained, as it is said, together with the day and cause of his 
(her or their) caption and detention by whatsoever name the said A y 
B,&c, may be known or called, before the municipal court of said city, 
forthwith to abide such order as the said court shall make in his behalf; 
and further, if the said C D, &c, or other person or persons having 
said A B, &c, in custody shall refuse, or neglect to comply with the 
provisions of this writ, you, the marshal of said city, or other person 
authorized to serve the same, are hereby required to arrest the person 
or persons so refusing or neglecting to comply as aforesaid, and bring 
him or them, together with the person or persons in his or their 
custody, forthwith before the municipa court aforesaid, to be dealt 
with according to law; and herein fail not to bring this writ with you. 

Witness, J. S,, clerk of the municipal court at Nauvoo, this day 

of in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

forty J. S., Clerk. 

And [this shall] be directed to the city marshal, and shall be served by 
delivering a copy thereof to the person or persons in whose custody the 
prisoner or prisoners are detained, and said writ shall be made return- 
able forthwith, and the form and substance thereof, as herein set forth, 
and be taken and considered as part and parcel of this ordinance. To 
the intent that no officer, sheriff, jailer, keeper, or other person, or per- 
sons, upon whom such writ shall be served, may pretend ignorance 
thereof, every such writ and copy thereof served shall be endorsed with 
these words, "By the Habeas Corpus Act; " and whenever the said writ 
shall by any person be served upon the sheriff, jailor, keeper, or other 
person or persons whomsoever, holding said prisoner or prisoners, or 
being brought to him or them, or being served upon any of his or their 
under-officers or deputies at the jail, or place where the prisoner or 
prisoners are detained, he or they, or some of his or their under-officers 
or deputies shall, upon payment or tender of the charges of bringing 
the said prisoner or prisoners, to be ascertained by the court awarding 
the said writ, and endorsed thereon, not exceeding ten cents per mile; 
and upon sufficient security given to pay the charges of carrying him, 
her, or them back, if he, she, or they shall be remanded, make return 
of such writ, and bring or cause to be brought, the body or bodies of 
the prisoner or prisoners before the municipal court forthwith, and cer- 
tify the true cause of his, her, or their imprisonment, unless the com- 
mitment of such person or persons shall be to the county jail in Han- 
cock county, in which case the time shall be prolonged till five days, 
after the delivery of the writ as aforesaid, and not longer. 


Provided, nevertheless, that in ease any person or persons may at any 
time hereafter be taken and lodged in the city or county jail, under any 
writ or process, as provided by the city charter of the city of Nauvoo 
and shall require a writ of habeas corpus to issue to bring him, her, or 
them before the municipal court of said city, said writ shall issue to 
'bring him, her, or them before said court, and be directed to the city 
marshal to be served upon the person or persons in whose custody such 
prisoner or prisoners may then be detained. 

Sec. 2. Where any person or persons not being committed or detained 
for any criminal or supposed criminal matter shall be confined or re- 
strained of his, her, or their liberty, under any color or pretense what- 
ever, he, she, or they may apply for a writ of habeas corpus, as afore- 
said, which application shall be in writing, signed by the party, or some 
person on his, her, or their behalf, setting forth the fads concerning 
his, her, or their imprisonment, and wherein the illegality of such im- 
prisonment consists, and in whose custody he, she or they are detained; 
which application or petition shall be verified by the oath or affirmation 
of the party applying, or some other person on his, her, or their behalf. 
If the confinement or restraint is by virtue of any judicial writ or pro- 
cess, or order, a copy thereof shall be annexed thereto, or an affidavit 
made that the same had been demanded and refused: the same proceed- 
ings shall thereupon be had in all respects, as are directed in the pre- 
ceding section, and any officer, person, or persons, knowing that he or 
they have an illegal writ, or not having any writ, who shall attempt 
through any false pretest to take or intimidate any of the inhabitants of 
this city, through such pretext, shall forfeit for every such offense a sum 
not exceeding one thousand dollars, nor less than fi>e hundred dollars, 
or in case of failure to pay such forfeiture, to be imprisoned not more 
than twelve months nor less than six months. 

Sec. 3. Upon the return of the writ of habeas corpus, a day shall be 
set for the hearing of the cause of imprisonment or detainer, not ex- 
ceeding five days thereafter, unless the prisoner or prisoners shall re- 
quest a longer time. The said prisoner or prisoners may deny any of 
the material facts set forth in the return, or may allege any fact to show 
either that the imprisonment or detention is unlawful, or that he, she, 
or they, is or are then entitled to his, her, or their discharge, which 
allegations or denials shall be made on oath. The said return may be 
amended, by leave of the court, before or after the same is filed, as also 
may all suggestions made against it, that thereby material facts may be 
ascertained. The said court shall proceed in a summary way to settle 
the said facts, by hearing the testimony and arguments, as well of all 
parties interested civilly, if any there be, as of the prisoner or prisoners, 
and the persons or person who holds him, her, or them in custody, and 


shall dispose of the prisoner or prisoners as the case may require. If 
it appear that the prisoner or prisoners are in custody by virtue of pro- 
cess from any court, legally constituted, he, she, or they can be dis- 
charged for the following causes: — First, where the court has exceeded 
the limits of its jurisdiction, either as to the matter, place, sum, person, 
or persons; second, where, though the original imprisonment was law- 
ful, yet by some act, omission, or event which has subsequently taken 
place, the party has become entitled to his, her, or their discharge; third, 
where the process is defective in some substantial form required by law; 
fourth, where the process though in proper form has been issued in a 
case, or under circumstances where the law does not allow process, or 
orders for imprisonment or arrest, to issue; fifth, where although in 
proper form the process has been issued or executed by a person or per- 
sons, either unauthorized to issue or execute the same, or where the 
person or persons having the custody of the prisoner or prisoners under 
such process is not the person or persons empowered by law to detain 
him, her, or them; sixth, where the process appears to have been ob- 
tained by false pretense or bribery; seventh, where there is no general 
law, nor any judgment, order, or decree of a court, to authorize the 
process, if in a civil suit, nor any conviction, if in a criminal proceeding. 
In all cases where the imprisonment is for a criminal or supposed crim- 
inal matter, if it shall appear to the said court that there is sufficient 
legal cause for the commitment of the prisoner or prisoners, although 
such commitment may have been informally made, or without due 
authority, or the process may have been executed by a person or per- 
sons not duly authorized, the court shall make a new commitment, in 
proper form, and directed to the proper officer or officers, or admit the 
party to bail, if the case be bailable. 

Sec. 4. When any person or persons shall be admitted to bail on 
habeas corpus, he, she, or they shall euter into recognizance with one 
or more securities in such sum as the court shall diiect, having regard 
to the circumstances of the prisoner or prisoners, and the nature of the 
offense, conditioned for his, her, or their appearance at the next circuit 
court to be holden in and for the county where the offense was com- 
mitted, or where the same is to be tried. Where the court shall admit 
to bail, or remand any prisoner or prisoners brought before the court, 
on any writ of habeas corpus, it shall be the duty of said court to bind 
all such persons as to declare any thing material to prove the offense, 
with which the prisoner or prisoners are charged by recognizance to 
appear at the proper court having cognizance of the offense, on the first 
day of the next term thereof, to give evidence thereof touching the said 
offense, and not to depart the said court without leave; which recogniz- 
ance so taken, together with the recognizance entered into by the pris- 


oner or prisoners, when he, she, or they are admitted to bail, shall be 
certified and returned to the proper court, on the first day of the next 
succeeding term thereof. If any such witness or witnesses shall neglect 
or refuse to enter into a recognizance as aforefaid, when thereunto re- 
quired, it shall be lawful for the court to commit him, her, or them to 
jail until he, she, or they shall enter into such recognizance, or be other- 
wise discharged by due course of law. If the court shall neglect or 
refuse to bind any such witness or witnesses, prisoner or prisoners, by 
recognizance as aforesaid, or to return any such recognizance, when 
taken as aforesaid, the court shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor 
in office, and be proceeded against accordingly. 

Sec. 5. Where any prisoner or prisoners brought up on a habeas 
corpus shall be remanded to prison, it shall be the duty of the municipal 
court remanding him, her, or them to make out and deliver to the sheriff, 
or other person or persons to whose custody he, she, or they shall be 
remanded, an order in writing, stating the cause or causes of remanding 
him, her, or them. If such prisoner or prisoners shall obtain a second 
writ of habeas corpus, it shall be the duty of such sheriff or other per- 
son or persons upon whom the same shall be served, to return therewith 
the order aforesaid; and if it shall appear that the said prisoner or pris- 
oners were remanded for an offense adjudged not bailable, it shall be 
taken and received as conclusive, and the prisoner or prisoners shall 
be remanded without further proceedings. 

Sec. 6. It shall not be lawful for the municipal court, on a second 
writ of habeas corpus obtained by such prisoner or prisoners, to dis- 
charge the said prisoner or prisoners, if he, she, or they are proven 
guilty of the charges clearly and specifically charged in the warrant of 
commitment with a criminal offense; but if the prisoner or prisoners 
shall be found guilty, the municipal court shall only admit such prisoner 
or prisoners to bail, where the offense is bailable by law or ordinance, 
or remand him, her, or them to prison, where the offense is not bail- 
able; or being bailable, if such prisoner or prisoners shall fail to give the 
bail required. 

Sec. 7. No person or persons who have been discharged by order of 
the municipal court on a habeas corpus, shall be again imprisoned, re- 
strained, or kept in custody for the same cause, unless he, she, or thoy, 
be afterwards indicted for the same offense, or unless by the legal order 
or process of the municipal court wherein he, she, or they are bound 
by recognizance to appear, the following shall not be deemed to be the 
same cause. First, if after a discharge for defect of proof, or any 
material defect in the commitment in a criminal case, the prisoner or 
prisoners should be again arrested upon sufficient proof and committed 
by legal process, for the same offense; second, if in a civil suit the 


party or parties have been discharged for any illegality in the judgment 
or process, and are afterwards imprisoned by legal process, for the same 
cause of actiou; third, generally whenever the discharge has been 
ordered on account of the non-observance of any of the forms required 
by law, the party or parties may be a second time imprisoned, if the 
cause be legal and the forms required by law observed. 

Sec. S. If any person or persons shall be committed for a criminal 
matter, in case of the absence of a witness or witnesses whose testimony 
may be considered to be of importance in behalf of the people, the 
municipal court may adjourn from time to time at its discretion, provided 
they decide upon the case within thirty days, if it shall appear by oath 
or affirmation that the witness or witnesses for the people of the state 
are absent, such witness or witnesses being mentioned by name, and 
the court shown wherein their testimony is material. 

Sec. 9. Any person or persons being committed to the city or county 
jail, as provided in the Charter in the City of Nauvoo, or in the custody 
of an officer, sheriff, jailer, keeper, or other person or persons, or his 
or their under-officer or deputy, for any criminal or supposed criminal 
matter, shall not be removed from said prison or custody into any 
prison or custody, unless it be by habeas corpus, or by an oi'der of the 
municipal court, or in case of sudden fire, infection, or other necessities; 
if any person or persons shall, after such commitment as aforesaid, make 
out, sign, or countersign any warrant or warrants for such removal, 
then he or they shall forfeit to the prisoner or prisoners aggrieved a 
sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, to be recovered by the prisoner 
or prisoners aggrieved, in the manner hereinafter mentioned. 

Sec. 10. If any member of the municipal court, or the clerk of said 
court shall corruptly refuse or neglect to issue writ or writs of habeas 
corpus when legally applied to in a case where such writ or writs may 
lawfully issue, or who shall for the purpose of oppression unreasonably 
delay the issuing of such writ or writs, shall for every such offense for- 
feit to the prisoner or prisoners, party or parties aggrieved, a sum not 
less than five hundred dollars and not exceeding one thousand dollars, 
and be imprisoned for six months. 

Sec. 11. If any officer, sheriff, jailer, keeper, or other person or per- 
sons upon whom any such writ shall be served, shall neglect or refuse 
to make the returns as aforesaid, or to bring the body of- the prisoner 
or prisoners according to the command of the said writ within the time 
required by this ordinance, all and every such officer, sheriff, jailer, 
keeper, or other person or persons shall be guilty of a contempt of the 
municipal court who issued said writ: whereupon the said court may 
and shall issue an attachment against said officer, sheriff, jailer, keeper, 
or other person or persons, and cause him or them to be committed to 


the city or county jail as provided for by the city charter of the city of 
Nauvoo, there to remain without bail or mainprize, until he or they 
shall obey the said writ; such officer, sheriff, jailer, keeper, or other 
person or persons shall also forfeit to the prisoner or prisoners, party 
or parties aggrieved, a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, and not 
less than five hundred dollars. 

Sec. 12. Any person or persons having a prisoner or prisoners in his 
or their custody, or under his or their restraint, power, or control, for 
whose relief a writ or writs of habeas corpus is issued, who, with intent 
to avoid the effect of such writ or writs, shall transfer such person or 
persons to the custody of, or place him, her, or them under the control 
of any other person or persons, or shall conceal him, her, or them, or 
change the place of his, her, or their confinement, with intent to avoid 
the operation of such writ or writs, or with intent to remove him, her, 
or them out of the state, shall forfeit for every such offense one thousand 
dollars, and may be imprisoned not less than one 3-ear, nor more than 
five years. In any prosecution for the penalty incurred under this sec- 
tion, it shall not be necessary to show that the writ or writs of habeas 
corpus had issued at the time of the removal, transfer, or concealment 
therein mentioned, if it be proven that the acts therein forbidden were 
done with the intent to avoid the operation of such writ or writs. 

Sec. 13. Any sheriff, or his deputy, any jailer or coroner having cus- 
tody of any prisoner or prisoners committed on any civil or criminal 
process, of any court or magistrate, who shall neglect to give such pris- 
oner or prisoners a copy of the process, order, or commitment, by 
virtue of which he, she, or they are imprisoned, within six hours after 
demand made by said prisoner or piisoners, or any one on his, her, or 
their behalf, shall forfeit five hundred dollars. 

Sec. 14. Any person, knowing that another has been discharged, by 
order of the municipal court, on a habeas corpus, shall, contrary to 
the provisions of this ordinance, arrest or detain him or her again for 
the same cause which was shown on return of such writ, shall forfeit 
one thousand dollars for the first offense, and two thousand dollars for 
every subsequent one. 

Sec. 15. All the pecuniary forfeitures incurred under this ordinance 
shall be and inure to the use of the party for whose benefit the writ of 
habeas corpus was issued, and shal be .^od for and recovered with 
costs by the city attorney, in the name of the city by information, and 
the amount when recovered shall, without any deduction, be paid to the 
parties entitled thereto. 

Sec. 1G. In any action or suit for any offense against the provisions 
of this ordinance, the defendant or defendants may plead the general 
issue, and give the special matter in evidence. 


Sec. 17. The recovery of said penalties shall be no bar to a civil suit 
for damages. 

Sec. IS. The municipal court, upon issuing a writ of habeas corpus, 
may appoint any suitable person to serve the same, other than the mar- 
shal, and shall endorse the appointment on the back of said»writ. 

Sec. 19. This ordinance to take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage, any act heretofore to the contrary thereof in any wise not- 
withstanding. Passed November 14, 1842. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
James Sloan, Recorder. 

Many other bills were discussed on this and previous 





Tuesday, November 15, 1842. — About home. Wrote for 
the Times and Seasons the following:' 


I beg leave to inform the subscribers of the limes and Seasons that it 
. is impossible for me to fulfill the arduous duties of the editorial depart- 
ment any longer. The multiplicity of other business that daily devolves 
upon me renders it impossible for me to do justice to a paper so widely 
circulated as the Times and Seasons. I have appointed Elder John 
Taylor, who is less encumbered and fully competent to assume the 
responsibilities of that office, and I doubt not that he will give satisfac- 
tion to the patrons of the paper. As this number commences a new 
volume, it also commences his editorial career. 

Joseph Smith. 

Elder Taylor proceeded to liis duties as editor. 

Elder Bradley Wilson died suddenly in his 74 ch year. 
He received the gospel in Ohio, removed his family to 
Missouri, and was driven to Nauvoo in 1839. He has left 
seven sons and thirty-nine grand-children residing in Nau- 

Wednesday, 16. — About home. In the evening started 
on a journey to the counties north, in company with John 
D. Parker. 

Thursday, 17. — There was a severe snow storm, and 
Elder Alpheus Harmon (who was just returning from a 

13 Vol. V. 

194 H1ST0KY OF THE CHURCH. lA.D. 1842 

mission), and another man. were frozen to death on the 
prairie between Nauvoo and Carthage. The Mississippi 
was frozen over, which fulfilled my prophecy of the 5th 

Monday, 21. — A Council of the Twelve, namely, Brig- 
ham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Wilford Woodruff, John 
Taylor, George A. Smith, Amasa Lyman, and 

Vote to Sus- . . 

pend the Mil- Willard Richards, assembled at the house of 
Elder Heber C. Kimball, in Nauvoo, and 
decided by unanimous acclamation that the printing of the 
Millennial Star and all other publications in England re- 
lating to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
be suspended, on the return of Elder Parley P. Pratt from 
that country, until further instruction from the quorum ; 
and that the foregoing minutes be forwarded to Elder Pratt 
or to the editor of the Star, which was done by letter from 
the president and clerk of the council. 

Tuesday, 22. — I arrived at homo, after a pleasant out- 
ing, in good health and spirits. 

Wednesday, 23. — At home all day. 

Thursday, 24. — By report of the papers, the island of 

Madeira was visited by a dreadful storm. The summer 

was hot and weather fine till the 15th, when 

Disaster on ' 

the island of the ram commenced falling heavily and con- 

J\l Eld 6 1 1" £L 

tinued to the 24th. At one o'clock in the 
afternoon the water fell in torrents, the sky became dark, 
the streets in the capital, became inundated, and the 
affrighted inhabitants in town and country fled to the 
mountains. Upwards of two hundred houses were de- 
stroyed at Punchal, and much corn and wine. The damage 
to lives, houses, and crops on the island, and boats in the 
harbors was incalculable. 

Saturday, 26. — At home in the morning. At ten, met 
in city council, which resolved that the inscription for the 
seal to be procured .for the municipal court of this city 
shall consist of a circle, including the words "Municipal 
Court, City of Nauvoo," within which is to be a book 


circled with rays, on which is to be inscribed the words 
" Constitution and Charter." 
Wrote as follow : — 

Letter of the Prophet to H. P. HotchJciss — Land Purchase Contract 


Nauvoo, November 26, 1842. 
Horace R. HotcliJciss, ICsq. 

Dear Sir: — Yours of the 8th instant to Sidney Rigdon has been re- 
ceived; and, in consequence of his not knowing anything concerning 
the matters therein mentioned, or being in any way connected or inter- 
ested in my affairs, he of course, has handed the letter to me, which I 
shall proceed to answer. 

And, sir, permit me to say, on the subject of the deal between my- 
self, as Trustee-in-Trust for the Church of Latter-day Saints, and you, 
that I am as anxious as ever to have the contract continue good between 
us, and to meet the obligations specified in the contract. I am not, 
neither have I ever been, wishful to shrink from it in any manner what- 
ever, but intend to make payments as fast as my circumstances will 

But, sir, you are not unacquainted with the extreme : hardness of the 
times and the great scarcity of money, which put it out of my power to 
meet all the payments as they fell due, and which has been the only 
cause of any failure on my part; and should you feel disposed not to press 
the payments, but offer a lenity equivalent to the state of the times, then, 
sir, I shall yet endeavor to make up the payments as fast as possible, 
and consider the contract as still good between us. 

I would here say that when I found it necessary to avail myself of the 
benefits of the bankrupt law, I knew not but that the law required of 
me to include you amongst the list of my creditors, notwithstanding the 
nature of the contract between us. This explains the reason of my 
doing so. 

I have since learned, from a decision of the judge of the supreme 
court, that if was not necessary, and that the [bankrupt] law has no 
jurisdiction over such a contract. Consequently, as I have. before stated, 
I am disposed to' hold it, provided you will not press the payments . 
Under these circumstances, I consider it necessary to give you the iu- 
formation required in your letter, in regard to the number and kind of 
houses on the land, &c. 

I shall expect to hear from you again .soon. In regard to your having 
written to me some few weeks ago, I will observe that I have received 
no communication from you for some months back. If you wrote to 
me, the letter has been broken open and detained, no doubt, as has 


been the case with a great number of letters from my friends of late, 
and especially within the last three months. 

Few if any letters for me can get through the post office in this place, 
and more particularly letters containing money, and matters of much 
importance. I am satisfied that Sidney Rigdon and others connected 
with him have been the means of doing incalculable injury, not only to 
myself, but to the citizens in general; and, sir, under such a state of 
things, you will have some idea of the difficulties I have to encounter, 
and the censure I have to bear through the unjust conduct of that man 
and others, whom he permits to interfere with the post office business. 
Having said so much, I must close for the present. 

You will hereby understand my feelings upon the subject and the 
reasons of the course I have hitherto pursued. 

With sentiments of due respect, I remain, as ever, yours respectfully, 

Joseph Smith. 

P. S. — Should it suit you better, I am ready on my part to renew 
the contract, and would prefer it. 

J. S. 

In the evening went to see Brighani Young, in company 

with Dr. Richards. He was suddenly and severely attacked 

by disease, with strong symptoms of apoplexy. 

{Sudden 111- ■; . ' ? . J t ^ _ , - , , 

ness of Brig- We immediately administered to him by lay- 
ing on of hands and prayer, accompanied with 
the use of herbs. Profuse vomiting and purging followed, 
which were favorable indications. Although few so vio- 
lently attacked ever survive long, yet the brethren were 
united in faith, and we had firm hopes of his recovery. 

Sunday, 27. — At home, except visiting President Young, 
who remained extremely sick. 

Monday, 28. — At home all day. Charges of an unequal 

distribution of provisions, giving more iron and steel tools 

to Reynolds Cahoon's sons than to others, 

Temple J ' 

structure giving short measure or wood to Father Hun- 

tington, also letting the first course of stone 
around the Temple to the man who would do it for the 
least price, &c, having been instituted by the stonecutters 
against the Temple committee, — viz., Cahoon and Hig- 
bee, I requested the parties to appear at my house this 


day to have the difficulties settled by an investigation be- 
fore myself and Counselor William Law. President JELyrum 
Smith acted as counsel for the defendants, and Elder 
Henry Gr. Sherwood for the accusers. The hearing of 
testimony lasted until four o'clock, at which time the 
meeting adjourned for half an hour. On coming together 
again, President Hyrum addressed the brethren at some 
length, showing the important responsibility of the com- 
mittee, also the many difficulties they had to contend with. 
He advised the brethren to have charity one with another, 
and be united, &c, &c. Elder Sherwood replied to Pres- 
ident Hyrum's remarks. President Hyrum explained 
some remarks before made. Elder William Law made a 
few pointed remarks, after which I gave my decision, 
which was that the committee stand-in their place as be- 
fore. I likewise showed the brethren that I was respon- 
sible to the state for a faithful performance of my office 
as sole trustee-in-trust, &c, and the Temple committee 
were responsible to me and had given bonds to me, to the 
amount of $12,000, for a faithful discharge of all duties 
devolving upon them as a committee, &c. The trial did 
not conclude until about nine o'clock in the evening. 

Tuesday, 29. — In council with Brother Hyrum, Willard 
Richards, and others, concerning bankruptcy. Afternoon, 
attended court at the house of Mr. Hunter, grocer, before 
Alderman Spencer, for slander. I forgave Hunter the 
judgment, but he was fined $10 for contempt of court. 

Wednesday, 30. — Morning, in counsel in the large as- 
sembly room preparing evidence in the case of bankruptcy. 
Afternoon, had Amos Davis brought before the municipal 
court for slander; but, in consequence of the informality 
of the writ drawn by Squire Daniel H. Wells, I was non- 

A severe storm of snow, rain and wind is reported to 
have been experienced at Boston this day and evening, 
doing much damage to the ships and wharves. 

Thursday, December 1, 1842.— Emma was sick, attend- 


ance upon her occupied some of my time. Visited George 
A. Smith and Brigham Young, who were sick. Called at 
Mr. Angel's, in company with Elder Richards, to give 
some counsel concerning a sick sister. Called on William 
W. Phelps to get the historical documents, &c; after 
which I commenced reading and revising history. 

Extract oj a Letter from Orrin Porter Rockwell, superscribed to Newel K. 

Whitney ', dated Philadelphia, December 1, 1842, whither he had gone 

to escape the hands oj those loho sought his life in Missouri, 

Dear Brother Joseph Smith: — I am requested by our friend Orrin 
Porter [Rockwell] to drop a few lines informing you that he is in this 
place. His health is good, but his spirits are depressed, caused by his be- 
ing unable to obtain employmentof any- kind. He has applied in different 
parts of the city and country, but all without success, as farmers can 
get persons to work from sunrise till dark for merely what they eat. 
He is most anxious to hear from you, and wishes you to see his mother 
and the children and write all the particulars, how matters and things are, 
and what the prospects are. I pity him from the bottom of my heart. 
His lot in life seems marked with sorrow, bitterness and care. He is a 
noble, generous friend. But you know his worth: any comments from 
me would be superfluous. He will wait in this place until he hears from 
you. Please write immediately, as it will be a source of great comfort 
to him to hear [from you] . 

If Joseph is not at home, Brother Whitney will be kind enough to 
write. He says every other one he has come across has been afraid of 
their shadows, but he watches them well. He comes to see me every 
day, and I keep him a close prisoner! But he does not complain of my 
cruelty, or being hard-hearted, but, when with me, seems resigned to 
whatever punishment I may see proper to inflict: but he takes it in good 
part. Answer this as soon as received. 

Yours truly, 

S. Armstrong, 

for Orrin Porter [Rockwell]. 

Friday, 2. — Sat as Mayor on trial of Amos Davis, who 
was fined in the sum of $25 for breach of city ordinance 
for selling spirits by the small quantity. In the evening, 
called on Elder Richards, and Bishop Whitney to take an 
appraisal of the printing office establishment, preparatory 


to a lease to Elders Taylor and Woodruff for the term of 
five years. 

Saturday, 3. — Called at the printing office several times. 
In the afternoon, attended the municipal court in the case 
of Amos Davis, for breach of city ordinance, &c. 

Sunday , 4. — The weather being very wet, I remained at 
home all day. 

The High Council of Nauvoo met, heard, accepted, and 
adopted the report of their committee for dividing the city 
into ten wards, as follows: — 

The First Ward is bounded on the north by the city 
boundary line, and on the south by Brattle street. 

The Second Ward is bounded on the north by Brattle 
street or the First Ward, and on the south by Carlos street 
or the Third Ward. 

The Third Ward is bounded on the north by Carlos 
street or the Second Ward, and on the south by Joseph 
street or the Fourth Ward. 

The Fourth Ward is bounded on the north by Joseph 
street or the Third Ward, and on the south by Cutler 
street or the Fifth Ward. 

The Fifth Ward is bounded on the north by Cutler street 
or the Fourth Ward, and on the south by Mulholland 

The Sixth Ward is bounded on the west by the Missis 
sippi river, and on the east by Main street or the Seventh 

The Seventh Ward is bounded on the west by Main 
street or the Sixth Ward, and on the east by Durfee street 
or the Eight Ward. 

The Eight Ward is bounded on the west by Durfee street 
or the Seventh Ward, and on the east by Robinson street 
or the Ninth Ward. 

The Ninth Ward is bounded on the west by Eobinson 
street or the Eight Ward, and on the east by Green street 
or the Tenth Ward. 


The Tenth Ward is bounded on the west by Green street 
or the Ninth Ward,, and on the east by the city boundary 

Monday, 5. — In the morning, attended in council with 
Brother Hyrum and others on bankruptcy, making an in- 
ventory of our property, and schedule of our liabilities, 
that we might be prepared to avail ourselves of the laws 
of the land as did others. Afternoon, had conversation 
with Brother Green. In the evening, attended the Masonic 

Tuesday, 6. — Attended the trial of an appealed case of 
Amos Davis before the municipal court. Judgment con- 

Wednesday, 7. — Dined with Elder Orson Hyde and fam- 
ily. Elder Hyde has this day returned home from his 
mission to Jerusalem. His presence was truly gratifying. 
Spent the day with Elder Hyde and drawing wood. 

Thursday, 8. — Spent the day at home. Eeceived a visit 
from Elder Hyde and wife. 

This day, Thomas Ford, governor of Illinois, in his in- 
augural address to the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, remarked that a great deal has been said 
dress of Gov- about certain charters granted to the people of 
Nauvoo. These charters are objectionable on 
many accounts, but particularly on account of the powers 
granted. The people of the state have become aroused 
to the subject, and anxiously desire that these charters 
should be modified so as to give the inhabitants of Nauvoo 
no greater privileges than those enjoyed by others of our 
fellow citizens. 

Friday, 9. — I chopped wood all day. My Br cither 
Hyrum started for Springfield to attend to his case of 
bankruptcy, with Benjamin Covey as witness. Willard 
Richards, William Clayton, Henry G. Sherwood, Peter 
Haws, Heber C. Kimball, Alpheus Cutler, and Reynolds 
Cahoon accompanied them to attend to my case, present 
testimony to the government that I was in Illinois at the 


time Boggs was shot — consequently could not have been 
a fugitive from the justice of Missouri, and thus procure 
a discharge from Governor Ford, on Governor Carlin's 
writ for my arrest. The weather was very cold, and the 
traveling tedious; yet my messengers traveled thirty-four 
miles, and stayed with my Brother Samuel Smith, who 
kept a public-house at Plymouth. 

Mr. Davis, of Bond county, introduced a Agitation as 

J ' to Nauvoo 

resolution to the house of Representatives at charters. 
Springfield, concerning the charter of Nauvoo, and urged 
its repeal. 

Mr. Hicks was in favor of having the state arms taken 
from the Mormons. 

Mr. Owen thought they had no more than their quota. 

[The arms referred to consisted of three cannon, six- 
pounders, and a few score of muskets, swords, and pistols, 
which were furnished by the United States to Illinois, for 
the supply of her militia for common defense, of which 
the Nauvoo Legion had received but a small portion of 
that to which it was entitled.] 

My Brother, William Smith, representative of Hancock 
county, colleague with Mr. Owen, made the following 
speech in the House, in reply to Mr. Davis: — 

Speech of William Smith, Brother of the Projjhet, on the Chartered Rights 

of Nauvoo, 

Mr. Speaker. — I beg the privilege of making a few remarks on this 
subject. This, sir, seems to be a question which has excited, to a very 
considerable extent, the attention of members who compose this honor- 
able body. But, Mr. Speaker, it does really appear to me that this 
is a question that has been gotten up quite prematurely; for I doubt 
not many members here have not yet had the opportunity of learning . 
what privileges are granted in the Nauvoo City Charter. 

The subject which the gentleman has raised is only an assumption. 
I doubt not that if the subject had been fairly investigated, aud 
weighed equally in the balance by every candid individual in the •com- 
munity, that prejudices of this kind would not have obtained such a 
hold upon the public mind. In the estimation of genuine democracy, 
the rights of the people of Nauvoo are just as sacred as those of any 


other people. The people that live there should have just the same 
privileges extended to them as are awarded to Springfield, Chicago, 
Quiney, or any other city in the state. 

It is true, indeed, that they have labored under many embarrass- 
ments. The public miud has been heated in regard to what was 
supposed to be their chartered privileges. But you, Mr. Speaker, are 
well aware that all the corporate privileges that they enjoy have been 
granted to them by a previous Legislature. Upon that occasion all 
that was done was not considered, by any, more than an act of justice 
towards them. They had no greater rights or privileges given them 
than were already enjoyed by the citizens of Quiney or Springfield. 
The people had chartered privileges iu both of those cities, and we 
have the same in Nauvoo. Our condition in that respect is not at all 
different from Chicago, Alton, and many other chartered cities in this 
state. It would be hardly worth while, Mr. Speaker, to detain either 
you or this honorable body by making many preliminary remarks in 
respect to our religion. This is a matter that cannot at all come 
under the purview of this legislature. 

I do not fancy myself placed here before a body of sectarians 
invested, in their own estimation, with authority to enact rules for the 
government or regulation of any sect upon matters of religion. I do 
not suppose that I stand in the presence of persons disposed to take 
away one «ingle religious ris:ht pertaining to the people among whom 
I dwell. 

But what could legislation in regard to the matter effect? What 
would it proved It would neither prove Joseph Smith to be a Christian 
nor that Tom Thumb came from the moon. It would prove nothing in 
reference to the principles of any body of religionists. But I do not 
feel it my prerogative to enter into a discussion of religious principles 
here. I know very well that the people called * 'Mormons" are thought 
to be a very strange people. I come right from among them, and you 
can all judge whether or not they seem to have the appearance of a 
strange animal of seven heads and ten horns. You can all decide for 
yourselves whether, from the appearance I present, I should be 
numbered among outcasts, or be ranked among human beings. 

One word further as to the chartered privileges. They have, as this 
honorable body is well aware, assembled a population of from five to 
ten or fifteen thousand inhabitants. It is in consequence of the privi- 
leges granted in their Charter that they have been induced to do this. 
Nauyoo is not, as some may erroneously suppose — a city composed 
entirely of Mormons. I can inform gentlemen that Methodists, 
Presbyterians, Baptists, Universaliaus, in short, many of the different 
kinds of religion, and even infidels may be found there; aud all these 


are tolerated there just as in any other community. A great many 
persons have gone to Nauvoo, and there invested their property. They 
are now engaged in the erection of buildings, which, when consum- 
mated will cost enormous sums of money. Bat should the Charter of 
that city be repealed, individuals who now consider themselves rising 
to wealth, in consequence of what has been done by a former legis- 
lature of this state, will be reduced to wretchedness and want. In that 
event property now worth three to ten thousand dollars will not be 
worth five hundred, or nothing in comparison to that amount. 

There is another point, Mr. Speaker, to which I would call your 
attention, and that is to the observations which have been made in 
regard to taking away from the city of Nauvoo the state arms. Well 
suppose that should be done, would that effect anything? They are 
now organized, and have, under existing laws drawn a certain portion 
of the public arms. In that wherein are they acting differently from 
any other citizens? They have not even that equal proportion of arms 
that they are entitled to by law. What would be the object in taking 
away the public arms from the militia of this state? . It surely cannot 
be believed that there is any danger of the Mormons breaking out 
and killing the people. There is no more danger of that than there is 
that five, six or a dozen old women and a few boys should do the same 
thing. Is this state to be carried by a hue-and-cry of that kind raised 
by politicians? I own that it is not the desigu of that people even so much 
as to molest a hair on the head of a single individual; but that, on the 
contrary, it is their intention in all things to conform to the Constitu- 
tion and laws of the land. If prejudices have been accumulating upon 
the public mind calculated to produce the expression that they are 
villains, such prejudices are entirely unfounded. And it is a great 
mistake to suppose the contrary. Those people consider themselves 
bound by the laws, and endeavor to obey them. Have they not, I 
would ask, contributed their portion towards replenishing your 
county and state revenues? Have thf^y ever refused to pay their taxes? 
Have they not always been both ready and willing to obey both the 
civil and military laws of this state? Where, then, is the necessity, 
that this honorable body should enact a law taking away from them 
their chartered pi'ivilegesl 

I will not, Mr. Speaker, detain you or this honorable body much 
longer. I am heartily sorry that a blow has been aimed at the chartered 
privileges of Nauvoo. I speak in defense of my constituents upon this 
occasion, feeling myself bound to do so, not by any former pledges, but 
by principle. I believe in defending the cause of the defenseless, as 
has already been remarked. All that we claim is equal rights and 
equal provisions. I would remark, for the satisfaction of my own feel- 


ings in this matter, that I was some little interested in the event of the 
last election. I then was engaged in the cause of Democracy, enlisted 
in the campaign of canvassing my county, and in consequence of the 
many prejudices, that were excited against the * 'Mormons," as they 
are called, I was placed under circumstances of most unparalleled embar- 
rassment; but still I thought it a favorable opportunity to unite the 
Democracy of the county. 

I know that considerable political capital has been made by the 
question of Mormonism and anti-Mormonism. Perhaps one thing that 
now contributes to that result is, that there are hints in the governor's 
message in regard to a repeal of the Nauvoo Charter. It is a circum- 
stance within my own knowledge that, previous to the last election in 
Hancock connty, some few individuals there made strong efforts to get 
our votes for the governor's election. By exertions made there, more 
than a thousand votes were cast for the governor by Mormon influ- 
ence; and since I have been here, a gentleman of opposite politics has 
said to me, "Now your governor is paying you off." 

I do not allude to this to wound the feelings of any person whatever- 
I do not consider that the recommendation of the governor was 
designed to effect the repeal of our Charter. All that we have to say 
is that we throw ourselves upon your mercy. As Democrats we ask for 
equal justice and equal rights. Give us those rights, and we are con- 
tent; without them we are deprived of that which was purchased by the 
blood of our fathers. 

Saturday, 10. — In this day's paper, William Smith 
gave his valedictory, resigning the editorship of the 
Wasp to Elder John Taylor. 

Tuesday, 13. — I continued to chop and hanl wood, and 
attend to my domestic concerns. My delegation arrived 
at Springfield about three o'clock this afternoon, and 
found the question of the repeal of the Nauvoo Charter in 
a high state of agitation in the legislature. 

Wednesday, 14. — My delegation at Springfield having 
made affidavit that I was in Illinois on the 6th of May 
last, and consequently could not have been concerned in 
the attempted assassination of ex- Governor Boggs, and 
also having prepared a petition to Governor Ford to 
revoke the writ and proclamation of Governor Carlin for 
my arrest, they called on Governor Ford at four in the 
afternoon, there were present by their selection: Dr. 


Richards, Brothei Hyrum, Elders Sherwood and Clayton, 
in company with Mr. Butte rfield, United States district 
attorney, who read his communication to Sidney Rigdon, 
Esq., of the 20th October, my petition to revoke and 
countermand Governor Carlin's writ and proclamation, 
and the affidavit of Lilburn W. Boggs. 

Governor Ford, in reply, stated that he had no doubt 
but that the writ of Governor Carlin was illegal ; but he 
doubted as to his authority to interfere with the acts of 
his predecessor. He finally concluded that he would state 
the case before the judges of the supreme court at their 
council next day, and whatever they decided on shall be 
his decision. He then stated his reasons for recom- 
mending a repeal of the Charter, and said that he 
regi'etted that he had not recommended a repeal of all the 
charters in the state. 

Thursday, 15. — My delegates at Springfield continued 
to prosecute my discharge. On the 16th, Brother Hyrum 
received his discharge in case of bankruptcy; every 
arrangement was made with Mr. Butterfield, whereby I 
was equally entitled to a discharge, but was put off with 
a plea that he must write to the office at Washington 
before it could be granted. 

Saturday, 17. — 

Governor Ford to Joseph Smith — on the Missouri Requisition. 

Springfield, December 17, 1842. 
Dear Sir: — Your petition requesting me to rescind Governor 
Carlin's proclamation and recall the writ issued against you has been 
received and duly considered. I submitted your case and all the 
papers relating thereto to the judges of the Supreme Court, or at least 
to sis of them who happened to be present. They were unanimous in 
the opinion that the requisition from Missouri was illegal and insuf- 
ficient to cause your arrest, but were equals divided as to the pro- 
priety and justice of my interference with the acts of Governor Carlin. 
It being, therefore, a case of great doubt as to my power, and I not 
wishing, even in an official station, to assume the exercise' of doubtful 
powers, and inasmuch as you have a sure and effectual remedy in the 


[courts, I have decided to decline interfering:. I can only advise that you 
submit to the laws and have a judicial investigation of your rights. If 
it should become necessary, for this purpose, to repair to Springfield, I 
do not believe that there will be any disposition to use illegal violence 
towards you;, and I would feel it my duty in your case, as in the case 
of any other person, to protect you with any necessary amount of force 
from mob violence whilst asserting your rights before the courts, going 
to and returning. 

I am most respectfully yours, 

Thomas Ford. 

Letter of Justin Butterfield — Opinion on Governor For<Vs Action. 

Springfield, December 17, 1842. 
Joseph Smith, Esq. 

Dear Sir: — I have heard the letter read which Governor Ford has 
written to you, and his statements are correct in relation to the opinion 
of the judges of the Supreme Court. The judges were unanimously 
of the opinion that you would be entitled to your discharge under a 
habeas corpus to be issued by the Supreme Court, but felt some deli- 
cacy in advising Governor Ford to revoke the order issued by Gover- 
nor Carlin. My advice is, that you come here without delay, and you 
do not ruu the least risk of not being protected while here, and of 
being discharged by the Supreme Court by habeas corpus. I have 
also the right to bring the case before the U. S. Court, now in session 
here; and there you are certain of obtaining your discharge. I will 
stand by you, and see you safely delivered from your arrest. 

Yours truly, 


Letter from James Adams, Advising the Prophet to Appear for Trial. 
City of Springfield, December 17, 1842. 
General J. Smith. 

My Son: — It is useless for me to detail facts that the bearer can 
tell. But I will say that it appears to my judgment that you had best 
make no delay in coming before the court at this place for a discharge 
under a habeas corpus. 

I am, &c., 

J. Adams. 

On receiving the foregoing letters, and Dr. Eichards 
having entered for the copyright of a map of the city of 
Nauvoo for Joseph Smith, in the clerk's office of the 


District of Illinois, the brethren left Springfield for 

Tuesday, 20. — Chopping and drawing wood with my 
own hands and team, as I had done mostly since the 
9th. President Young continued very sick. This after- 
noon the brethren arrived from Springfield and pre- 
sented me with Messrs. Ford, Butterfield and Adams 7 
letters, and general history of their proceedings, which 
was highly satisfactory. 

Elder Lorenzo D. Barnes died this morning at a quarter 
past three o'clock, at Bradford, England. The First 
He is the first Elder who has fallen in a for- ™ Vorefgn 
eign land in these last days. He had been Land - 
long connected with the Church, and had been dis- 
tinguished, both in his native land and in Great Britain, 
for his piety, and virtue. Bead correspondence between 
Dr. Richards and General James Arlington Beunett, and 
read German with Elder Orson Hyde. Brother Shearer 
inquired the meaning of the " little leaven which a women 
hid in three measures of meal." I replied, it alluded 
expressly to the last days, when there should be but little 
faith on the earth, and it should leaven the whole world; 
also there shall be safety in Zion and Jerusalem, and in 
the remnants whom the Lord our GocJ shall call. The 
three measures refer directly to the Priesthood, truth 
springing up on a fixed principle, to the three in the 
Grand Presidency, confining the oracles to a certain head 
on the principle of three. 

Friday, 23.— Wrote E. M. Young, Esq., U. S. Senator 
from Illinois, Washington City, that I would accept the 
proposals of John C. Walsh, and give him $2,500 for the 
north-west quarter of section 8, 6 north, 8 west, feaid 
land lying between my farm and the city. 

Saturday, 24. — At home afternoon. Eead and revised 
my history with Secretary Richards, and walked with him 
to see Sister Lyon, who was sick. Her babe died a few 
minutes before our arrival. From there we went to 


Brother Sabine's to compute expense money for our 
journey to Springfield, having just borrowed $100 for 
that purpose. While there, Brother Richards asked if 
I wanted a wicked man to pray for me? I replied, 
Yes ; if the fervent, affectionate prayer of the righteous 
man availeth much, a wicked man may avail a little when 
praying for a righteous man. There is none good but 
One. The better a man is, the more his prayer will avail. 
Like the publican and the Pharisee, one was justified 
rather than the other, showing that both were justified in 
a degree. The prayer of a wicked man may do a righ- 
teous man good, when it does the one who prays no good. 

Sunday, 25. — I wrote to Orrin Wright, Jun., Phila- 

The Manchester, (England) conference met, number- 
ing 1,507 members, including thirty-three Elders, eighty- 
seven Priests, fifty-three Teachers, and nineteen Deacons 
under the presidency of Elder Thomas Ward. 




Monday, December 26, 1842. — In the morning, held 
court, and I was afterwards arrested by General Wilson 
Law, on the proclamation of Governor Carlin, second Arrest 
and Elders Henry G. Sherwood; and William f/^t 
Clayton went to Carthage to obtain a writ of Affair - 
habeas corpus to take me before the court at Springfield. 
General Law gave me into the custody of Dr. Richards, with! 
whom I visited Sister Morey, who was severely afflicted. 
We prescribed lobelia for her, among other things, which 
is excellent in its place. I have learned the value of it by 
my own experience. It is one of the works of God, but, 
like the power of God, or any other good, it becomes an^ 
evil when improperly used. \ Brother Morey gave me a 
walking stick, the body of which was from the tooth of 
the sperm whale, and the top of whale ivory, with an 
interstice of mahogany. iOn my return home, I found my 
wife Emma sick. {S he_wa^ delivered of a son T which did 
net-survive its-hirtlu 

The Herefordshire conference (England) under the presi- 
dency of Elder William Kay, met at Col wall, numbering 
eight hundred and forty-four members, including twenty 
elders, fifty- three priests, twenty-two teachers, and ten 

Tuesday, 27. — At nine in the morning, started in custody 
of Wilson Law for Springfield, in company with Hyrum 

14 Vol. V. 

% 210 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, [A. D. 18*2 

Smith, Willard Richards, John Taylor, William Marks, 
Levi Moffit, Peter Haws, Lorin Walker and 

The Prophet's ' 

Stan for Orson Hyde. On oar way to Carthage, we 

met William Clayton and Henry G. Sherwood, 
who had obtained an order for a writ of habeas corpus 
from the master in chancery, as no writ could issue, the 
clerk of court having been elected to the State Senate, 

There was considerable snow, and the traveling heavy; 
but we arrived at my Brother Samuel's, in Plymouth, a 
little after sunset, and we were soon joined by Edward 
Hunter, Theodore Turley, Dr. Tace, and Shadrach Roundy. 
The Prophet's I supped with Brother William Smith's family, 
Dream. W ^ Q y lYe ^ ^nder the same roof, slept with Dr. 

Willard Richards on a buffalo skin spread upon the floor, 
and dreamed that I was by a beautiful stream of water 
and saw a noble fish, which 1 threw out. Soon after, I 
saw a number more, and threw them out. I afterwards 
saw a multitude of fish, and threw out a great abundance, 
and sent for salt and salted them. 

Wednesday , 28. — The morning was wet. We started 
about eight o'clock, and arrived at Mr. Stevenson's tav- 
ern, in Rushville, at three in the afternoon, about twenty 
miles. Brother William's wife, who was sick, went with 
us, accompanied by Sister Durphy, who went with us from 
Nauvoo to take care of her. I spent a part of the evening 
with Mr. Uriah Brown and family and a part of my com- 
pany. In conversation respecting the repeal of charters, 
I told them that to touch the Nauvoo Charter was no bet- 
ter than highway robbery ; and that I never would consent 
to lowering our charter, but they might bring other chart- 
ers up to it. On my return to the tavern, the brethren 
took my height, which was six feet, and my Brother 
Hyrum's the same. 

Thursday, 29. — Started early; crossed the Illinois river 
at eleven, and arrived at Captain Dutche's before five in 
the evening, about thirty-two miles: the weather extreme- 
ly cold. Geiieral_LawL^ sked whvJ bhe suruwas called by a 


lasculine name and the moon by a femin ine one . I replied 
hattheroo tof masc uli ne is stronger, and of f^minine weak- 
ly. The sun is a governing planet to certain planets, while 

'the moon borrows her light from the sun, and is less or 


Let the government of Missouri redress the wrongs she 

has done to the Saints, or let the curse follow them from 

generation to generation until they do. 

When I was going up to Missouri, in company with 

Elder Rigdon and our families, on an extreme 

A Missouri 

cold day, to go forward was fourteen miles to a Reminis- 


house, and backward nearly as far* We applied 
to all the taverns for admission in vain: we were "Mor- 
mons," and could not be received. Such Was the extreme 
cold that in one hour we must have perished. We pleaded 
for our women and children in vain. We counseled to- 
gether, and the brethren agreed to stand by me, and we 
concluded that we might as well die fighting as to freeze 
to death. 

I went into a tavern and pleaded our cause to get ad- 
mission. The landlord said he could not keep us for love 
or money. I told him we must and would stay, let the 
consequence be what it might ; for we must stay or perish. 
The landlord replied, ''We have heard the Mormons are 
very bad people; and the inhabitants of Paris have com- 
bined not to have anything to do with them, or you might 
stay." I said to him, " We will stay; but no thanks to 
you. I have men enough to take the town ; and if we must 
freeze, we will freeze by the burning of these houses." 
The taverns were then opened, and we were accommo- 
dated, and received many apologies in the morning from 
the inhabitants for their abusive treatment. 

Friday, 30.— Started at eight this morning, ^ t ^^ 
and arrived at Judge Adams', in Springfield, Butterfieid«t 
at half past two o'clock in the afternoon, where 
I saw Justin Butterfield, Esq., United States district 
attorney, who told me that Judge Pope had continued the 


court two or three days on account of my case, and would 
close on the morrow, and that he should try my case on 
its merits, and not on any technicality. 

Sheriff Pitman, of Adams county, was in the place, but 
would not say whether he had the original writ which had 
previously been demanded of the officers of Adams county, 
King and Pitman. I gave Mr. Butterfield a general his- 
tory of my Missouri persecution, and it was agreed by him 
that I should be arrested on the writ. Had an interview 
with my Brother, William Smith, who was a member of 
the Legislature at the time, and spent the evening with 
Judge Adams and the brethren from Nauvoo. We all 
lodged at Judge Adams'. 

While in conversation at Judge Adams' during the 
evening, I said, Christ and the resurrected Saints will 
The Reign of i'eig n over the earth during the thousand years. 
EmhEx- They will not probably dwell upon the earth, 
pounded. j^t w in visit it when they please, or when it 

is necessary to govern it. There will be wicked men on 
the earth during the thousand years. The heathen nations 
who will not come up to worship will be visited with the 
judgments of God, and must eventually be destroyed from 
the earth. 

Saturday, 31, — At nine in the morning, Mr. Butterfield 

called and informed me that King had the original writ, 

and I signed a petition to Governor Ford to 

The Prophet's . ° r . 

Trial Before issue a new writ, that my case may be tried 
thereon, as well as on the proclamation. My 
petition was granted, and at eleven o'clock I was arrested 
thereon by a deputy, Mr. Maxey, in presence of Mr. Butter- 
field, my attorney, who immediately wrote a petition to 
Judge Pope for a writ of habeas corpus, which I signed, 
and at half-past eleven in the morning went before Judge 

Mr. Butterfield read my petition, and stated that the 
writ and warrant were different from the requisition of the 
governor of Missouri. He then read Governor Ford's 


warrant, Watson's affidavit, Governor Reynolds' requisi- 
tion on the governor of Illinois, and the proclamation of 
Governor Carlin, showing that Reynolds had made a false 
statement, as nothing appeared in the affidavits to show 
that Smith j^sjiiJ\IissQuxi^^ He-alsojrt ated that all the 
'anElioinfylor transportation of persons from one state to 
another rests on the Constitution and the law of Congress. 
We ask for habeas corpus because the papers are false, 
and because that we can prove that Joseph Smith was in 
this state at the time of the commission of the crime. 

The writ was granted, returned, and served in one mi- 
nute, and I walked up to the bar. Mr. Butterfield read 
the habeas corpus, and moved the court to take bail till I 
could have a hearing, — which was granted; and although 
it was only a case of misdemeanor, Generals James Adams 
and .Wilson Law were bailed, for me in the sum of 82,000 
each, and Monday was set for trial. 

The court-room was crowded; and, on our returning, as 
General Law came to the top of the stairs, one of the crowd 
observed, "There goes Smith the Prophet, A Disturbance 
and a good looking man .he is;" "And Threatened - 
[said another] as damned a rascal as ever lived." Hyrum 
replied, "And a good many ditto." "Yes, [said the man,] 
ditto, ditto, G — d — you; and every one that takes his 
part is as damned a rascal as he is." 

When at the foot of the stairs, General Law said, "I 
am the man, and I'll take his part." Said the man, "You 
are a damned rascal too." "You are a lying scoundrel," 
replied Law; and the man began to strip off his clothes 
and ran out in the street, cursing and swearing, and rais- 
ing a tumult, when Mr. Prentice, the marshal, interfered, 
and with great exertions quelled the mob. Much credit is 
^duj ^Mr. Prent iaeJmuhis zeal to keep the peace. 

When the rowdies bad dispersed, I went with The p rop h e t's 
Mr. Butterfield and Dr. Richards to see Gov- ^thGov^rnor 
ernor Ford, who was sick. He told me he had Ford - 
a requisition from the governor for a renewal of persecu- 


tion in the old case of treason against Missouri; but he 
happened to know that it was all dead. We dined with 
Mr. Butterfield at the American House, wheie the gov- 
ernor quartered, after which we returned to the general's 
room. In course of conversation he remarked he was no 
religionist. I told him I had no creed to circumscribe my 
mind; therefore the people did not like me. "Well, [said 
the general,] from reports, we had reason to think the 
Mormons were a peculiar people, different from other peo- 
ple, having horns or something of the kind; but I find 
they look like other people: indeed, I think Mr. Smith a 
very good-looking man." 

At two in the afternoon, I returned to Judge Adams', 

and appointed Elders Hyde and Taylor to preach in the 

Representatives' Hall on the morrow. 

/ Judge Douglas stated that it was possible to revoke 

political charters, but not company charters. I argued that 

if a legislature has power to grant a charter for 

A. Discussion 

with judge ten years, it has no power to revoke it until 
after the expiration thereof. The same prin- 
ciple will hold good for twenty or one hundred years, and 
also for a perpetual charter: it cannot be revoked in time. 
^x3ohn Darby came in and said he was going to California 
.with Brewster. I told him I would say, as the Prophet 
The Brewster said to Hezekiah, "Go, and prosper; but ye 
Movement. shall not return in peace." Brewster may set 
out for California, but he will not get there unless some- 
body shall pick him up by the way, feed him and help him 
along. Brewster showed me the manuscript he had been 
writing. J inqu ir ed of th e^Lord,_and the Lord -told me 
t he book was not true — it was no t of Him. If God ever 
called me, or spake by my mouth, or gave me a revela- 
tion, he never gave revelations to that Brewster boy* or 
any of the Brewster race. 

* James Collins Brewster, the person mentioned by the Prophet in the text, was 
a boy about sixteen years of age, having been born as nearly as may be ascertained, 
in the year 1827. He claimed several years previous to this time to have had revela- 


This afternoon, a team ran away, and went past the 
State House, when the hue-and-cry was raised, "Joe 
Smith is running away ! ' ' which produced great excite- 
ment and a sudden adjournment of the House of Bepre- 

Sunday morning, January 1, 1843. — The speaker of the 
House of Representatives called on me to say we might 
have the hall for preaching this day. Had a 
pleasant interview with Mi\ ^itterfieId^ JLLidge Distinction 
Douglas, Senator Gillespie, and others. In saints and 
reply to Mr. Butterfield, I stated that the most 
prominent difference in sentiment between the Latter- 
day Saints and sectarians was, that the latter were all cir- 
cumscribed by some peculiar creed, which deprived its 
members the privilege of believing anything not contained 
therein, whereas the Latter-day Saints have no creed, but 
are ready to believe all true principles that exist, as they 
are made manifest from time to time. 

At the suggestion of the company, I explained the nature 
of a prophet. 

* If any person should ask me if I were a prophet, I 
/should not deny it, as that would give me the lie; for, ac- 
cording to John, the testimony of Jesus is the A p roph et 
spirit of prophecy; therefore, if I profess to Defined - 
be a witness or teacher, and have not the spirit of proph- 
ecy, which is the testimony of Jesus, I must be a false 
witness; but if I be a true teacher and witness, I must pos- 
sess the spirit of prophecy, and that constitutes a prophet; 
and any man who says he is a teacher or preacher of 
righteousness, and denies the spirit of prophecy, is a liar, 

tions while in Kirtland, by which he translated the so-called "Book of Esdras' 
which in some way, not altogether clear, was interpreted to be a guide for the 
Latter-day Saints. He succeeded in converting his parents and a small number of 
people to the genuineness of his prophetic powers and gift of translation; and was 
now contemplating a removal of those who believed in him to California. After the 
death of the Prophet, in connection with one Hazen Aldridch,he succeeded in holding 
together a following for a few years, but in the end the Brewster-Aldridch move- 
ment was a flat failure, and the organization ceased to exist. 


and the truth is not in him ; and by this key false teachers 
and iniposters may be detected. 

At half-past eleven a. m., we repaired to the Represen- 
tatives' Hall, where Elder Orson Hyde read the hymn 
"Rejoice ye Saints of Latter Days." Elder Taylor fol- 
lowed in prayer. The Saints then sang "The Spirit of 
God like a fire is burning." Elder Hyde then preached 
from the 3rd chapter of Malachi. Most of the members 
of the Legislature and the various departments of the state 
were in attendance. 

I dined with Judge Adams at one p. hi., and at half-past 

two returned to the hall, and heard Elder Taylor preach 

from Revelation 14th chapter, 6th and 7th 

Mormon # 

Service at verses, on the first principles of the Gospel. 
There was a respectable congregation, who 
listened with good attention, notwithstanding the great 
anxiety to "see the Prophet." 

I supped at Brother Bowman's, where I saw Sister Lucy 
Stringham (who was one of the first fruits of the Church 
at Colesville, New York,) and many more of the Saints. 
At seven I returned to Judge Adams'. 
i Monday , 2. — After breakfasting with Judge. Adams, I 
prophesied, in the name of the Lord, that I should not go 
to Missouri dead or alive. At half -past nine 
a. m., repaired to the court-room; and at ten, 
Judge Pope took his seat on the bench, accompanied by 
several ladies. 

My case was called up, when Mr. Lamborn, the attor- 
ney-general of Illinois, requested the case to be continued 
till the next day, and Wednesday morning was set for my 
trial. My attorney, Mr. Butterfield, filed some objections 
to points referred to in the habeas corpus, and, half-past 
ten, I repaired to the Senate lobby, and had conversation 
with several gentlemen. Dined at the American House. 
As we rose from table, Judge Brown invited me to his 
room, and informed me he was about publishing a history 
of Illinois, and wished me to furnish a history of the rise 


and progress of the Church of Latter-day Saints to add 
to it. 

At half- past one p. m. returned to General Adams. A 
gentleman from St. Louis told General Law General sen- 
that the general impression was that Smith p™ e Xt'V he 
was innocent, and it would be a kind of murder Innoc ence. 
to give him up— that "he ought to be whipped a little and 
let go." It was evident that prejudice was giviog way in 
the public mind. 

At four, Mr. Lamborn, Mr. Prentice, the marshal, and 
some half dozen others called to see me. The marshal 
said it was the first time during his administration that 
the ladies had attended court on a trial. A peculiarly 
pleasant and conciliatory feeling prevailed in the com- 
pany, and the marshal invited me to a family dinner, when 
I should be freed. 

••At five went to Mr. Sollars 7 with Elders Hyde and Rich- 
ards. Elder Hyde inquired the situation of the negro. I 
[replied, they came into the world slaves, men- 

Ti \ 1 1 • n ™ ...■ The Prophet's 

tally and physically. Change their situation view of the 
with the whites, and they would be like them. 
They have souls, and are subjects of salvation. Go into 
Cincinnati or any city, and find an educated negro, who 
rides in his carriage, and you will see a man who has risen 
by the powers of his own mind to his exalted state of re- 
spectability. The slaves in Washington are more refined 
than many in high places, and the black boys will take the 
shine off many of those they brush and wait on. 
^"Elder Hyde remarked, "Put them on the level, and they 
will rise above me." I replied, if I raised you to be any 
equal, and then attempted to oppress you, would you not 
be indignant and try to rise above me, as did Oliver Cow- 
dery, Peter Whi truer, and many others, who said I was a 
fallen Prophet, and they were capable of leading the peo- 
ple, although I never attempted to oppress them, but had 
always been lifting them up? Had I anything to do with 


the negro, I would confine them by strict law to their own 
species, and put them on a national equalization. 
<*" Because faith is wanting, the fruits are. No man since 
the world was had faith without having something along 
The world's ^vith it. The ancients quenched the violence 
Lackof Faith. j g re ^ osca p e( j the edge of the sword, women 
received their dead, &c. By faith the worlds were made. 
A man who has none of the gifts has no faith ; and he de- 
ceives himself, if he supposes he has. Faith has been 
wanting, not only among the heathen, but in professed 
Christendom also, so that tongues, healings, prophecy, 
and prophets and apostles, and all the gifts and blessings 
have been wanting. 

Some of the company thought I was not a very meek 
Prophet; so I told them: "I am meek and lowly in heart," 
The Meekness an( l will personify Jesus for a moment, to 
of a Prophet, illustrate the principle, and cried out with a 
loud voice, "Woe unto you, ye doctors; woe unto you, ye 
lawyers; woe unto you, ye scribes, Pharisees, and hypo- 
crites! " &c. But you cannot find the place where I ever 
went that I found fault- with their food, their drink, their 
house, their lodgings; no, never; and this is what is meant 
by the meekness and lowliness of Jesus. 

Mr. Sollars stated that James Mullone, of Springfield, 
told him as follows: — "I have been to Nauvoo, and seen 
a sample of Joe Smith, the Prophet: he had a gray horse, 
Folly - and I asked him where he got it; and Joe said, 

"You see that white cloud." "Yes." "Well, as it came 
along, I got the horse from that cloud." This is a fair 
specimen of the ten thousand foolish lies circulated by this 
generation to bring the truth and its advocates into dis- 

What is it that inspires professors of Christianity gener- 
ally with a hope of salvation? It is that smooth, sophisti- 
The Prophet's cated influence of the devil, by which he de- 
niustration. ce i ve s the whole world. But, said Mr. Sollars, 
''May 1 not repent and be baptized, and not pay any at- 


tention to dreams, visions, and other gifts of the Spirit?" 
I replied: "Suppose I am traveling and am hungry, and 
meet with a man and tell him I am hungry, and he tells 
me to go yonder, there is a house of entertainment, go 
and knock, and you must conform to all the rules of the 
house, or you cannot satisfy your hunger; knock, call for 
food, sit down and eat; — and I go and knock, and ask for 
food, and sit down to the table, but do not eat, shall I 
satisfy my hunger? No. I must eat. The gifts are the 
food; and the graces of the Spirit are the gifts of the 
Spirit. When I first commenced this work, and had got 
two or three individuals to believe, I went about thirty 
miles with Oliver Cowdery, to see them. We had only one 
horse between us. When we arrived, a mob of about one 
hundred men came upon us before we had time to eat, 
and chased us all night; and we arrived back again a little 
after daylight, having traveled about sixty miles in all, 
and without food. I have often traveled all night to see 
the brethren; and, when traveling to preach the Gospel 
among strangers, have frequently been turned away with- 
out food. " , 

Thus the evening was spent in conversation and teach- 
ing, and closed by singing and prayer, when we parted, 
and Elders Hyde, Richards and myself lay down upon a 
bed on the floor, and enjoyed refreshing rest till morning. 

Tuesday, 3. — After breakfast, called on Sister Crane, 
and blessed her little baby, Joseph SmithCrane, and returned 
to Judge Adams', where we conversed with 
Messrs. Trobridge, Jonas, Browning, and with Promi- 

,i i t i%/r* • o i Dent Men. 

others, on my old Missouri case of treason. 
At half-past nine, went to the court-room, and had con- 
versation with Messrs. Butterfield, Owen, Pope, Prentice, 
and others. 

At twelve, returned and spent the afternoon at Judge 
Adams'. At dusk, the marshal called with subpoenas for 
my witnesses . Spent the evening with the brethren at 
Judge Adams' in a very social manner, and prophesied in 


the name of the Lord that no very formidable opposition 
would be raised at my trial on the morrow. Slept on a 
sofa as usual while at Springfield. 

Wednesday, 4. — At nine o'clock a. m., repaired to the 

court-room, Judge Pope on the bench, and ten 
of^riai™ ladies by his side, when Josiah Lamborn, 

attorney-general of the state of Illinois, ap- 
peared and moved to dismiss the proceedings, and filed 
the following objections to the jurisdiction of the court, 
— viz. : 

Objection of Jurisdiction, 

1. The arrest and the detention of Smith was not under or by color 
of authority of the United States, or of any officer of the United States, 
but under and by color of authority of the State of Illinois, by the 
officers of Illinois. 

2. When a fugitive from justice is arrested by authority of the gov- 
ernor of any state upon the requisition of the governor of another state, 
the courts of justice, neither state nor federal, have any authority or 
jurisdiction to enquire into any facts behind the writ. 

My counsel then offered to read, in evidence, affidavits 
of several persons, showing conclusively that I was at 
Nauvoo, in the county of Hancock, and state of Illinois, 
on .the whole of the 6th and 7th days of May, in the year 
1842, and on the evenings of those days more than three 
hundred miles distant from Jackson county, in the state 
of Missouri,' where it is alleged that the said Boggs was 
shot; and that I had not been in the state of Missouri at 
any time between the 10th day of February and the 1st 
day of July, 1842, the said persons having been with me 
during the whole of that period. That on the 6th day of 
May aforesaid, I attended an officer's drill at Nauvoo 
aforesaid, in the presence of a large number of people; 
and on the 7th day of May aforesaid I reviewed the Nau- 
voo Legion in presence of many thousand people. 

The reading of these affidavits was objected to by the 
attorney-general of the state of Illinois, on the grounds 
that it was not competent for Smith to impeach or contra- 


diet the return of the habeas corpus. It was contended 
by my counsel, 1st, that I had a right to prove that the 
return was untrue. 2nd, that the said affidavits did not 
contradict the said return, as there was no averment under 
the oath in said return that I was in Missouri at the time 
of the commission of the alleged crime, or had fled from 
the justice of that state. The court decided that the said 
affidavits should be read in evidence, subject to all objec- 
tions; and they were read accordingly, all of which will 
appear on my discharge. B.S. Edwards, Esq., opened 
the defense in an animated speech, and made some very 
pathetic allusions to our sufferings in Missouri, followed 
by Mr. Butterfield, who made the following points: — 

Summary of Counsel Butter field's Argument. 

1. This court has jurisdiction. The requisition purports on its face 
to be made, and the warrant to be issued, under the constitution and 
laws of the United States regulating- the surrender of fugitives from 
justice, 2nd sec, 4th article Constitution of the United States, 1st sec. 
of the Act of Congress of 12th Feb., 1793. When a person's rights are 
invaded under a law of the United States, he has no remedy except in 
the courts of the United States, 2nd sec, 3rd article Constitution United 
States, 12th Wendall, 325—16 Peters, 543. 

The whole power in relation to the delivering up of fugitives from 
justice and labor has been delegated to the United States, and Congress 
has regulated the manner and form in which it shall be exercised. The 
power is exclusive. The State Legislatures have no right to interfere; 
and if they do, their acts are void, 2nd and 3rd clause of 2nd sec, 4th 
article Coustitution United States, 2nd vol. Laws United States 331 — 16 
Peters, 617, 618, 623; 4th Wheaton's Reports, 122, 193-12; Wendall, 

All couits of the United States are authorized to issue writs of habeas 
corpus when the prisoner is confined under or by color of authority of 
'ie United States, Act of Congress of Sept. 24th, 1789, sec. 14; 2nd 
Condensed 33; 3rd Cranch, 447; 3rd Peters, 193. 

2. The return to the habeas corpus is not certain and sufficient to 
warrant the arrest and transportation of Smith. In all cases on habeas 
corpus previous to indictment, the court will look into the depositions 
before the magistrate; and though the commitment be full and in form, 
yet, if the testimony prove no crime, the court will discharge ex-parte; 


Taylor 5th; Cowen 50. The affidavit of Boggs does not show that Smith 
was charged with any crime committed by him in Mo., nor that he was 
a fugitive from justice. If the commitment be for a matter for which 
by law the prisoner is not liable to be punished, the court must dis- 
charge him; 3rd Bacon, 434. The executive of this state has no juris- 
diction over the person of Smith to transport him to Missouri, unless he 
has fled from that state. 

3. The prisoner has a right to prove facts not repugnant to the re- 
turn, and even to go behind the return and contradict it, unless commit- 
ted under a judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction; 3rd Bacon, 
435,438; 3rd Peters, 202; Gale's revised laws of Illinois, 323. The 
testimony introduced by Smith at the hearing, showing conclusively 
that he was not a fugitive from justice, is not repugnant to the return. 

J. Lamborn, attorney-general of the state of Illinois, 
in support of the points made by him, cited 2nd Condensed 
Reports, 37; Gordon's Digest, 73; Gale's Statutes of Illi- 
nois, 318; Conkling, 85; 9th Wendall, 212. 

In the course of his plea, Mr. Butterfield showed that 
Governor Reynolds had subscribed to a lie in his demand 

Th piea of ^ or me ' as w *^ a PP ear i n the papers, [published 
Mr. Butter- in this chapter] ; and said that Governor Car- 
lin would not have given up his dog on such a 
requisition. That an attempt should be made to deliver 
up a man who has never been out of the state, strikes at 
all the liberty of our institutions. His fate today may be 
yours tomorrow. I do not think the defendant ought, 
under any circumstances, to be given up to Missouri. It 
is a matter of history that he and his people have been 
murdered or .driven from the state. If he goes there, it 
is only to be murdered, and he had better be sent to the 
gallows. He is an innocent and unoffending man. If 
there is a difference between him and other men, it is that 
this people believe in prophecy, and others do not; the old 
prophets prophesied in poetry and the modern in prose. 

Esquire Butterfield managed the case very judiciously. 
The court- room was crowded during the whole trial ; the 
utmost decorum and good feeling prevailed, and much 
prejudice was allayed. ' Esquire Lamborn was not severe, 


apparently saying little more than his relation to the case 

Court adjourned till tomorrow nine a. m., for the mak- 
ing up of opinion. After an introduction to several per- 
sons, I retired to Judge Adams', and after The Treat- 
dinner spent some time in conversation with p r e n p h et at e 
Brother Hyrum and Theodore Turley. At half- Springfield. 
past five o'clock I rode in Mr. Prentice's carriage to his 
house, accompanied by General Law and Elder Orson 
Hyde, where I had a very interesting visit with Mr. Pren- 
tice and family, Judge Douglas, Esquires Butterfield, 
Lamborn and Edwards, Judge Pope's son, and many 
others; partook of a splendid supper; there were many 
interesting anecdotes, and everything to render the re- 
past and visit agreeable; and returned to Judge Adams' 
about eleven o'clock. 

Thursday, 5. — At nine a. m., repaired to the court- 
room, which was crowded with spectators anxious to "be- 
hold the Prophet," and hear the decision of Judge Pope, 
who soon took his seat, accompanied by half-a-dozen la- 
dies, and gave the following: 

Opinion of Judge Pope, 

The importance of this ease, and the consequences which may flow 
from an erroneous precedent, affecting the lives and liberties of our 
citizens, have impelled the court to bestow upon it the most anxious 
consideration. The able arguments of the counsel for the respective 
parties have been of great assistance in the examination of the impor 
tant question arising in this cause. 

When the patriots and wise men who framed our Constitution were in 
anxious deliberation to form a perfect union among the states of the 
confederacy, two great sources of discord presented themselves to their 
consideration — the commerce between the states and fugitives from 
justice and labor. 

The border collisions in other countries have been seen to be a fruit- 
ful source of war and bloodshed, and most wisely did the constitution 
confer upon the national government the regulation of those matters, 
because of its exemption from the excited passions awakened by con- 
flicts between neighboring states, and its ability alone to adopt a uni- 


form rule, and establish uniform laws among all the states in those 

This case presents the important question arising under the Constitu- 
tion and laws of the United States, whether a citizen of the state of 
Illinois can be transported from his own state to the state of Missouri, 
to be there tried for a crime, which, if he ever committed, was commit- 
ted in the state of Illinois; whether he can be transported to Missouri, 
as a fugitive from justice, when he has never fled from that state. 

Joseph Smith is before the court on habeas corpus, directed to the 
sheriff of Sangamon county, state of Illinois. The return shows that 
he is in custody under a warrant from the execative of Illinois, profess- 
edly issued in pursuance of the Constitution and laws of the United 
States and of the state of Illinois, ordering said Smith to be delivered 
to the agent of the executive of Missouri, who had demanded him as 
a fugitive from justice, under the 2nd section, 4th article of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and the act of Congress passed to carry 
into effect that article. 

The article is in these words, viz.: — "A person charged in any state 
with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be 
found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of 
the state from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the state 
having jurisdiction of the crime.'' 

The act of Congress made to carry into effect this article directs that 
the demand be made on the executive of the state where the offender 
is found, and prescribes the proof to support the demand, — viz., indict- 
ment or affidavit. 

The court deemed it respectful to inform the governor and attorney- 
general of the state of Illinois of: the action upon the habeas corpus. 
On the day appointed for the hearing, the attorney-general for the state 
of Illinois appeared and denied the jurisdiction of the court to grant the 
habeas corpus. 1st. Because the warrant was not issued under color 
or by authority of the United States, but by the state of Illinois. 2nd. 
Because no habeas corpus can issue in this case from either the Federal 
or State Courts to inquire into facts behind the writ. 

In support of the first point, a law of Illinois was read, declaring that 
whenever the executive of any other state shall demand of the execu- 
tive of this state any person as a fugitive from justice, and shall have 
complied with the requisition of the act of Congress in that case made 
and provided, it shall be the duty of the executive of this state to issue 
his warrant to apprehend the said fugitive, &c. It would seem that this 
act does not purport to confer any additional power upon the executive 
of this state independent of the power conferred by the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, but to make it the duty of the executive 
to obey and carry into effect the act of Congress. 


The warrant on its face purports to be issued in pursuance of the 
Constitution and laws of the United States, as well as of the state of 
Illinois. To maintain the position that this warrant was not issued under 
color or by authority of the laws of the United States, it must be proved 
that the United States could uot confer the power on the executive of 
Illinois; because if Congress could and did confer it, no act of Illinois 
could take it away, for the reason that the Constitution and laws of the 
United States, passed in pursuance of it, and treaties, are the supreme 
law of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, 
anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary not- 
withstanding. This is enough to dispose of that point. 

If the Legislature of Illinois, as is probable, intended to make it the 
duty of the governor to exercise the power granted by Congress, and no 
more, the executive would be acting by authority of the United States. 
It may be that the Legislature of Illinois, appreciating the importance 
of the proper execution of those laws, and doubting whether the gov- 
ernor could be punished for refusing to carry them into effect, deemed 
it prudent to impose it as a duty, the neglect of which would expose him 
to impeachment. If it intended more, the law is unconstitutional and 
void — 16 Peters, 617 Prigg versus Pennsylvania. 

In supporting the second point, the attorney-general seemed to urge 
that there was greater sanctity in a warrant issued by the governor 
than by an inferior officer. The court cannot assent to this distinction. 

This is a government of laws, which prescribes a rule of action as 
obligatory upon the governor as upon the most obscure officer. The 
character and purposes of the habeas corpus are greatly misunderstood 
by those who suppose that it does not review the acts of an executive 
functionary. All who are familiar with English history must know that 
it was extorted from an arbitrary monarch, and that it was hailed as a 
second Magna Charta; and that it was to protect the subject from arbi- 
trary imprisonment by the king and his minions, which brought into 
existence that great palladium of liberty in the latter part of the reign 
of Charles the Second. It was indeed a magnificent achievement over 
arbitrary power. Magna Charta established the principles of liberty — 
the habeas corpus protected them. It matters not how great or obscure 
the prisoner, how great or obscure the prison-keeper, this munificent 
writ, wielded by an independent judge, reaches all. It penetrates alike 
the royal towers and the local prisons, from the garret to the secret re- 
cesses of the dungeon. All doors fly open at its command, and the 
shackles fall from the limbs of prisoners of state as readily as from those 
committed by subordinate officers. The warrant of the king and his 
secretary of state could claim no more exemption from that searching 
inquiry, "The cause of his caption and detention," than a warrant 

15 Vol. V. 

226 HISTOKY O*' THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

granted by a justice of the peace. It is contended that the United 
States is a government of granted powers, and that no department of it 
can exercise powers not granted. This is true. But the grant is to be 
found in the second section of the third article of the Constitution of 
United States: — "The judical power shall extend to all cases in law or 
equity arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, 
and treaties made, and which shall be made under their authority." 

The matter under consideration presents a case arising under the 2nd 
section, 4th article of the Constitution of the United States; and the act 
of Congress of February 12th, 1793. to carry it into effect. The judi- 
ciary act of 1789 confers on this court (indeed on all the courts of the 
United States,) power to issue the writ of habeas corpus, when a per- 
son is confined, "under color of, or by the authority of the United 
States." Smith is in custody under color of, and by authority of the 
2nd section, 4th article of the Constitution of the United States. As to 
the instrument employed or authorized to carry into effect that article 
of the Constitution, (as he derives from it the authority to issue the 
warrant,) he must be regarded as acting by the authority of the United 
States. The power is not officially in the governor, but personal. It 
might have been granted to any one else by name, but considerations 
of convenience and policy recommended the selection of the executive 
who never dies. The citizens of the states are citizens of the United 
States; hence the United States are as much bound to afford them pro- 
tection in their sphere as the states are in theirs. 

This court has jurisdiction. Whether the state courts have jurisdiction 
or not, this court is not called upon to decide. The return of the sher- 
iff shows that he has arrested and now holds in custody Joseph Smith, 
in virtue of a warrant issued by the Governor of Illinois, under the 2nd 
section of the 4th article of the Constitution of the Uuited States, rela- 
tive to tugitives from justice, and the act of Congress passed to carry it 
into effect. The article of the Constitution d<)es not designate the person 
upon whom the demand for the fugitive shall be made, nor does it prescribe 
the proi>f uoon which he shall act. But Congress has done so. The proof 
is kt an indictment or affidavit," to be certified by the governor demand- 
ing. The return brings before the court the warrant, the demand and 
affidavit. The material part of the latter is in these words, viz. — 

"Lilburn W. Boggs, who being duly sworn, doth depose and say that 
on the night of the 6th day of May, 1842, while sitting in his dwelling, 
in the town of Independence, in the county of Jackson, he was shot 
with intent to kill; and that his life was despaired of for several days; 
and that he believes, and has good reason to believe from evidence and 
information now in his possession, that Joseph Smith, commonly called 
the "Mormon Prophet," was accessory before the fact of the intended 


murder, and that the said Joseph Smith is a citizen or resident of the 
state of Illinois." 

This affidavit is certified by the governor of Missouri to be authen- 
tic. The affidavit being thus verified, furnished the only evidence upon 
which the governor of Illinois could act. Smith presented affidavits 
proving that he was not in Missouri at the date of the shooting of 

This testimony was objected to by the attorney-general of Illinois, *m 
the ground that the court could not look behind the return. The court 
deems it unnecessary to decide that point, inasmuch as it thinks Smith 
entitled to his discharge for defect in the affidavit. 

To authorize the arrest in this case, the affidavit should have stated 
distinctly — 1st, that Smith had committed a crime; 2nd, that he com- 
mitted it in Missouri. 

It must appear that he fled from Missouri to authorize the gov- 
ernor of Missouri to demand him, as none other than the governor of 
the state from which he fled can make the demand. He could not have 
fled from justice unless he committed a crime, which does not appear. 
It must appear that the crime was committed in Missouri, to warrant 
the governor of Illinois in ordering him to be sent to Missouri for trial. 

The 2nd section, 4th article, declares he ''shall be removed to the state 
having jurisdiction of the crime." As it is not charged that the crime 
was committed by Smith in Missouri, the governor of Illinois could not 
cause him to be removed to that state, unless it can be maintained 
that the state of Missouri can entertain jurisdiction of crimes committed 
in other states. The affirmative of this proposition was taken in the 
argument with a zeal indicating sincerity. But no adjudged case or dic- 
tum was adduced in support of it. The court conceives that none can 
be. Let it be tested by principle. 

Man, in a state of nature, is a sovereign, with all the prerogatives of 
king, lords, and commons. He may declare war and make peace, and 
as nations often do who "feel power and forget right," may oppress, 
rob, and subjugate his weaker and unoffending neighbors. He unites 
in his person, the legislative, judicial, and executive power; "can do no 
wrong," because there is none to hold him to account. But when he 
unites himself with a community, he lays down all the prerogatives sov- 
ereign (except self defense,) and becomes a subject. He owes obedi- 
ence to its laws and the judgments of its tribunals, which he is sup- 
posed to have participated in establishing, either directly or indirectly. 
He surrenders also the right of self-redress. 

In consideration of all which, he is entitled to the eegis of that com- 
muuity to defend him from wrongs. He takes upon himself no alle- 
giance to any other community, so owes it no obedience, and therefore 


cannot disobey it. None 'other than his own sovereign can prescribe 
a rule of action to him. Each sovereign regulates the conduct of its 
subjects, and they may be punished upon the assumption that they 
have known the rule, and have consented to be governed by it- it would 
be a gross violation of the social compact if the state were to deliver 
up one of its citizens to be tried and punished by a foreign state to 
which he owes no allegiance, and whose laws were never binding on 
him. No state can or will do it. 

In the absence of the constitutional provision, the state of Missouri 
would stand on this subject in the same relation to the state of Illinois 
that Spain does to England. In this particular, the states are independ- 
ent of each other; a criminal fugitive from one state to another could 
not be claimed as of right to be given up. 

It is most true, as mentioned by writers on the laws of nations that 
every state is responsible to its neighbors for the conduct of its citizens 
so far as their conduct violates the principles of good neighborhood; so 
it is among private individuals. But for this, the inviolibility of terri- 
tory or private dwellings could not be maintained. This obligation 
creates the right and makes it the duty of the state to impose such re- 
straints upon the citizen as the occasion demands. 

It was in the performance of this duty that the United States passed 
laws to restrain citizens of the United States from setting on foot and 
fitting out military expeditions against their neighbors. While the 
violators of this law kept themselves within the United States the con- 
duct was cognizable in the courts of the United States, and not of the 
offended state, even if the means provided had assisted in the invasion 
of the foreign state. A demand by the injured state upon the United 
States for the offenders whose operations were in their own country, 
would be answered that the United States' laws alone could act upon 
them, and that as a good neighbor it would punish them. 

It is the duty of the state of Illinois to make it criminal in one of its 
citizens to aid, abet, counsel or advise any person to commit a crime in 
her sister state. Any one violating the law would be amenable to the 
laws of Illinois, executed by its own tribunals. Those of Missouri could 
have no agency in his conviction and punishment. But if be shall go 
into Missouri he owes obedience to her laws, and is liable before her 
courts to be tried and punished for any crime he may commit there; 
and a plea that he was a citizen of another state would not avail him. 
If he escape, he may be surrendered to Missouri for trial. But when 
the offense is perpetrated in Illinois, the only right of Missouri is to 
insist that Illinois compel her citizens to forbear to annoy her. This 
she has a right to expect. For the neglect of it, nations go to war and 
violate territory. 


The court must hold that where a necessary fact is not stated in the 
affidavit, it does not exist. It is not averred that Smith was accessory 
before the fact, in the state of Missouri, nor that he committed a crime 
in Missouri; therefore he did not commit the crime, in Missouri, did not 
flee from Missouri to avoid punishment. 

Again the affidavit charges the shooting on the 6th of May, in the 
county of Jackson, and state of Missouri, ''that he believes, and has 
good reason to believe from evidence and information now (then) in his 
possession, that Joseph Smith was accessory before the fact, and is a 
resident or citizen of Illinois." 

There are several objections to this., Mr. Boggs having the "evidence 
and information in his possession, 1 ' should have incorporated it in the 
affidavit, to enable the court to judge of their sufficiency to support his 

Again, he swears to a legal conclusion, when he says that Smith was 
accessory before the fact. What acts constitute a man an accesory in a 
question of law are not always of easy solution. Mr. Boggs' opinion, 
then, is not authority. He should have given the facts. He should 
have shown that they were committed in Missouri, to enable the court 
to test them by the laws of Missouri, to see if they amounted to a crime. 

Again the affidavit is fatally defective in this, that Boggs swears to 
his belief. The language in the Constitution is, "Charged with felony 
or other crime." Is the Constitution satisfied with a charge upon sus- 

It is to be regretted that no American adjudged case has been cited to 
guide the court in expounding this article. Language is ever inter- 
preted by the subject matter. If the object were to arrest a man near 
home, and there were fears of escape if the movement to detain him 
for examination were known, the word charged might warrant the issu- 
ing of a capias on suspicion. Rudyard (reported in Skinner 676), was 
committed to Newgate for refusing to give bail for his good behavior, 
and was brought before common pleas on habeas corpus. The return 
was that he had been complained of for exciting the subjects to dis- 
obedience of the laws against seditious conventicles; and upon examina- 
tion they found cause to suspect him. Vaughan, Chief Justice, "Tyrell 
and Archer against Wild," held the return insufficient; 1st, because it 
did not appear but that he might abet frequenters of conventicles in the 
way the law allows; 2nd, to say that h« was complained of or was 
examined is no proof of his e:uilt. And then to say that he had cause 
to suspect him is too cautious; for who can tell what they count a cause 
of suspicion, and how can that ever be tried? At this rate they would 
have arbitrary power upon their own allegation, to commit whom they 


From this case it appears that suspicion does not warrant a commit- 
ment, and that all legal intendments are to avail the prisoner: that 
the return is to be most strictlv construed in favor of liberty. If suspi- 
cion in the foregoing case did not warrant a commitment in London by 
its officers, of a citizen of London, might not the objection be urged 
with greater force against the commitment of a citizen of our state to 
be transported to another on suspicion? 

No case can arise demanding a more searching scrutiny into the evi- 
dence, than in cases arising under this part of the Constitution of the 
United States. It is proposed to deprive a freeman of his liberty; to 
deliver him into the custody of strangers; to be transported to a for- 
eign state, to be arraigned for trial before a foreign tribunal, governed 
by laws unknown to him; separated from his friends, his family, and 
his witnesses, unknown and unknowing. Had he an immaculate char- 
acter, it would not avail him with strangers. Such a spectacle is appal- 
ling enough to challenge the strictest analysis. 

The framers of the Constitution were not insensible of the importance 
of courts possessing the confidence of the parties. They therefore pro- 
vided that citizens of different states might resort to the Federal Courts 
in civil causes. How much more important that the criminal have 
confidence in his judge and jury. Therefore, before the capias is 
issued, the officeis should see that the case is made out to warrant it. 
Again, Boggs was shot on the 6th of May, the affidavit was made on 
the 20th of July following. Here was time for enquiry which would 
confirm into certainty, or dissipate his suspicions. He had time to 
collect facts to be had before a grand jury, or be incorporated in his 

The court is bound to assume that this would have been the course 
of Mr. Boggs; but that his suspicions were light and unsatisfactory. 
The affidavit is insufficient, 1st, because it is not positive; 2nd because 
it charges no crime; 3rd, because it charges no crime committed in the 
state of Missouri. Therefore, he [Joseph Smith] did not flee from the jus- 
tice of the state of Missouri, nor has he taken refuge in the state of Illinois. 

The proceedings in this affair, from the affidavit to the arrest, afford 
a lesson to governors and judges whose action may hereafter be 
invoked in cases of this character. The affidavit simply says that the 
affiant was shot with intent to kill; and he believes that Smith was 
accessory before the fact to the intended murder, and is a citizen or 
resident of the state of Illinois. It is not said who shot him, or that 
the person was unknown. The goveruor of Missouri, in his demand, 
calls Smith a fugitive from justice, charged with being accessory before 
the fact to an assault with intent to kill, made by one 0. P. Rockwell, 
on Lilburn W. Boggs, in this state (Missouri). This governor 


expressly refers to the affidavit as his authority for that statement. 

Boggs, in his affidavit, does not call Smith & fugitive from justice, nor 
does he state a fact from which the governor had a right to infer it. 
Neither does the name of 0. P. Rockwell appear in the affidavit, nor 
does Boggs say Smith fled. Yet the governor saj's he has fled to the 
state of Illinois. But Boggs only says he is a citizen or resident of the 
state of Illinois. The governor of Illinois responding to the demand 
of the executive of Missouri for the arrest of Smith, issues his warrant 
for the arrest of Smith,. reciting that "whereas Joseph Smith stands 
charged by the affidavit of Lilburn W. Boggs with being accessory 
before the fact to an assault, with intent to kill, made by one 0. P. 
Rockwell, on Lilburn W. Boggs, on the night or the Cth day of May, 
1842, at the county of Jackson, in said state of Missouri; and that the 
said Joseph Smith has fled from the justice of said state, and taken 
refuge in the state of Illinois." 

Those facts do not appear by the affidavit of Boggs. On the con- 
trary, it does not assert that Smith was accessory to 0. P. Rockwell, 
nor that he had fled from the justice of the state of Missouri, and taken 
refuge in the state of Illinois. 

The court can alone regard the facts set forth in the affidavit of 
Boggs as having any legal existence. The mis-recitals and over-state- 
ments in the requisition and warrant are not supported by oath, and 
cannot be received as evidence to deprive a citizen of his liberty and 
transport him to a foreign state for trial. For these reasons Smith 
must be discharged. 

At the request of J. Butterfield, counsel for Smith, it is proper to 
state, in justice to the present executive of the state of Illinois, Gover- 
nor Ford, that it was admitted on the argument that the warraut which 
originally issued upon the said requisition was issued by his predeces- 
sor; that when Smith came to Springfield to surrender himself up upon 
that warrant, it was in the hands of the person to whom it had been 
issued at Quincy, in this state; and that the present warrant which is a 
copy of the former one, was issued at the request of Smith, to enable 
him to test its legality by writ of habeas corpus. 

Let an order be entered that Smith be discharged from his arrest. 

At the close I arose, and bowed to the court, which ad- 
journed to ten o'clock tomorrow. I accepted an invita- 
tion to see Judge Pope in his room, and spent 

, ' . \. . jLl , . ' . The Prophet's 

an hour m conversation with his honor, in Hour with 
which I explained to him that I did not pro- 
fess to be a prophet any more than every man ought 


to who professes to be a preacher of righteousness; and 
that the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy: and* 
gave the judge a brief but general view of my princi- 
ples. Esquire Butterfield asked me ' 'to prophesy how 
many inhabitants would come to Nauvoo." I said, I 
will not tell how many inhabitants will come to 
Nauvoo; but when I went to Commerce, I told the peo- 
ple I would build up a city, and the old inhabitants replied 
"We will be damned if you can." So I prophesied that 
I would build up a city, and the inhabitants prophesied 
that I could not; and we have now about 12,000 inhabi- 
tants. I will prophesy that we will build up a great city; 
for we have the stakes and have only to fill up the inter- 

The judge was very attentive and agreeable, and 
requested of me that my secretary, Dr. Richards, would 
furnish him a copy of his decision for the press. 
Dined at General Adams', and in the afternoon visited 
Mr. Butterfield with Brother Clayton. In the evening 
visited Mr. Groves, and lodged at General Adams' with 
Dr. Richards. 

Friday, 6—lrx the morning went to see Judge Pope 
with Dr. Richards, who presented the judge with a report 
of his decision; called on Mr. Butterfield, and 
of Governor gave him two notes of two hundred and thirty 
Ford " dollars each, having paid him forty dollars 

as fee for his service in my suit. I took certified copies 
of the doings of the court, and waited on Governor Ford 
for his certificate thereto, after which he offered me a lit- 
tle advice, which was, that I "should refrain from all 
political electioneering." I told him that I had always 
acted upon that principle, and proved it by General Law 
and Dr. Richards: and that the "Mormons" were driven 
to union in their elections by persecution, and not by my 
influence: and that the "Mormons" acted on the most 
perfect principle of liberty in all their movements. 

During the day I had considerable conversation in the 

A.i). 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 233 

court room with the lawyers and others, on various topics 
and particularly on religion. Judge Pope's Sundry Con . 
son wished me well, and hoped I would not versation s- 
be persecuted any more, and I blessed him. Mr. Butter- 
field said I must deposit my discharge and all my papers 
in the archives of the Temple when it is completed. My 
discharge, here referred to, commenced with my petition 
for habeas corpus and closed with the certificate of 
Thomas Ford, governor of Illinois, including all the doc- 
uments relating to my trial on separate sheets of paper, 
attached by a blue ribbon, and secured by the seal of the 
court, and reads as follows : 

Official Papers Relating to the Prophets Trial at Springfield, III,, Before 

Judge Pope, 


Pleas before the Circuit Court of the United States for the district of 
Illinois, at the December term, A. D., 18-42, December 31st. 

In the matter of Joseph Smith: Petition for habeas corpus. 

Justin Butterfield, attorney for said petitioner, comes and moves the 
court for the allowance of a writ of habeas corpus, and files the annexed 
petition and the papers referred to therein. 

To the Honorable the Circuit Court of the United States for the dis- 
trict of Illinois: 

The petition of Joseph Smith respectfully showeth that he has been 
arrested, and is detained in custody by William F. Elkin, sheriff of 
Sangamon county, upon a warrant issued by the governor of the state 
of Illinois, upon the requisition of the governor of Missouri, as a fugi- 
tive from justice, a copy of the said warrant and the requisition and 
affidavit upon which the same was issued, is hereto annexed. And 
your petitioner is also arrested by Wilson Law, and by him also held 
and detained in custody, (jointly with the said sheriff of Sangamon 
county) upon a proclamation issued by the governor of the state of 
Illinois, a copy of which proclamation is hereunto annexed. Your 
petitioner prays that a writ of habeas corpus may be issued by this 
court, directed to the said William F. Elkin and Wilson Law, com- 
manding them forthwith and without delay to bring your petitioner 
before this honorable court, to abide such order and direction as the 
said court may mak^ in these premises. Your petitioner states that he is 
arrested and detained as aforesaid under color of a law of the United 


States, and that his arrest and detention is illegal and in violation of 
law; and without the authority of law, in this, that your petitioner is 
not a fugitive from justice, nor has he fled from the state of Missouri. 
And your petitioner, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

Joseph Smith. 


The Governor of the State of Missouri to the Governor of the State 
of Illinois — greeting: 

Whereas it appears by the annexed document, which is hereby cer- 
tified as authentic, that one Joseph Smith is a fugitive from justice, 
charged with being accessory before the fact, to an assault with intent 
to kill, made by oue 0. P. Rockwell on Lilburn W. Boggs, in this state; 
and it is represented to the executive department of this state, has fled 
to the state of Illinois: 

Now, therefore, I, Thomas Reynolds, governor of the state of Mis- 
souri, by virtue of the authority in me vested by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States, do, by these presents demand the surrender 
and delivery of the said Joseph Smith to Edward R. Ford, who is 
hereby appointed as the agent to receive the said Joseph Smith on the 
part of this state. 

In testimony whereof, I, goyernor of the state of Missouri, have 
hereunto set my hand and caused to be affixed the great seal of the 
state of Missouri. 

Done at the city of Jefferson, this 22nd day of July, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-two; of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States, the sixty-seventh, and of this state the 

By the Governor, 
[Seal] Thomas Reynolds. 

Jas. L. Minor, Secretary of State. 

Affidavit of Lilburn W. Boggs, 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of Jackson, J 

This day personally appeared before me, Samuel Weston, a justice of 
the peace within and for the county of Jackson; the subscriber, Lilburn 
W. Boggs, who being duly sworn, doth depose and say, that on the 
night of the sixth day of May, 1842, while sitting in his dwelling, in th e 
town of Independence, in the county of Jackson, he was shot, with in- 
tent to kill; and that his life was despaired of for several days, and that 


he believes, and has good reason to believe, from evidence and informa- 
tion now in his possession, that Joseph Smith, commonly called the 
Mormon Prophet, was accessory before the fact of the intended murder; 
and that the said Joseph Smith is a citizen or resident of the state of 
Illinois, and the said deponent hereby applies to the governor of the 
state of Missouri to make a demand on the governor of the state of 
Illinois to deliver the said Joseph Smith, commouly called the Mormon 
Prophet, to some person authorized to receive and convey him to the 
state and county aforesaid, there to be dealt with according to law. 


Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 20th day of July, 1842. 

Samuel Weston, J. P. 


Certificate of Secretary of State of Illinois. 

State of Illinois, 
Office of Secretary of State. 
I, Lyman Trumbull, secretary of state, of the state of Illinois, do 
hereby certify the foregoing to be a true and peifect copy of the demand 
of the governor of the state of Missouri upon the governor of this state, 
for the apprehension and surrender of Joseph Smith, who is charged 
with being a fugitive from justice, and the affidavit of Lilburn W. Bo°:gs 
attached to the same, which are on file in this office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed the 
great seal of state at Springfield, this thirty-first day of December, A. 
D., one thousand eight hundred and forty-two. 

[Seal.] Lyman Trumbull, 

Secretary of State. 
December 31, 1842. 

I do hereby certify the foregoing to be true copies of the demand and 
affidavit upon which the writ tor the apprehension of Joseph Smith was 
this day issued. 

L. Trumbull, 

Secretary of State. 
December 31, 1842. 

Governor Fordh Order for the Prophet's Arrest. 

The people of the State of Illinois to the Sheriff of Sangamon County, 

Whereas it has been made known to me by the executive authority of 


the state of Missouri, that one Joseph Smith stands charged by the 
affidavit of one Lilburn W. Boggs, made on the 20th day of July, 1842, 
at the county of Jackson, in the state of Missouri, before Samuel Weston, 
a justice of the peace within and for the county of Jackson aforesaid, 
\with being accessory before the fact to an assault with intent to kill, 
made by one 0. P. Rockwell on Lilburn W. Boggs, on the night of the 
sixth of May, A.D. 1842, at the county of Jackson, in said state of Mis- 
souri; and that the said Joseph Smith has fled from the justice of said 
state, and taken refuge in the state of Illinois: 

Now, therefore, [, Thomas Ford, governor of the state of Illiuois, 
pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the United States, and of this 
state, do herebycommand you to arrest and apprehend the said Jost ph 
Smith, if he be found within the limits of the state aforesaid, and cause 
him to be safely kept and delivered to the custody of Edward R. Ford, 
who has been duly constituted the agent of said state of Missouri to re- 
ceive said fugitive from the justice of said state, he paying all fees and 
charges for the arrest and apprehension of said Joseph Smith, and make 
due return to the executive department of this state, the manner in 
which the writ may be executed. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the 
great seal of the state to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Springfield, this 31st day of December, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-two; and of the 
Independence of the United States, the sixty-seventh. 

By the Governor, 
[Seal.] Thomas Ford. 

Lyman Trumbull, Secretary of State. 

Governor Carlin's Proclamation, 

Executive Department, Illinois, 
September 20, 1842. 

Whereas a requisition has been made upon me, as the executive of 
this state, by the governor of the state of Missouri, for the apprehension 
and surrender of 0. P. Rockwell, who is charged with the crime of 
shooting Lilburn W. Boggs, with intent to kill, in the county of Jackson 
and state of Missouri, on the night of the sixth day of May, A. D., 

And whereas a demand has also been made by the governor of Mis- 
souri upon me for the apprehension and surrender of Joseph Smith, 
commonly called the Mormon Prophet, who is charged with the crime 
of being accessory to the shooting of said Boggs at the time and place 
aforesaid, with intent to kill: 


And whereas, in obedience to the Constitution and laws of the United 
States, and of this state, executive warrants have been issued, and the 
said Rockwell and Smith arrested as fugitives from justice from the 
state of Missouri; and whereas the said Rockwell and Smith resisted 
the laws by refusing to go with the officers who had them in custody as 
fugitives from justice, and escaped from the custody of said officers: 

Now, therefore, I, Thomas Carlin, governor of the state of Illinois, 
in conformity to an act entitled "An Act concerning fugitives from jus- 
tice," approved January 6, 1827, do offer a reward of two hundred dol- 
lars to any person or persons for the apprehension and delivery of each 
or either of the above-named fugitives from justice, viz., 0. P. Rock- 
wel 1 and Joseph Smith, to the custody of James M. Pitman and Thomas 
C. King, or to the sheriff of Adams county, at the city of Quincy. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused 
the great seal of state to be affixed, the day and the date above 

By the Governor, 
[Seal.] Thomas Carlin. 

Lyman Tkumbull, Secretary of State. 

The Fulton Advocate, Quincy Herald, Galena Sentinel, and Rockjord 
Pilot, will copy the above for two weeks. 


Petition of the Prophet jor Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

In the United States' Circuit Court, District of Illinois, of December 
Term, 1842, December 31st day. 

In the matter of Joseph Smith, on petition of Habeas Corpus. 

And now at this day comes the said Joseph Smith by Justin Butter- 
field, his attorney, and presents to the court his petition, setting forth 
that he has been arrested and is detained in custody by William F. 
Elkin, Sheriff of Sangamon county, upon a warrant issued by the gov- 
ernor of the btate of Illinois, upon the requisition of the governor of 
Missouri, as a fugitive from justice; and that he is also arrested by 
Wilson La^T^and by him also held and detained in custody (jointly 
with the sheriff of Sangamon county), upon a proclamation issued by 
the governor of the state of Illinois; that he is arrested and detained as 
aforesaid, under color of a law of the United States; and that his arrest 
and detention is illegal and in violation of law, and without the author" 
ity~o1ria"w in this, that the said petitioner is not a fugitive from justice, 
nor^has he fled from the state of Missouri; and praying that a writ of 
habeas corpus may be issued by this court, directed to the said William 
F, Elkin and Wilson Law, commanding them forthwith and without 


delay to bring the petitioner before this court to abide such order and 
direction as this court may make in the premises: upon reading and 
filing of which said petitiou, it is considered and ordered by the court 
that a writ of habeas corpus be issued as prayed for in said petition, 
returnable forthwith. 

And thereupon a writ of habeas corpus was issued in the words and 
figures following, — to wit: 


Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

The United States of America to William F. Elkin, Sheriff of Sanga- 
mon county, State of Illinois, and Wilson Law, greeting. 

We command you that you do forthwith, without excuse or delay, 
bring or cause to be brought, before the Circuit Court of the United 
States for the district of Illinois, at the District Court-room, in the city 
of Springfield, the body of Joseph Smith, by whatever name or addition 
he is known or called, and who is unlawfully detained in your custody, 
as it is said, with the day and cause of his caption and detention, then 
and there to perform and abide surh order and direction as the said 
court snail make in that behalf. And hereof make due return under the 
penalty of what the law directs. 

Witness, Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States at Springfield, in the district of Illinois, this 31st day of 
December, A. D., 1842, and of our Independence the sixty- seventh 

[Seal.] James F. Owings, Clerk. 


Returns on the Above Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

And afterwards, on the said 31st day of December aforesaid, the said 
writ of habeas corpus was returned, with returns endorsed thereon in 
the words and figures following: — 

I, William F. Elkin, sheriff of Sangamon county, do hereby return 
the within writ, that the within named Joseph Smith is in my custody, 
by virtue of a warrant issued by the governor of the state of Illinois 
upon the requisition of the governor of the state of Missouri, made on 
the affidavit of L. W. Boggs, and a copy of the said warrant, requisition, 
and affidavit is hereunto aunexed, dated December 31, 1842. 

Wm. F. Elkin, 

Sheriffs. C, Illinois. 

I, Wilson Law, do return to the within writ that the said Joseph 


Smith is in my custody by virtue of an arrest made by me of his body 
under and by virtue of a proclamation of the governor of the state of 
Illinois; a copy whereof is hereunto annexed, dated December 31, 1S42- 

Wilson Law. 

The return to the within writ of habeas corpus appears by the fore- 
going returns and the schedule hereunto annexed, and the body of the 
said Joseph Smith is in court. 

Wm, Prentiss, 
U. S, Marshal, district of Illinois. 
December 31, 1842. 

Orders of the Court. 

And afterwards, to wit, on the same day aforesaid, upon the return 
of the said writ of habeas corpus, the following orders were made in 
this cause: — 

In the the matter of Joseph Smith, on Habeas Corpus. 

William F. Elkin and Wilson Law having made return to the writ of 
habeas corpus issued in this cause, and brought the body of the said 
Joseph Smith into court, on motion of Justin Butterfield, his attorney, 
it is ordered that the said Joseph Smith be admitted to bail; and there- 
upon came the said Joseph Smith in proper person, principal, and James 
Adams and Wilson Law, sureties, and severally acknowledge themselves 
to owe and be indebted to the United States of America, in the sum of 
two thousand dollars each, to be levied of their respective goods and 
chattels, lands and tenements; but to be void on condition that the said 
Joseph Smith shall be and appear before the Circuit Court of the United 
States for the district of Illinois, now sitting from day to day, and shall 
not depart without leave of the court. And thereupon it is ordered that 
this cause be set for hearing on Monday next; and it is further ordered 
that the governor of Illinois and the attorney-general be informed by 
the marshal that Joseph Smith, arrested on a warrant issued for his ap- 
prehension by the governor of Illinois, 31st December, 1842, is before 
this court on habeas corpus, and that the case will be heard on Monday, 
January 2nd, 1843, and that a copy of this order be handed to each of 
those officers. 

It is ordered that the governor of Illinois and the attorney-general be 
informed by the marshal that Joseph Smith, arrested on a warrant • 
issued for his apprehension by the governor of Illinois, 31st December, 
1842, is before this court on a writ of habeas corpus, and that the case 
will be heard on Monday, 2nd January, 1843, and that a copy of this 
order be handed to each of those officers. 


United States of America, 
District of Illinois. 

I, James F. Owings, clerk of the Circuit Court of the United States 
for the district aforesaid, do certify that the foregoing is a true copy of 
an order passed by said court, the 3 1st day of December, 1842. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed 
the seal of said court at Springfield, this 31st day of December, A. D.» 

[Seal.] James F. Owings, Clerk. 

Delivered a copy of the within order to Thomas Ford, governor, and 
Josiah Lamborn, attorney-general of the state of Illinois, December 
31st, 1842. 

Wm. Prentiss, Marshal. 

In the matter of Joseph Smith on habeas corpus; copy of order, 
marshal's fees for serving on two, $4.00; returning twelve, $4.12. 

Denials oj the Prophet. 

And afterwards, to-wit, on the 2nd day of January, A. D. 1843, Jus- 
tin Butterfield, attorney of said petitioner, filed the written denials of 
the said petitioner of the matters and things set forth, in the return to 
the said writ of habeas corpus, which denial is in the words and fig- 
ures following, — viz.: 

Circuit Court of the United States, 
District of Illinois, 

In the matter of Joseph Smith upon habeas corpus. 

Joseph Smith, being brought up on habeas corpus before this court, 
comes and denies the matter set forth in the return to the same in this, 
that he is not a fugitive from the justice of the state of Missouri; but 
alleges and is ready to prove, that he was not in the state of Missouri 
at the time of the commission of the alleged crime set forth in the 
affidavit of L. W. Boggs, nor had he been in said state for more than 
three years previous to that time, nor has he been in said state since that 
time; but, on the contrary, at the time the said alleged assault was 
made upon the said Boggs, as set forth in the affidavit the said Smith 
was at Nanvoo, in the county of Hancock, in the state of Illinois, and 
that he has not fled from the justice of the state of Missouri, and taken 
refuge in the state of Illinois, as is most untruly stated in the warrant 
upon which he is arrested, and that the matter set forth in the requtsi- 


tion of the governor of Missouri, and in the said warrant, are not sup- 
ported by oath. 

Joseph Smith. 
State of Illinois, ss. 

Joseph Smith being duly sworn, saith that the matter and things set 
forth in the foregoing statement are true. 

Joseph Smith. 
Sworn and subscribed to before me, this second day of January, 

James F. Owings, Clerk. 
Procedure of the Court. 

And afterwards, to-wit, on the same day and year last aforesaid, the 
following order was made in this cause, — viz.: 

In the matter of Joseph Smith on habeas corpus. 

At this day comes the said Joseph Smith, and, by Justin Butterfield, 
his attorney, files his written denial, verified by affidavit, of the matters 
and things set forth in the return to the writ of habeas corpus issued 
in this cause; and at the same time also comes Josiah Lamborn, attor- 
ney-general of the state of Illinois, and on his motion it is ordered that 
this cause be continued for hearing until Wednesday morning next. 

And afterwards, to-wit, on the fourth day of January, 1843, Josiah 
Lamborn, attorney-general of the state of Illinois, filed his objections 
to the jurisdiction of this court in this cause, and moved to dismiss the 
proceedings herein, which said motion and objections are in the words 
and figures following— viz.: 

United States of America, \ 

In the Circuit Court of the State of Illinois. ) 

In the matter of Joseph Smith. 

J. Lamborn, attorney-general of Illinois, moves the court to dismiss 
the proceedings herein, for the reason that this court has no jurisdic- 

1st. The arrest and detention of said Smith was not under or by color 
of authority of the United States, or any of the officers of the United 
States, but under and by color of authority of the state of Illinois, and 
by the officers of Illinois. 

2nd. When a fugitive from justice is arrested by authority of the gov- 
ernment of any state, upon the requisition of any other governor of 
another state, the courts of justice, neither state nor federal have any 
authority or jurisdiction to inquire into any facts behind the writ. 

J. Lamborn, 

Attorney-General of Illinois. 

16 Vol. v. 


And afterwards, to-wit, on the same day and year last aforesaid, the 
following order was made in this cause, — viz. : 

In the matter of Joseph Smith, on habeas corpus. 

And now, again, at this day, comes the said Joseph Smith, by Justin 
Butterfield, his attorney; and at the same time also comes Josiah Lam- 
born, attorney-general of the state of Illinois, and enters his motion to 
dismiss the proceedings herein, for want of jurisdiction; and the court 
having heard the allegations and proofs herein, and the argument of 
counsel upon the same, and also upon the aforesaid motion, and not 
being sufficiently advised took time, &c. 


Affidavits of Sundry Witnesses. 

And afterwards, to-wit, on the same day and year aforesaid, Justin 
Butterfield, attorney for said petitioner, filed the affidavits, of which the 
following are copies: 
Circuit Court of the United States, "I 
District of Illinois. J 

In the matter of Joseph Smith, upon habeas corpus. 
District of Illinois, ss. 

Stephen A. Douglas. James H. Ralston, Almeron Wheat, J. B. 
Backenstos, being duly sworn, each for himself, says that they were at 
Nauvoo in the county of Hancock, in this state on the seventh day of 
May last; that they saw Joseph Smith on that day reviewing the Nauvoo 
Legion at that place in the presence of several thousand persons. 

J. B. Backenstos, 
Stephen A. Douglas. 

Sworn to and subscribed in open court, this 4th day of January, 

James F. Owings, Clerk. 

Circuit Court of the United States, 
District of Illinois. 

In the matter of Joseph Smith upon habeas corpus. 

District of Illinois: — Wilson Law, Henry G. Sherwood, Theodore 
Tnrley, Shadrach Roundy, Willard Richards, William Clayton, and 
Hyrum Smith, being duly sworn, say that they know that Joseph 
Smith was in Nauvoo, in the county or Hancock, in the state of Illinois, 
during the whole of the sixth and seventh days of May last; that on the 
sixth day of May, aforesaid, the said Smith attended an officer-drill 
at Nauvoo, from ten o'clock in the forenoon to about four o'clock in 
the afternoon, at which drill the said Joseph Smith was present. And 

A.D. 18431 H1ST0EY OF THE CHURCH. 243 

these deponents, Hyrum Smith, Willard Richards, Henry G. Sherwood, 
John Taylor, and William Clayton, were with the said Smith at Nauvoo 
aforesaid, during the evening of the sixth day of May last, and sat with 
the said Joseph Smith in Nauvoo Lodge from sis until nine o'clock of 
said evening. And these deponents, Hyrum Smith, Willard Richards, 
and William Marks, were with the said Smith at his dwelling house, in 
Nauvoo, on and during the evening of the fifth day of May last, and 
conversed with him; and all of the deponents aforesaid do say that, on 
the seventh day of May aforesaid, the said Smith reviewed the Nauvoo 
Legion, and was present with the said Legion all that day, in the pres- 
ence of many thousand people, and it would have been impossible for 
the said Joseph Smith to have beeu at any place in the state of Missouri 
at any time on or between the sixth or seventh days of May aforesaid. 
And these deponents, Willard Richards, William Clayton, Hyrum 
Smith, and Lorin Walker, say that they have seen and conversed with 
the said Smith at Nauvoo, aforesaid, daily, from the tenth of February 
last, until the first day of July last, and know that he has not been 
absent from said city of Nauvoo, at any time during that time, long 
enough to have been in the state of Missouri; that Jackson county in 
the state of Missouri is about three hundred miles from Nauvoo. 

Wilson Law, 
Henry G. Sherwood, 
Theodore Turley, 
Shadrach Roundy, 
Willard Richards, 
William Clayton, 
John Taylor, 
William Marks, 
Lorin Walker. 
Sworn to and subscribed in open court, this 4th Jauuary, 1843. 

wings, Clerk. 


Denial of the Court to Dismiss the Cane. 

And afterwards, to wit on the 5th day of January, 1843, the following 
order was made in this cause, — viz.: 

In the matter of Joseph Smith on habeas corpus. 

And now, at this day, comes again the said Joseph Smith, by Jus- 
tin Butterfield, his attorney, and at the same time also comes Josiah 
Lamborn, attorney-general of the state of Illinois; and the court being 
now sufficiently advised of and concerning the motion heretofore 
entered to dismiss the proceedings in this cause, it is considered that 


said motion be denied; and the court having fully considered the peti- 
tion of the said Joseph Smith, and the matters and things set forth in 
the return made to the writ of habeas corpus issued herein, and being 
now sufficiently advised of and concerning the same, it is considered 
and adjudged that the matters and things set forth in the return to the 
said writ of habeas corpus are wholly insufficient in law to authorize the 
arrest and detention of the said Joseph Smith; and it is further con- 
sidered, ordered, and adjudged by the court that the said Joseph Smith 
be fully released and discharged from the custody of William F. Elkin, 
sheriff of Sangamon county, under the warrant of the governor of the 
state of Illinois, mentioned in the said return, and also from the custody 
of Wilson Law, on the proclamation of the said governor mentioned in 
the said return, and that he go hence without day. 

United States of America } 
Disirict of Illinois. J 

1, James F. Owing, clerk of the United States Circuit Court for the 
district of Illinois, do certify that the foregoing is a true and correct 
copy of the record and proceedings before said court, in the matter of 
Joseph Smith, on petition, to be discharged on habeas corpus, as the 
same remain on the record and files of said court. 

In testimony whereof , I have hereunto subscribed my name, and 
affixed the seal of said court at Springfield, this sixth day of January, 
A. D. 1843, and of our independence the 67th year. 

[Seal] James F. Owing, Clerk. 


Executive's Order of Release. 

I do hereby certify that I have inspected the foregoing record, and 
there is now no further cause for arresting or detaining Joseph Smith, 
therein named, by virtue of any proclamation or executive warrant 
heretofore issued by the governor of this state; and that since the 
judgment of the Circuit Court of the United States for the district of 
Illinois, all such proclamations are inoperative and void. 

Witness my hand and seal, at Springfield, this 6th day of January, 

[Seal] Thomas Ford, 

Governor of Illinois. 

The opinion of Judge Pope as recorded in this history, 
The Prophet's was copied from the Sangamon Journal, and 
j2dge e pop?s believed to be Judge Pope's opinion, as cor- 
Opinion. rected and altered by him from the report 

furnished him by my secretary. 


In the judge's opinion on the bench, he remarked like 
this: — "Were it my prerogative to impeach Congress for 
any one thing, it would be for granting power for the 
transportation of fugitives on affidavit, and not on 
indictment alone.' 7 He also passed several severe stric- 
tures on the actions of different governors and officers 
concerned in my case, but which I suppose he thought 
proper to omit in his printed copy. 

I received many invitations to visit distinguished gen- 
tlemen in Springfield, which time would not permit me to 
comply with ; also a ticket from the manager to attend the 
theatre this evening; but the play was prevented by the 




Saturday, January 7, 1843. — At half-past eight in the 
morning, we left Judge Adams' to return to Nauvoo, and 
The start for arrived at Captain Dutch's at four in the even- 
Nauvoo. ^ n ^ Traveling very bad, with snow and mud, 

and yet so cold as to whiten the horses with frost. While 
riding this day, General Law and Dr. Eichards composed 
a Jubilee Song, which they wrote and sang in the evening, 
and "dedicated to all lovers of Illinois' liberties," as 
printed on the first page of 37th Number of The Wasp. 

Recent accounts from Alexandria, in Egypt, state the 
mortality (murrain) among the cattle still continues; and 
it was estimated that upwards of 200,000 oxen had already 

Sunday, 8. — At eight in the morning we left Captain 
Dutch's, and, passing through Geneva and Beardstown, 
and crossing the Illinois river on the ice, arrived at Rush- 
ville at four in the evening. After supper, I went to Mr. 
Uriah Brown's, with several of the brethren and spent the 
evening very agreeably, partly in examining drafts of im- 
provements he had made in some operative and defensive 

Monday, 9. — At half -past eight in the morning, started 
for Plymouth: roads very hard, smooth and icy. When 


about two miles west of Brooklyn, at half -past twelve 
p.m., the horses of the large carriage slipped and became 
unmanageable; and horses and carriage, with An Accident 
Lorin Walker and Dr. Richards in it, went off by the Wa r- 
the embankment some six or eight feet perpendicular, do- 
ing no damage except breaking the fore-axletree and top 
of the carriage. It was a remarkable interposition of 
Providence that neither of the brethren were injured in 
the least. The com& any agreed j that^Li lburn W. Bo ggs 
shoul d^ pay the damage ; cut down a small tree, spliced 
the axle, drove on, and arrived at Brother Samuel Smith's 
in Plymouth, about four p, m. After supper, I visited 
my sister, Catherine Salisbury, accompanied by Dr. Rich- 
ards and Sister Durphy. This was the first time I haci7 
visited my sister in the state of Illinois, and the circuni- f 
stance brought vividly to my mind many things pertain^J 
ing to my father's house,* of which I spake freely, and 
particularly of my brother Alvin. Haj^s »■ v^y Wi4- 
g2m^j™ui i Hi rp aps pd ^ y-n^Ti" but Adnm nnd-^fh) nn rl of 
great strength . When two Irishmen were fighting, a nd 
one was about to gouge the other's eyes, Alvin took him 

We returned to Brother Samuel's just before the close 
of the meeting at the schoolhouse, where Elder John 
Taylor preached. After passing the usual salutations with 
several who had called to see me, singing the Jubilee 
Song, etc., retired to rest. 

Tuesday, 10. — At half-past eight in the morning, we 
started for Nauvoo, and, stopping only to water at the 
public well at Carthage, arrived at my house Arrival in 
at half -past two p.m.; found my family well, Nauv0 °- 

/ * "While there," said Dr. Richards, "my heart was pained to see a sister of 
/ Joseph's almost barefoot, and four lovely children entirely so, in the middle of a 
/ severe winter. What has not Joseph and his father's family suffered to bring 
[ forth the work of the Lord in these latter days!" 


who, with many friends assembled to greet ns on our safe 
return and my freedom. My aged mother came in and 
got hold of my arm before I saw her, which produced a 
very agreeable surprise, and she was overjoyed to behold 
her son free once more. 

Wednesday, 11. — I rode out with Emma this morning, 
designing to go to Brother Daniel Russel's, and apologize 
for breaking his carriage on our return from Springfield : 
but broke a sleigh-shoe, and returned home, where I re- 
ceived a visit from a company of gentlemen and ladies 
from Farmington, on the Des Moines river, who left at 
half- past two p. m. 

I directed letters of invitation to be written from myself 
and lady for a dinner party at my house on Wednesday 
a Dinner next, at ten a. m., to be directed to Brothers 

Prophet's he Wilson Law, William Law, Hyrum Smith, 
Home. Samuel Bennett, John Taylor, William Marks, 

Peter Haws, Orson Hyde, Henry G. Sherwood. William 
Clayton, Jabez Durphy, H. Tate, Ed ward Hunter, Theodore 
Turley, Shadrach Eoundy, Willard Richards, Arthur 
Millikin, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Wilford 
Woodruff, George A. Smith, Alpheus Cutler, Reynolds 
Cahoon, and ladies; also Mr. Levi Moffat, and Carlos 
Granger, and ladies; my mother, Lucy Smith, and Sis- 
ters Eliza R. Snow and Hannah Ells. 

On hearing of my invitation for dinner, the Twelve 
Apostles issued the following 



lo the Saints in Nauvoo. 

Feeling a deep sense of gratitude to our Heavenly Father for the 
great blessings which He has conferred on us in the deliverance of our 
beloved President, Joseph Smith, from the oppression with which he 
has so long been bound, the Traveling High Council invite the brethren 
in Nauvoo to unite with them in dedicating Tuesday, the 17th day of 
January instant, as a day of humiliation, fasting, praise, prayer, and 
thanksgiving before the great Eloheim, that He will continue the out- 
pouring of His Holy Spirit upon this people, that they may ever walk 


humbly before Him, seek out and follow the counsels given through His 
servant, and ever be united, heart and hand, in building up this stake 
of Zion and the Temple, where God will reveal Himself to this people; 
that no strife or confusion may ever be found in our midst, but peace 
and righteousness may be our companions; and as the Lord has hitherto 
sustained His Prophet in all the difficulties he has had to encounter, so 
He will continue to do, until the Prophet has finished the great work 
committed to his charge; and that all those who have been called to his 
assistance in the holy ministry, may be diligent and faithful in all 
things, that his hands may be stayed on high, like unto Moses; that our 
enemies, if such we have, may repent and, turning away from their 
enmity, get forgiveness and salvation; and that they may have no do- 
minion over the servants of God or His Saints, but that Zion may flour- 
ish upon the mountains and be exalted on the hills, and that all nations 
shall flow untu it and be saved — we will humble ourselves with fasting 
and supplication and sing praises unto our God with the voice of melody 
and thanksgiving, for the deliverance He has wrought out for His ser- 
vant Joseph, through the legally constituted authorities of our govern- 

The bishops of the several wards are requested to see that meetings 
are appointed sufficient for the accommodation of the brethren, and 
make a report unto us immediately of the same; and it may be expected 
that some one of the biethren who visited Springfield will be present at 
the different meetings, and give a history of the proceedings. 

In our fastings, humiliations and thanksgivings, let us not forget the poor 
and destitute, to minister to their necessities; and respectfully would 
we suggest to the consideration of the brethren the situation of our Pres- 
ident, who has long had all his business deranged, and has been re- 
cently obliged to expend large sums of money in procuring his release 
from unjust persecution, leaving him destitute of necessaries for his 
family and of means for prosecuting the History of the Church and the 
translations which he is anxious should be in the hands of the brethren 
as speedily as possible. We therefore recommend that collections be 
taken at the different meetings for his benefit; and such as have not 
cash will recollect that provisions will be an excellent substitute, when- 
ever it is convenient to bring them in: and we hope our brethren who 
are farmers in La Harpe, Ramus, Zarahemla, etc., and the region 
around, will have the opportunity of reading these few hints. A word 
to the wise is sufficient. The Lord loveth a cheerful and a bountiful 
giver, and will restore an hundredfold; for the laborer is worthy of his 

Brigham Young, President. 

W. Richards, Clerk. 

Nauvoo, January 11, 1843. 


Thursday , 12 — At home all day. 

Friday, 13.— At home till near sunset; then went to 
Brother William Marks with Dr. Richards, to see Sophia 
Marks, who was sick: heard her relate her vision or dream 
of a visit from her two brothers who were dead, touching 
the associations and relations of another world. 

Saturday, 14. — Rode out with Emma in the morning. 
At ten attended city council, and in the evening called the 
quorum of the Twelve together in my chamber, to pray 
for Sophia Marks, who was very sick. 

Sunday, 15. — I spent at home with my family. 

Monday, 10. — I was about home, and directed a letter 
to be written us follows: — 

Letter oj the Prophet to Josiah Butterfield — On Bennett's Movements. 

Nauvoo, January 16, 1843. 
Josiah Butterfield, Esq. 

Dear Sir: — I now sit down to inform you of our safe arrival home on 
Tuesday last, after a cold and troublesome journey of four days. We 
found our families well and cheerful. The news of our arrival was soon 
generally known; and when it was understood that justice had once 
more triumphed over oppression, and the innocent had been rescued 
from the power of mobocracy, gladness filled the hearts of the citizens 
of Nauvoo, and gratitude to those who had so nobly and manfully de- 
fended the cause of justice and innocence was universally manifest; 
and of course I rejoiced with them, and felt like a free man at home. 

Yesterday, a letter was received by Sidney Rigdon, Esq., from John 
C. Bennett, which was handed to me this morning.- From that letter, 
it appears that Bennett was at Springfield a few days after we left there, 
and that he is determined, if possible, to keep up the persecution against 
me. I herewith transmit a copy of his letter, and shall rely upon your 
counsel, in the event, of any further attempt to oppress me and deprive 
me of liberty; but I am in hopes that Governor Ford will not gratify 
the spirit of oppression and mobocracy so glaringly manifest in the con- 
duct of John C. Bennett. 

The following is a copy of his letter: — 

Letter of John C. Bennett to Sidney Bigdon and Orson Pratt. 

Springfield, Illinois, January 10, 1843. 
Mr. Sidney Bigdon and Orson Pratt. 
J)ear Friends: — It is a long time since I have written to you, and I 


should now much desire to see you; but I leave to-night for Missouri, 
to meet the messenger charged with the arrest of Joseph Smith, Hyrum 
Smith, Lyman Wight, and others, for murder, burglary, treason, &c, 
&c, who will be demanded, in a few days, on new indictments found 
by the grand jury of a called court on the original evidence, and in re- 
lation to which a nolle prosequi was entered by the District Attorney. 

New proceedings have been gotten up on the old charges, and no 
habeas corpus can then save them. We shall try Smith on the Boggs 
case, when we get him into Missouri. The war goes bravely on; and, 
although Smith thinks he is now safe, the enemy is near, even at the 
door. He has awoke the wrong passenger. The governor will relinquish 
Joe up at once on the new requisition. There is but one opinion on the 
case, and that is, nothing can save Joe on a new requisition and demand 
predicated on the old charges on the institution of new writs. He inusj^ . 
go to Missouri; but he shall not be har med, if he is not guilty: frut he 
%£ji-4m4*direr > anrl must SUtrerJJbLe^e^^ly^iLtiifiUaLW. Enough on this 

I hope that both of your kind and amiable families are well, and you 
will please to give them all my best respects. I hope to see you all soon. 
When the officer arrives, I shall be near at hand. I shall see you all 
again. Please to write me at Independence immediately. 

Yours respectfully, 

John C. Bennett. 

P. S. Will Mr. Riefflon nlease to hand this letter to Mr. Pratt. , after 

J. C. B. 

This is his letter verbatim et literatim. 

In the foregoing the designs of Bennett are very plainly manifest; 
and, to see his rascality, you have only to read some articles from his 
pen, published in the Times and Seasons about two years ago, on the 
subject of the Missouri affair. I shall be happy to hear from you on 
this subject as soon as convenieut; also if you have received any com- 
munication from Washington. We are ready to execute the mortgage 
at any time. 

l r ours very respectfully, 

Joseph Smith. 

By William Clayton, Agent. 

P. S. I would just remark, that I am not at all indebted to Sidney 
Rigdon for this letter, but to Orson Pratt, who, after he had read it,, 
immediately brought it to me. 

J. S, 


The ship Swanton sailed from Liverpool with a company 
of Saints for New Orleans, led by Elder Lorenzo Snow. 

Tuesday, 17. — This being the time appointed by the 
Twelve as a day of humiliation, fasting, praise, prayer, 
and thanksgiving before the great Eloheiru, I 
Fasting and attended a public meeting in my own house, 
iayei which was crowded to overflowing. Many 

other meetings were held in various parts of the city, 
which were well attended, and there was great joy among 
the people, that I had once more been delivered from the 
grasp of my enemies. In the evening I attended a referee 
case, with six others, on a land case of Dr. Robert D. 

Wednesday, 18. — At ten o'clock in the morning, the 
party invited began to assemble at my house, and before 
twelve they were all present, except LeviMoffatt and wife, 
and Brother Hyrum's wife, who was sick. I distributed 
cards among them, printed for the occasion, containing 
the Jubilee Song of Brothers Law and Richards ; also one 
by Sister Eliza R. Snow, as printed on the 96th page, 4th 
volume of Times and Seasons, which were sung by the 
company with the warmest feelings. 

Itkeiu^ad -JohmC _R eiinettisJette^to. Messrs . SidneyJJig- 
doi^atfd^Orson Pratt, of the 10th instant, and told them 
]r"that Mr. Pratt showed me the letter. Mr. Rigdon did not 
want to have it known that he had any hand in showing 
the letter, but wanted to keep it a secret, as though he 
were holding a private correspondence with Bennett; but 
as soon as Mr. Pratt got the letter, he brought it to me, 
which proves that Mr. Pratt had no correspondence with 
Bennett, and had no fellowship for his works of darkness. 
I told them I had sent word to Governor Ford, by Mr. 
Backenstos, that, before I would be troubled any more by 
Missouri, I would fight. 

Conversation continued on various topics until two 
o'clock, when twenty-one sat down to the dinner-table, 
and Emma and myself waited on them, with other assist- 


ants. My room was small, so that but few could be ac- 
commodated at a time. Twenty sat down to the second 
table, which was served as the first, and eighteen at the 
third, among whom were myself and Emma; and fifteen 
at the fourth table, including children and my household. 

Many interesting anecdotes were related by the com- 
pany, who were very cheerful, and the day passed off very 
pleasantly. President Brigham Young was present, al- 
though very feeble. This was the first time that he had 
been out of his house since he was taken sick. His fever 
had been so severe, that he had laiD in a log-house, 
rather open, without fire most of the time, when it was so 
cold that his attendants, with great coat and mittens on, 
would freeze their toes and fingers while fanning him. One 
thing more, which tended to give a zest to the occasion, 
was, that it was fifteen years this day since I was married 
to Emma Hale. 

The brethren dispersed about six o'clock, with many 
thanks and expressions of gratitude ; and in the evening I 
attended the Lodge. 

Thursday, 19. — I was at home, excepting a short out in 
the city in the forenoon. 

Friday, 20 — Visited at Brother William Marks' this 
morning; returned at ten a. m., and gave Dr. Richards- 
and W. W. Phelps some instructions about the History,, 
when I received the following communication : — 


From W. W. Phelps to Joseph Smith, the Prophet. 

Go with me, will you go to the Saints that have died, 
To the next better world, where the righteous reside y 

Where the angels and spirits in harmony be, 
In the joys of a vast paradise? Go with me. 

Go with me, where the truth and the virtues prevail, 
Where the union is one, and the years never fail: 

Not a heart can conceive — not a natural eye see 

What the Lord had prepared for the just. Go with me. 


Go with me, where there is no destruction nor war, 
Neither tyrants nor mobbers, nor nations ajar, — 

Where the system is perfect, and happiness free, 
And the life is eternal, with God. Go with me. 

Go with me, will you go to the mansions above, 

Where the bliss and the knowledge, the light and the love, 

And the glory of God do eternally be? 

Death, the wages of sin, is not there. Go with me.* 

In the afternoon I attended a council of the Twelve, at 
President Young's. There were present, Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, John Taylor, 
Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith, Willard Richards, 
and Brother Hyrum Smith. We had conversation on a 
great variety of subjects. I related my 

Council Meet- to J ° . J 

ing of the dream: — "I dreamed this morning that I was 

Twelve. . 

in the lobby of the Representatives' Hall, at 
Springfield, when some of the members, who did not like 
my being there, began to mar, and cut, and pound my 
shins with pieces of iron. I bore it as long as I could, 
then jumped over the rail into the hall, caught a rod of 

* After the martyrdom of the Prophet both the title And the phraseology of this 
hymn were changed by the author of it, to "Come to me, will ye come, "etc., as it now 
stands in the Latter-day Saints hymn book, page 326, Descret j¥eics edition of 1905 ; 
also the following stanzas were added by Elder Phelps: 

Come to me; here are Adam and Eve at the head 
Of a multitude quickened and raised from the dead; 

Here's the knowledge that was, or that is, or will be, 
In the.'gen'ral assembly of worlds. Come to me. 

Come to me; here's the mysteries man hath not seen, 
Here's our Father in heaven, and Mother, the Queen; 

Here are worlds that have been, and the worlds yet to be, 
Here's eternity, endless; amen. Come to me. 

Come to me, all ye faithful and blest of Nauvoo, 
Come, ye Twelve, and ye High Priests, and Seventies, too, 

Come, ye Elders, and all of the great company, 
When your work you have finished on the earth, come to me. 

Come to me; here's the future, the present and past; 

Here is Alpha, Omega, the first and the last, 
Here's the "Fountain," the "River of Life," and the "Tree!" 

Here's your Prophet and Seer, Joseph Smith. Come to me. 


Iron, and went at them, cursing and swearing at them in 
the most awful manner, and drove them all out of the 
house. I went to the door, and told them to send me a 
clerk, and I would make some laws that would do good. 
There was quite a collection around the State House, try- 
ing to raise an army to take me, and there were many 
horses tied round the square. I thought they would not 
have the privilege of getting me; so I took a rod of iron, 
and mowed my way through their ranks, looking after 
their best race-horse, thinking they might catch me where 
they could find me. Then I awoke." To dream of flying 
signifies prosperity and deliverance from enemies. To 
dream of swimming in deep water signifies success among 
many people, and that the word will be accompanied with 

I told Elder Hyde that when he spoke in the name of 
the Lord, it should prove true; but he must not curse the 
people — rather bless them. 

/ I prophesy, in the name of the Lord God, as soon as 
we get the Temple built, so that we shall not be obliged 
to exhaust our means thereon, we will have means to 
gather the Saints by thousands and tens of thousands. 

This council was called to consider the case of Orson 
Pratt who had previously been cut off from the Church 
for disobedience, and Amasa Lyman had been T he case of 
ordained an Apostle in his place. I told the Before the" 
quorum: you may receive Orson back into the council, 
quorum of the Twelve and I can take Amasa into the 
First Presidency. President Young said there were but 
three present when Amasa was ordained, the rest of the 
Twelve being either on a mission or sick. I told them 
that was legal when no more could be had. I told the 
council that from the sixth day of April next, I go in for 
preparing with all present for a mission through the 
United States, and when we arrive at Maine we will take 
ship for England and so on to all countries where we shall 
have a mind to go. We must send for John E. Page to 

256 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. f A. D. 1843 

come home, and have all the quorum to start from this place. 

Let the Twelve be called on, on the 6th of April, and a 
notice be given for a special conference on the platform of 
the House of the Lord. If I live, I will yet take these breth- 
ren through the United States and through the world, and 
will make just as big a wake as God Almighty will let me. 
"We must send kin^s and governors to Nauvoo, and we 
will do it. 

At three o'clock, council adjourned to my- house; and 
at four I baptized Orson Pratt and his wife, Sarah Marin - 
da, and Lydia Granger in the Mississippi river, and con- 
firmed them in the Church, ordaining Orson Pratt to his 
former office in the quorum of the Twelve. 

Saturday, 21. — At home, except going out in the city 
with Elder Orson Hyde to look at some lots. 

Sunday, 22 — I preached at the Temple on the setting 
up of the kingdom of God. The subject arose from two- 
questions proposed at a lyceum meeting. 

1st. Did John baptize for the remission of sins? 

2nd. Whether the kingdom of God was set up before 
the day of Pentecost, or not till then?* 

[The following is a synopsis of this sermon, as reported 
by Elder Wilford Woodruff ] : 

2 he Kingdom of God. 

(Some say the kingdom of God was not set up on the earth until the- 
day of Pentecost, and that John did not preach the baptism of repent- 
ance for the remission of sins; but I say, in the name of the Lord, that 
the kingdom of God was set up on the earth from the days of Adam to 
the present time. Whenever there has been a righteous man on earth 
unto whom God revealed His word and gave power and authority to- 
administer in His name, and where there is a priest of God — a minister 
who has power and authority from God to administer in the ordinances- 
of the gospel and officiate in the priesthood of God, there is the kingdom 
of God; and, in consequence of rejecting the Gospel of Jesus Christ and 
the Prophets whom God hath sent, the judgments of God have rested 
upon people, cities, and nations, in various ages of the world, which 

* This was the contention of the sect of the Disciples, or Campbellites; especially 
was it the view of Alexander Campbell, founder of said sect. 


was the case with the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, tuat were destroyed 
for rejecting the Prophets^ 

Now I will give my testimony. I care not for man. I speak boldly 
and faithfully and with authority. How is it with the kingdom of God? 
Where did the kingdom of God begin'? Where there is no kingdom of 
God there is no salvation. What constitutes the kingdom of Goclf 
QVhere there is a prophet, a priest, or a righteous man unto whom God 
gives His oracles, there is the kingdom of God; and where the oracles 
of God are not, there the kingdom of God is not/ 

In these remarks, I have no allusion to the kingdoms of the earth. 
We will keep the laws of the land; we do not speak against them; we 
never have, and we can hardly make mention of the state of Missouri, 
of our persecutions there, &c, but what the cry goes forth that we are 
guilty of larceny, burglary, arson, treason, murder, &c, &c, which is 
false. We speak of the kingdom of God on the earth, not the kingdoms 
of men. 

The plea of many in this day is, that we have no right to receive 
revelations; but if we do not get revelations, we do not have the oracles 
of God; and if they have not the oracles of God, they are not the people 
of God. But say you, What will become of the world, or the various 
professors of religion who do not believe in revelation and the oracles 
of God as continued to His Church in all ages of the world, when He 
has a people on earth? I tell you, in the name of Jesus Christ, they 
will be damned; and when you get into the eternal world, you will find 
it will be so, they cannot escape the damnation of hell. 

As touching the Gospel and baptism that John preached, I would 
say that John came preaching the Gospel for the remission of sins; 
he had his authority from God, and the oracles of God weze with him, 
and the kingdom of God for a season seemed to rest with John 
alone. The Lord promised Zacharias that he should have a son who 
was a descendant of Aaron, the Lord having promised that the priest- 
hood should continue with Aaron and his seed throughout their genera- 
tions. Let no man take this honor upon himself, except he be called 
of God, as was Aaron; and Aaron received his call by revelation. An 
angel of God also appeared unto Zacharias while in the Temple, and 
told him that he should have a son, whose name should be John, and he 
should be filled with the Holy Ghost. Zacharias was a priest of God, 
and officiating in the Temple, and John was a priest after his father, 
and held the keys of the Aaronic Priesthood, and was called of God to 
preach the Gospel of the kingdom of God. The Jews, as a nation, 
having departed from the law of God and the Gospel of the Lord, pre- 
pared the way for transferring it to the Gentiles. 

But, says one, the kingdom of God could not be set up in the days 

17 Vol. V. 


of John, for John said the kingdom was at hand. But I would ask if it 
could be any nearer to them than to be in the hands of John. The 
people need not wait for the days of Pentecost to find the kingdom of 
God, for John had it with him, and he came forth from the wilderness 
cryiug out, "Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is nigh at hand,' 1 
as much as to say, "Oat here I have got the kingdom of God and I am 
coming after you; I have got the kingdom of God, and you can get it, 
and I am coming after you; and if you don't receive it, you will be 
damned;" and the scriptures represent that all Jerusalem went out unto 
John's baptism, There was a legal administrator, and those that were 
baptized were subjects for a king; and also the laws and oracles of God 
were there; therefore the kingdom of God was there; for no man 
could have better authority to administer than John; and our Savior 
submitted to that authority Himself, by being baptized by John; there- 
fore the kingdom of God was set up on the earth, even in the days 
of John. 

There is a difference between the kingdom of God and the fruits 
and blessings that flow from the kingdom; because there were more 
miracles, gifts, visions, healings, tongues, &c, in the days of Jesus 
Christ and His apostles, and on the day of Pentecost, than under John's 
administration, it does not prove by any means that John had not the 
kingdom of God, any more than it would that a woman had not a milk- 
pan because she had not a pan of milk, for while the pan might be 
compared to the kingdom, the milk might be* compared to the blessings 
of the kingdom. 

John was a priest after the order of Aaron, and had the keys of that 
priesthood, and came forth preaching repentance and baptism for the 
remission of sins, but at the same time cries out, "There cometh one 
mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy 
to stoop down and unloose," and Christ came according to the 
words of John, and He was greater than John, because He 
held the keys of the Melchisedek Priesthood . and kingdom 
of God, and had before revealed the priesthood of Moses, yet Christ 
was baptized by John to fulfill all righteousness; and Jesus in His 
teachings says, "Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates 
of hell shall not prevail against it." What rock"? Revelation. 

Again he says, "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of God;" and, "heaven and 
earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. "If a man is 
born of water and of the Spirit, he can get into the kingdom of God. 
It is evident the kingdom of God was on the earth, and John prepared 
subjects for the kingdom, by preaching the Gospel to them and baptiz- 
ing them, and ho prepared the way before the Savior, or came as a 


forerunner, and prepared subjects for the preaching of Christ; and 
Christ preached through Jerusalem on the same ground where John had 
preached; and when the apostles were raised up, they worked in Jeru- 
salem, and Jesus commanded them to tarry there until they were en- 
dowed with power from on high. . Had thej not work to do in Jeru- 
salem? They did work, and prepared a people for the Pentecost. The 
kingdom of God was with them before the day of Pentecost, as well 
as afterwards; and it was also with John, and he preached the same 
Gospel aud baptism that Jesus and the apostles preached after him. 
The endowment was to prepare the disciples for their missions unto the 

Whenever men can find out the will of God and find an administra- 
tor legally authorized from God, there is the kingdom of God; but 
where these are not, the kingdom of God is not. All the ordinances, 
systems, and administrations on the earth are of no use to the children 
of men, unless they are ordained and authorized of God; for nothing 
will save a man but a legal administrator; for none others will be 
acknowledged either by God or angels. 

I know what I say; I understand my mission and business. God 
Almighty is my shield; and whdt can man do if God is my friend? I 
shall not be sacrificed until my time comes; then I shall be offered 
freely. All flesh is as grass, and a governor is no better than other men; 
when he dies he is but a bag of dust. I thank God for preserving me 
from my enemies; I have no enemies but for the truth's sake. I have 
no desire but to do all men good. I feel to pray for all men. We don't 
ask any people to throw away any good they have got; we only ask 
them to come and get more. ' What if all the world should embrace this 
Gospel? They would then see eye to eye, and the blessings of God 
would be poured out upon the people, which is the desire of my whole 
soul. Amen. 

Monday, 23, — Was at home, and wrote the editor of 
the Wasp as follows : 

Ihe Prophet on Participation in Politics. 

Dear Sir: — I have of late had repeated solicitations to have some- 
thing to do in relation to the political farce about dividiugthe county; 
but as my feelings revolt at the idea of having anything to do with 
politics, I have declined, in every instance, having anything to do on 
the subject. I think it would be well for politicians to regulate their 
own affairs. I wish to be let alone, that I may attend strictly to the 
spiritual welfare of the Church. 

Please insert the above, and oblige 
Nauvoo, Jan. 23, 1843. Joseph Smith. 


In the evening rode with Emma to see Dr. Richards, 
who was sick, at the old postoffice building, up the river. 

Elder John Snyder returned from his mission to Eng- 

Tuesday, 24. — Was at home till noon, when I rode out 
with Emma. Evening, attended the Masonic Lodge. 

Wednesday , 25. — Was about home. 

Thursday, 26. — In the afternoon rode to the Temple, 
and afterwards to William Clayton's. 

Friday, 27. — Rode on the prairie with William Clayton. 
Dined at Brother Cornelius P. Lott's. 

Saturday, 28. — Played ball with the brethren a short 
time. Rode round the city with Mr. Taylor, a land 
agent from New York. 

Some snow fell, the ice began to give way in the river, 
and a steamer that had wintered at Montrose went over 
the rapids. 

Sunday, 29.— I attended meeting at the Temple. 
After reading the parable of the prodigal son, and making 
some preliminary remarks, I seated that there were two 
questions which had been asked me concerning my sub- 
ject of the last Sabbath, which I had promised to answer 
in public, and would improve this opportunity. 

zjlhe Greatness and Mission of John the Baptist. 

The question arose from the saying of Jesus — "Among those that are 
born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the 
Baptist; but he that is least in the kingdom of God is 
greater than he." How is it that John was considered one of the 
greatest of prophets? His miracles could not have constituted his 

First. He was entrusted with a divine mission of preparing the way 
before the face of the Lord. Whoever had such a trust committed to 
him before or since? No man. 

Secondly. He was entrusted with the important mission, and it was 
required at his hands, to baptize the Son of Man. Whoever had the 
honor of doing that? Whoever had so great a privilege and glory? 
Whoever led the Son of God into the waters of baptism, and had the 
privilege of beholding the Holy Ghost descend in the form of a dove, 


or rather in the sign of the dove, in witness of that administration? 
The sign of the dove was instituted before the creation of the world, a 
witness for the Holy Ghost, and the devil cannot come in the sign of 
a dove. The Holy Ghost is a personage, and is in the form of a per- 
sonage. It does not confine itself to the form of the dove, but in 
sign of the dove. The Holy Ghost cannot be transformed into a dove; 
but the sign of a dove was given to John to signify the truth of the 
deed, as the dove is an emblem or token of truth and innocence. 

Thirdly. John, at that time, was the only legal administrator in the 
affairs of the kingdom there was then on the earth, and holding thekeys 
of power, The Jews had to obey his instructions or be damned, by 
their own law; and Christ Himself fulfilled all righteousness in becom- 
ing obedient to the law which he had given to Moses on the mount, 
and thereby magnified it and made it honorable, instead of destroying it. 
The son of Zacharias wrested the keys, the kingdom, the power, the 
glory from the Jews, by the holy anointing and decree of heaven, and 
these three reasons constitute him the greatest prophet bom of a 

Second question: — How was the least in the kingdom of heaven 
greater than he? 

In reply I asked — Whom did Jesus have reference to as being the 
least? Jesus was looked upon as having the least claim in God's king- 
dom, and [seemingly] was least entitled to their credulity as a proph- 
et; as though He had said — "He that is considered the least among 
you is greater than John — that is I myself." 

Ihe Parables of Jesus and the Interpretation of the Scriptures. 

In reference to the prodigal son, I said it was a subject I had never 
dwelt upon; that it was understood by many to be one of the intricate 
subjects of the scriptures; and even the Eiders of this Church have 
preached largely upon it, without having any rule of interpretation. 
What is the rule of interpretation? Just no interpretation fat all. 
Understand it precisely as it reads. I have a key by which I understand 
the scriptures. I enquire, what was the question which drew out the 
answer, or caused Jesus to utter the parable? It is not national; it 
does not refer to Abraham, Israel or the Gentiles, in a national capac- 
ity, as some suppose. To ascertain ts meaning, we must dig up the 
root and ascertain what it was that drew the saying out of .Jesus. 

While Jesus was teaching the people, all the publicans andjsinners 
drew near to hear Him; "and the Pharisees and scribes murmured, say- 
ing, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them." Thisjs the 
keyword which unlocks the parable of the prodigal son. It was?given to 
answer the murmurings and questions of the Sadducees aud Pharisees, 


who were querying, finding fault, and saying, "How is it that this man t 
as great as He pretends to be, eats with publicans and sinners?" 
Jesus was not put to it so, but He could have found something to illus- 
trate His subject, if He had designed it for a nation or nations; but He 
did not It was for men in an individual capacity; and all straining on 
this point is a bubble. "This man receiveth sinners and eateth with 
them/' And he spake this parable unto them — "What man of you, 
having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the 
ninety-and-nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until 
he find it? And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his shoulders, 
rejoicing. And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends 
and neighbors, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found 
my sheep which was lost. I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in 
heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety-and-nine 
just persons which need no repentance." The hundred sheep represent 
one hundred Sadduces and Pharisees, as though Jesus had said. "If 
you Sadducees and Pharisees are in the sheepfold, I have no mission 
for you; I am sent to look up sheep that are lost; and when I have 
found them, I will back them up and make joy in heaven." This rep- 
resents hunting after.a few individuals, or one poor publican, which the 
Pharisees and Sadducees despised. 

He also gave them the parable of the woman and her ten pieces of 
silver, and how she lost one, and searching diligently, found it again, 
which gave more joy among the friends and neighbors than the nine 
which were not lost; like I say unto you, there is joy in the presence of 
the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth, more than over 
ninety-aud-nine just persons that are so righteous; they will be damned 
anyhow; you cannot save them. 




Monday, January 30, 1843. — Spent the day at home 
until six in the evening, when I presided in the city coun- 
cil, where much business was transacted, the most im- 
portant of which was a bill reported by a committee, [pro- 
viding for the enlargements the municipal government of 

[The enactment provided for certain officers in addition to those 
named in the charter; namely, city engineer, market master, weigher 
and sealer of weights and measures, a fire warden in each ward of the 
city, a sexton and police officer to act under the direction of the mayor 
as captain of the watch, and a supervisor of streets and allies. It also 
provided for the preservation of good order in the city, keeping clear 
streets and alleys, defining nuisances and providing against them. Pro. 
viding for the prevention of fires, defining the duties of the city watch, 
and providing for a public market place, etc., etc. — Editors.] 

Tuesday, 31. — At home all day. A severe snowstorm. 

Thursday, February 2, 1843. — Spent the day at home. 
The weather extremely cold. 

Towards evening I rode on to the hill to enquire about 
the caucus which was held there the previous evening, 
Davidson Hibbard presiding, and Brother Benjamin L. 
Clapp, chief speaker, reporting that Joseph and Hyrum 
had attempted to take away the rights of the citizens, re- 


f erring to the election of the last city council. I corrected 
the error and returned home. 

4 'The Spirit maketh intercession for us with groanings 
scripture an d cannot be uttered." It would be better 

correction. ^g . — "The Spirit maketh intercession for 
us with striving which cannot be expressed." 

Friday, 3. — This morning, read German; at eleven, 
walked out in the city: returned at a quarter past twelve; 
read proof of " Doctrine and Covenants," which is now 
being stereotyped. 

* Brother John Mayberry sent me a cow to assist in 
bearing my expenses at Springfield. 

Saturday, 4. — At home till one o'clock in the after- 
noon, when I attended the general city election caucus at 
the Temple, where all things were amicably settled and 
mutual good feelings restored to all parties. Brother 
Clapp made a public confession for the speech which he 
made at a former caucus. 

I returned home at about four o'clock, and was visited 
by Amasa M. Lyman. I told him that I had restored 
Orson Pratt to the quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and 
that I had concluded to make Brother Amasa a counselor 
to the First Presidency. 

In the evening presided in the municipal court. 

Sunday, 5.— At home, reading German. 

Monday, 0.— Spent the forenoon at the election of 
mayor, aldermen and councilors for the city, to serve dur- 
ing the next two years, at Brother Hyrum Smith's office. 
Dined at home. One o'clock, afternoon, Thomas Moore 
Re.uit of city came m and enquired about a home. I 
Election. blessed him and said, God bless you for ever 

and ever! May the blessings of Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob rest upon you for ever and ever; and may you sit 
on thrones high and lifted up, in the name of Jesus Christ. 


When I returned to the election, Joseph Smith was 
elected mavor by unanimous vote. Orson Spencer, Dan- 


iel H. Wells, George A. Smith, and Stephen Markharn 
were elected aldermen. Hyruni Smith, John Taylor, 
Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, Sylvester Emmons, Heber C. 
Kimball, Benjamin Warrington, Daniel Spencer, and 
Brigham Young were elected councilors. 

Tuesday, 7. — This forenoon attended a council of the 
Twelve Apostles at the house of President 

. £_ . A Stolen 

Brigham Young. This afternoon I sent a Record 

St* cured 

search warrant to Hyrum Kimball's for the 
purpose of obtaining a book of patriarchal blessings given 
by Father Joseph Smith, which was stolen from Far 
West. The warrant was issued on the affidavit of Jona- 
than H. Holmes, and the book obtained. In the evening 
Hyrum Kimball came to my house for an explanation, 
and I informed him that the book was the property of the 
Church; that it had been stolen, and after passing through 
various Hands, had been secured by Oliver Granger, 
while acting as agent for the Church at Kirtland, and 
should have been given up by him. I have since been 
informed that Sister Sarah, Hyrum Kimball's wife, had 
procured the book of her brother, son of Oliver Granger, 
for the purpose of returning it to the Church; but, being 
under a pledge to her brother not to give up the book 
until he had seen her again, she had neglected to mention 
it to me. 

Elder Parley P. Pratt arrived home from England this 

Wednesday, 8. — This morning, I read German, and 
visited with a brother and sister from Michi- 

. A Prophet not 

gan, who thought that a prophet is always a Always a 
prophet;" but I told them that a prophet was 
a prophet only when he was acting as such. After din- 
ner Brother Parley P. Pratt came in: we had conversa- 
tion on various subjects. At four in the afternoon, I 
went out with my little Frederick, to exercise myself by 
sliding on the ice. 


The public papers say that Point Petre, in Gnadaloupe, 
was totally destroyed, and ten thousand persons supposed 
toiiave been killed by an earthquake. 

Thursday, 9. — Part of the forenoon I spent at the 
Masonic Hall, conversing with Mr. Eennick, of Keokuk, 
and trying to effect a settlement with him. He promised 
to let me have some notes on a paper maker in Louisville, 
towards paying me, and then went off contrary to prom- 
ise. I also had a conversation with Master Nye, and read 
.several letters, one from Judge Young, and directed the 
following in reply: 

Joseph Smith to Hon. B. M. Young (U. S. Senator) — Payment of 
Loan, and Nauvoo Postoffice Matters. 

Hon. R. M. Young, City oj Washington: 

Dear Sir: — I have this day received your favor of the 7th nit., cover- 
ing one from John C. Walsh, and barely state in this, that I shall despatch 
a messenger immediately to Quincy, to deposit the $500 in the hands 
of General Leach, according to your instructions; but seeing that I had 
little time to lose, I concluded to send this by the first mail to 
inform you of my intentions. My next, in which I shall enclose General 
Leach's receipt, together with my obligations, will be mailed at Quincy, 
and may be expected three days after you receive this. 

I shall not be able to obtain George Miller's name as security, he 
being at this time several hundred miles north of Nauvoo, and is not 
expected back until spring. I can, however, obtain the signature of 
Mr. Edward Hunter, late from Chester county, Pennsylvania, who 
owns about tweuty thousand dollars' worth of property in this vicinity, 
and probably as much more in the east, which I presume will be 
entirely satisfactory to Mr. Walsh, instead of Mr. Miller. Judge 
Higbee's name will be on the obligations. 

When you receive this, you may expect the other three daj T s later* 
All the difference will be the time required to go from here to Quincy 
and do the business. 

Some time ago, a petition, signed by the principal inhabitants of 
this city, praying the postmaster-general to remove the present 
Nauvoo postmaster and appoint another in his stead, was put in the 
hands of C. A. Warren, Esq., of Quincy, with a request that he would 
hand it to you about the time you left for Washington. We have not 
yet heard whether Mr. Warren hauded it to you or neglected to do so, 
but we feel extremely anxious to learn something on the subject, as the 
citizens generally are suffering severely from the impositions and dis- 


honest conduct of the postmaster and those connected with the post- 
office in this city. The petition was accompanied by some affidavits, 
proving that letters had frequently been broken open, money detained, 
and letters charged twice over, &c,- &c, at this office, the repeated 
occurrence of which circumstances caused the people to be anxious 
for an immediate change. It will be seen by the petition, that 1 
was nominated for the office. I can only say that, if I receive the 
appointment, I shall do my utmost to give general satisfaction. Who- 
ever may be appointed, it is necessary, in my estimation, to have it 
done as soon as circumstances will possibly admit. 

Accept, sir, of my sincere acknowledgments for past favors, which 
are not forgotten, and accept of the best wishes and sincere thanks of 
yours respectfully, 

Joseph Smith. 

By William Clayton, his agent. 

Spent most of the day in conversation with Parley P. 
Pratt and others. 


Three Grand Keys by xvhich Good or Bad Angels or Spirits may be Known — 
Revealed to Joseph the Prophet, at Nauvoo, Illinois, February 9, 1843. 

There are two kinds of beings in heaven — viz., angels,who are resur- 
rected personages, having bodies of flesh and bones. For instance. 
Jesus said, ''Handle me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, 
as ye see me have. 2nd. The spirits of just men made perfect — they 
who are not resurrected, but inherit the same glory. When a messen- 
ger comes, saying he has a message from God, offer him your hand, and 
request him to shake hands with yon. If he be an angel he will do so, 
and you will feel his hand. If he be the spirit of a just man made per- 
fect, he will come in his glory; for that is the only way he can appear. 
Ask him to shake hands with you, but he will not move, because it is 
contrary to the order of heaven for a just mnn to deceive; but he will 
still deliver his message. If it be the devil as an angel of light, when you 
ask him to shake hands he will offer you his hand, and you will not feel 
anything; you may therefore detect him. These are three grand keys 
whereby you may know whether any administration is from God. 

A man came to me in Kirtland, and told me he had 
seen an angel, and described his dress. I T 

7 Items of the 

told him he had seen no angel, and that there Prophet's 

, , . , -TT , Experience. 

was no such dress in heaven. He grew mad, 

and went into the street and commanded fire to come 

* See Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxxix. 


down out of heaven to consume me. I laughed at him, 
and said, You are one of Baal's prophets; your God does 
not hear you; jump up and cut yourself: and he com- 
manded fire from heaven to consume my house. 

When I was preaching in Philadelphia, a Quaker called 
out for a sign. I told him to be still. After the sermon, 
he again asked for a sign. I told the congregation the man 
was an adulterer ; that a wicked and adulterous generation 
seeketh after a sign; and that the Lord had said to me in 
a revelation, that any man who wanted a sign was an 
adulterous person. "It is true," cried one, "for I caught 
him in the very act," which the man afterwards con- 
fessed, when he was baptized. 

A conference was held at Boylston Hall, Boston, when 
fourteen branches of the Church in Boston Boston con- 
and the vicinity were represented, comprising ference - 
seven hundred and ninety-three members, thirty-three 
elders, forty-three lesser officers, most of whom had been 
raised up in about fifteen months. Elder George J. 
Adams, E. P. Maginn, Erastus Snow, Erastus H. Derby, 
and others, took active parts in the conference. 

Friday, 10. — After conversation with Mr. John B. 

Cowan, and others, I reviewed the history of the mob in 

Hiram, Portage county, Ohio, on the li5th of 


with John b. March, 1832, and my first journey to Missouri. 
At three o'clock, afternoon, attended a coun- 
cil of the Twelve Apostles at my house. Of the Twelve 
there were present Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, 
Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Wilford Wood- 
ruff, John Taylor, George A. Smith and Willard Richards. 
I requested that all business be presented briefly and with- 
out comments, and told the council that I had an interview 
with Mr. Cowan this morning; that he was delegated by the 
inhabitants of Shokoquon (which is twenty miles above this 
place on the river) to come toNauvoo, and petition that "a 
talented Mormon preacher take up his residence with them, 
they would find him a good house and give him support, and 


with liberty for him to invite as many 'Mormons' to set- 
tle in that place as may please so to do." Council decided 
that Brother John Bear go and preach to them. 

I suggested that a general meeting be called in the city 
in relation to the postoffice and other things, and 
instructed the council to call Elder George J. Adams to 
Nauvoo, with his family, and to say that he is ordered to 
come by the First Presidency, and that he preach no more 
till he comes. 

At five o'clock, I opened a mayor's court at my house, 
when John D. Parker, deputy sheriff, pre- Case of 
sented Oliver Olney before the court for steal- 01iver 01ne >'- 
ing goods from the store of Moses Smith on the 23rd 
of January, when Olney declared before the court that he 
had been visited many times by the Ancient of Days ; that 
he sat with him on the 9th, 10th and 11th of last June, 
and should sit in counsel again with him on Tuesday 
next ; that he had had a mission from him to the four 
quarters of the world ; that he had been and established 
the twelve stakes of Zion, and had visited them all, 
except one in the south ; that he had suffered much for 
two or three years for want of clothing ; that he despised 
a thief , except when he stole to clothe himself; that he 
opened the store of Moses Smith on the 23rd of January, 
and took out the goods then present (several hundred 
pieces) hid them in the cornfield ; and carried them home 
from time to time, under the same roof with Mr. Smith, 
and that no one] knew anything about the robbery but 

Olney was once a member of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, but had been cut off a con- 
siderable time previous. He declared that the Church 
never taught him to steal ; and I have written his volun- 
tary confession here, that others may take warning and 
behave themselves in such a manner that they shall not be 
cut off the Church ; for if they are the Spirit of the living 
God will depart from them, and they may be left to a 

2(0 HIST0EY OF THE CHUECH. [A. D. 1843 

worse spirit of delusion and wickedness than even Oliver 
Olney, who never saw the Ancient of Days nor anything 
like him. But on the testimony presented, I bound him 
over to the next circuit court for trial, in the sum of five 
thousand dollars; and for want of bail, he was committed 
to Carthage jail. 

Saturday 11. — This day had an interview with Elder 
Rigdon and his family. They expressed a willingness to 
be saved. Good feelings prevailed, and we again shook 
hands together. 

At ten o'clock attended the city council. I prophesied 
to James Sloan, city recorder, that it would be better for 
The prophet him ten years hence, not to say anything more 
public 7 f |er- about f ees ; and addressed the new council, 
vice - urging the necessity of their acting upon the 

principle of liberality, and of relieving the city from all 
unnecessary expenses and burdens, and not attempt to 
improve the city, but enact such ordinances as would pro- 
mote peace and good order; and the people would im- 
prove the city ; capitalists would come in from all quar- 
ters and build mills, factories, and machinery of all kinds; 
new buildings would arise on every hand, and Nauvoo 
would become a great city. I prophesied that if the coun- 
cil would be liberal in their proceedings, they would 
become rich, and spoke against the principle of pay for 
every little service rendered, and especially of commitees 
having extra pay for their services; reproved the judges 
of the late election for not holding the polls open after 
six o'clock, when there were many wishing to vote. 

Dr. Robert D. Foster took an active part in electioneer- 
ing for the opposition ticket and obstructing the passage to 
the polls. The council elected James Sloan, city recorder; 
Henry Gr. Sherwood, marshal; William Clayton, treas- 
urer; approved W. W. Phelps as mayor's clerk; Dimick 
B. Huntington, William D. Huntington, Lewis Robison 
and John Barker, constables; Alanson Ripley, surveyor; 
James Allred, supervisor of streets; Dimick B. Hunting- 


ton, coroner; James Sloan, notary public; Theodore Tur- 
ley, weigher and sealer; H. Gr. Sherwood, market master; 
W. W. Phelps, fire warden; Sidney Rigdon, city attor- 
ney; and Samuel Bennett, market inspector for the city. 

A board of health was established, to consist of Joseph 
Smith, William Law, William Marks and Samuel Ben- 

The council resolved that a market be established in the 
city. It was proposed to build two markets. 

J i -, , -i •« Nauvoo Mark- 

But I told the council that if we began too *t Place Pro- 

large, we should do nothing; we had better P ° se " 
build a small one at once, to be holden by the corpora- 
tion; and that if that would support itself, we could go on 
to build another on a larger scale; that the council should 
hold an influence over the prices of markets, so that the 
poor should not be oppressed, and that the mechanic 
should not oppress the farmer; that the upper part of the 
town had no right to rival those on the river. Here, on 
the bank of the river, was where we first pitched our 
tents ; here was where the first sickness and deaths oc- 
curred; here has been the greatest suffering in this city. 
We have been the making of the upper part of the town, 
We have located the Temple on the hill, and they ought 
to be satisfied. We began here first; and let the market 
go out from this part of the city ; let the upper part of the 
town be marketed by wagons, until they can build a 
market; and let the Irst market be established on the 
rising ground on Main Street, about a quarter of a mile 
north of the river. Council continued through the day. 

Mother came to my house to live. 

Elders Young and Richards wrote George J. Adams, 
notifying him to come to Nauvoo, according to the deci- 
sion of the council, and answer to the charges of adultery 
which had been preferred against him, before the First 

Sunday, 12.- — Seven or eight young men came to see 
me, part of them from the city of New York. They 


treated rue with the greatest respect. I showed them the 

fallacy of Mr. Miller's data concerning the 

on -Miner coining of Christ and the end of the world, or 

ism " 

as it is commonly called, Millerisni,* and 
preached them quite a sermon; that error was in the 
Bible, or the translation of the Bible; that Miller was in 
want of correct information upon the subject, and that he 
was not so much to blame as the translators. I told 
them the prophecies must all be fulfilled ; the sun must be 
darkened and the moon turned into blood, and many 
more things take place before Christ would come. 

Monday, 13. — Elder Eigdon came in early in the 
morning, and gave a brief history of our second visit to 
Jackson county, Missouri. I then read awhile in German 
and walked out in the city with Elder Hyde, returning at 
twelve o'clock. Brother John C. Annis called for coun- 
sel. The marshal called, and informed me that Mr. Rol- 
lison was trying to get the postoffice, and that Dr. R. D. 
Foster was the first to sign the petition. I gave instruc- 
tion about a bond for a part of a lot to Brother John Oak- 
ley. A quarter before four, went to the printing office 
with Brother W. W. Phelps. 

I spent the evening at Elder Orson Hyde's. In the 
course of conversation I remarked that those brethren 

who came here having money, and purchased without the 

• *m 

* Millerism here referred to is the sum of the doctrines taught by William Miller, 
an Ameiican religious zealot who emphasized in his religious teachings the Millen- 
nial Reign of Christ on earth, which reign, he declared, as early as 1&51, would 
commence in the year 1843. His predictions were based largely upon computations of 
time on the prophecies of Daniel and the Book of Revelation. After the great dis- 
appointment which came to his followers in 1843, they abandoned all attempts at 
fixing the date on which the second advent of Christ would take place, but other- 
wise continued to believe in the doctrines advocated by Mr. Miller. "There are 
several divisions or sects of Adventists, the principal of which are: the Advent 
Christians, the largest; the Seventh-day Adventists, much smaller, but more com- 
pactly organized; and the Evangelical Adventists, the smallest. The members 
of the first two believe in the final annihilation of the wicked, which those of the 
third reject. The second observe the seventh day as the Sabbath, and believe in 
the existence of the spirit of prophecy among them; they maintain missions in var- 
ious parts of the world, and a number of institutions at Battle Creek, Michigan, 
their headquarters.'' — Century Dictionary. 


Church and without counsel, must be cut off. This, with 
other observations, aroused the feelings of Brother Dixon, 
from Salem, Massachusetts, who was present, and he 
appeared in great wrath. 

I received the following communication: 

Itigdoris Suggested Petition as to Nauvoo Postmaster, 
lo the Hon. Mr. Bryant, Second Assistant Postmaster- General: 

We, your petitioners, respectfully beg leave to submit that as an 
attempt is now, by certain individuals, being made to place the post- 
office in this place into the hands of William H. Rollison, a stranger in 
our place, and one whose conduct since he came here, has been such as 
to forbid our having confidence in him; and we do hope and pray, 
both for ourselves, and that of the public, that he may not receive the 
appointment of postmaster in Nauvoo, Illinois, but that the present 
postmaster may continue to hold the office. 

Brother Joseph Smith, if the foregoing can have a number of respect- 
able subscribers, I believe Rollinson cannot get the office. I should 
like to have it so as to send it on Sunday's mail. Respectfully, 

Sidney Rigdon. 

Tuesday, 14. — Sent William Clayton to Quincy, and by 
him deposited five hundred dollars with General Leach, 
for Mr. Walsh, for land which lies between my farm and 
the city, agreeable to my letter to Judge Young. 

Read proof of the " Doctrine and Covenants" with 
Brother Phelps. Read in German from half-past nine to 
eleven, forenoon. Had the stove removed from the large 
room in my house into a small brick building which was 
erected for a smoke house, designing to use it for a may- 
or's office, until I could build a new one. Had much con- 
versation with Mr. Cowan and various individuals. 

Sold Dr. Richards a cow. 

Wednesday, 15, — This morning I spent some time in 
changing the top plate of the office stove, which had been 
put together wrong. Read a libelous letter in the Alton 
Telegraph, written to Mr. Bassett, of Quincy, concerning 
Judge Pope, Mr. Butterfield, and the ladies attending my 
late trial at Springfield ; and published the following letter 
in the limes and Seasons: 

18 Vol. v 


Joseph Smith* 's Parable — the Lions of the Press. 
Mr. Editor: 

Sir: — Ever since I gave up the editorial department of the Times and 
Seasons, I have thought of writing a piece for publication, by way of 
valedictory, as is usual when editors resign the chair editorial. My 
principal remarks I intend to apply to the gentlemen of the quill, or, if 
you please, that numerous body of respectable gentlemen who profess 
to regulate the tone of the public mind in regard to politics, morality, 
religion, literature, the arts and sciences, &c, &c, — viz., the editors of 
the public journals; or, if you please, I will designate them the lions of 
the forest. This latter cognomen, sir, I consider to be more appropri- 
ate because of the tremendous noise that they make when they utter 
their voice. 

It came to pass that, as I went forfch like a young fawn, one day, to 
feed upon the green grass in my pasture, an ass saw me and brayed, 
and made a great noise, which a neighboring lion hearing, roared, even 
as a lion roareth when he beholds his prey. At the sound of his voice, 
the beasts of the field were alarmed, and the lions in the adjoining 
jungles pricked up their ears and roared in their turn ; and behold all 
the lions of the forest, alarmed by their noise, opened their mouths and 
uttered forth their voice, which was as the roaring of a cataract, or as 
the voice of thunder; so tremendous was their roaring, that the trees of 
the forest shook, as if they were shaken by a mighty wind, and all 
the beasts of the forest trembled as if a whirlwind were passing. 

I lifted up mine eyes with astouishment when I heard the voice of 
the lions, and saw the fury of their rage. I asked, is it possible that 
so many lords of the forest, such noble beasts should condescend to 
notice one solitary fawn that is feeding alone upon his pasture, with- 
out attempting to excite either their jealousy or anger? I have not 
strayed from the fold, nor injured the trees of the forest, nor hurt the 
beasts of the field, nor trampled upon their pasture, nor drunk of their 
streams. Why, then, their rage against me? When lo! and behold! 
they again uttered their voices, as the voice of great thunderings, and 
there was given unto them the voice of men; but it was difficult for me 
to distinguish what was said among so many voices; but ever and anon 
I heard a few broken, incoherent sentences like the following: "Mur- 
der! Desolation! Bloodshed! Arson! Treason! Joe Smith and 
the Mormons! Our nation will be overturned! The impostor should 
be driven from the state! The fawn will be metamorphosed into a 
lion — will devour all the beasts of the field, destroy all the trees of the 
forest, and tread under foot all the rest of the lions! " 

I then lifted up my voice and said, Hear me, ye beasts of the forest! 
and all ye great lions, pay attention! I am innocent of the things 


whereof ye accuse me. I have not been guilty of violating your laws, 
nor of trespassing upon your rights. My hands are clean from the 
blood of all men, and I am at the defiance of the world to substantiate 
the crimes whereof I am accused; wherefore, then should animals of 
your noble mien stoop to such little jealousies, such vulgar language, 
and lay such unfounded charges at the door of the innocent? 

It is true that I once suffered an ass to feed in my pasture. He ate 
at my crib and drank at my waters; but possessing: the true nature of 
an ass, he began to foul the water with his feet, and to trample under 
foot the green grass and destroy it. I therefore put him out of my 
pasture, and he began to bray. Many of the lions in the adjoining 
jungles, mistaking the braying for the roaring of a lion, commenced 
roaring. When I proclaimed this abroad many of the lions began to 
enquire into the matter. A few, possessing a more noble nature than 
many of their fellows, drew near, and viewing the animal found that 
he was nothing more than a decrepid, broken down, worn out ass, that 
had scarcely anything left but his ears and voice. 

Whereupon many of the lions felt indignant at the lion of Warsaw, 
the lion of Quincy, the lion of Sangamon, the lion of Alton, and several 
other lions, for giving a false alarm, for dishonoring their race, and for 
responding to the voice of so base an animal as an ass. And they felt 
ashamed of themselves for being decoyed into such base ribaldry and 
foul-mouthed slander. But there were many that lost sight of their 
dignity, and continued to roar, although they knew well that they were 
following the braying of so despicable a creature. 

Among these was a great lion, whose den was on the borders of the 
Eastern Sea. He had waxed great in strength. He had terrible teeth, 
and his eyes were like balls of fire. His head was large and terrific, 
and his shaggy mane rolled with majestic grandeur over his terrible 
neck. His claws were like the claws of a dragon, and his ribs were like 
those of a Leviathan. When he lifted himself up, all the beasts of the 
field bowed with respectful deference; and when he spake, the whole 
universe listened; and the cinders of his power covered creation. His 
might, his influence, were felt to the ends of the earth. When he lashed 
his tail, the beasts of the forest trembled; and when he roared, all the 
great lions and the young lions crouched down at his feet.* 

This great lion lifting up himself and beholding the fawn afar off, he 
opened his mouth, and, joining in the common roar, uttered the follow- 
ing great swelling yelp: — 

"Joe Smith in Trouble, — By a letter which we published on Sunday, 

* This alludes to the New York Herald, published by James Gordon Bennett, 
who had been influenced by the misrepresentation of affairs at Nauvoo, by John C. 


from Springfield, Illinois, it appears that Joe Smith, the great Mormon 
Prophet, has at last given himself up to the authorities of Illinois. He 
is charged with fomenting or conspiring to assassinate Governor Boggs, 
of Missouri, and is demanded by the functionary of that state of the 
governor of Illinois. Joe has taken out a writ of habeas corpus, deny- 
ing the fact, and is now waiting the decision of the court at Springfield. 
This will bring Joe's troubles to a crisis. In the meantime, why does 
not Joe try his power at working a miracle or two 1 ? Now's the time to 
prove his mission, besides being very convenient for himself. " 

When I heard it, I said, "Poor fellow! How has thy dignity fallen! 
and how has thy glory departed? Thou that once ranked among the 
foremost of the beasts of the field, as the lord of the forest! — even thou 
hast condescended to degrade thyself by uniting with the basest of 
animals, and to join in with the braying of an ass." 

And now, friend B., allow me to whisper a word in thine ear. Dost 
thou not know that there is a God in the heavens that judgeth— that 
setteth up one and putteth down another, according to the counsel of 
his own will? That if thou possessest any influence, wisdom, dominion, 
or power, it comes from God, and to him thou art indebted for it? That 
he holds the destiny of men in his power, and can as easily put down 
as he has raised up? Tell me, when hast thou treated a subject of re- 
ligious and eternal truth with that seriousness and candor that the im- 
portance of the subject demands from a man in thy standing, possessing 
thy calling and influence? As you seem to be quite a theologist, allow 
me to ask a few questions. Why did not God deliver Micaiah from the 
hands of his persecutors? Why did not Jeremiah ^ivorJc a miracle or 
Uvo" to help him out of the dungeon? It would have been '"very con- 
venient, 11 Why did not Zachariah, by a miracle, prevent the people 
from slaying him? Why did not our Savior come down from the cross? 
The people asked Him to do it; and besides, He had "saved others," and 
could not save Himself, so said the people. Why did He not prove His 
mission by working a miracle and coming down? Why did not Paul, 
by a miracle, prevent the people from stoning and whipping him? It 
would have been "very convenient." Or why did the Saints of God in 
every age have to wander about in sheep-skins or goat-skins, being 
tempted, tried, and sawn asunder, of whom the world was not worthy? • 
I would here advise my worthy friend, before he talks of "proving mis- 
sions, " "working miracles," or any "convenience" of that kind, to read 
his Bible a little more, and the garbled stories of political demagogues 

I listened, and lo! I heard a voice, and it was tne voice of my 
Shepherd, saying, Listen, all ye lions of the forest; and all ye beasts of 
he field, give ear. Ye have sought to injure the innocent, and your 


hands have been lifted against the weak, the injured, and the oppressed. 
Ye have pampered the libertine, the calumniator, and the base. Ye 
have winked at vice, and trodden under foot the virtuous and the pure. 
Therefore hear, all ye lions of the forest: The Lord God will take from 
you your teeth, so that you shall no longer devour. He will pluck out 
your claws, so that you can no longer seize upon your prey. Your 
strength will fail you in the day of trouble, and your voice will fail, and 
not be heard afar off; but mine elect will I uphold with mine arm, and 
my chosen shall be supported by my power. And when mine anointed 
shall be exalted, and all the lions of the forest have lost their strength, 
then shall they remember that the Lord he is God. 

Joseph Smith. 

I copy the following from the public prints : — 

Horrors oj a British-Chinese War. 

An English officer, writing to his friend in England, from Ching 
Keang Foo, says — "I never saw such loss of life and property as took 
place here: we lost officers and men enough, but it is impossible even 
to compute the loss of the Chinese; for when they found they could 
stand no longer against us, the} 7 cut the throats of their wives and chil- 
dren, or drove them into wells and ponds, and then destroyed them- 
selves. In many houses there were from eight to twelve bodies, and I 
myself have seen a dozen women and children drowning themselves in 
a small pond the day after the fight. The whole of the city and suburbs 
are a mass of ruins: whole streets have been burnt down." Oh, the 
horrors of Christian warfare! 

About one o'clock in the afternoon I started for Shoko- 
quon, with Mr. John B. Cowan and Elders Orson Hyde 
and Parley P. Pratt, in sleighs. When we came on the 
prairie, it was so extremely cold, I proposed to Mr. Cowan 
to wait till tomorrow; but he chose to go forward, and we 
arrived in safety at Mr. Rose's, where we had supper; and 
in the evening I gave a long exposition of Millerism. That 
night I slept with Mr. Cowan. 




Thursday , February 16, 1843. — After breakfast, we 
[the Prophet, Mr. Cowan "and their party] proceeded to- 
The visit to wards Shokoquon. After traveling five miles, 
Shokoquon. Brother s Hyde and Pratt's sleigh upset. 
Brother Hyde hurt his hand; the horse ran away, and we 
brought it back. After dinner, at McQueen's Mills, we 
went to Shokoquon, viewed the place and found it a very 
desirable location for a city, when we returned to the 
place where we dined. Elder Hyde prayed and I preached 
to a large and attentive audience two hours (from Rey. 
xix, 10), and proved to the people that any man that 
denied himself as being a prophet was not a preacher of 
righteousness. They opened their eyes, and appeared 
well pleased. When we had returned as far as McQueen's 
Mills, Mr. Cowan halted and proposed to call. While 
waiting a moment, Mr. Crane's horse, (Mr. Crane came 
with our company,) which was behind us, ran and jumped 
into our sleigh as we jumped out, and thence over our 
horse and the fence, sleigh and all, the sleigh being still 
attached to the horse, and the fence eight rails high; and 
both horses ran over lots and through the woods, clearing 
themselves from the sleighs, and had their frolic out with- 
out hurting themselves or drivers. It was a truly wonder- 
ful feat, and as wonderful a deliverance for the parties. 
We took supper at Mr. Crane's, and I stayed at Mr. 
Rose's that night. 


Dr. Richards invited the brethren to come to my house 
on Monday next to chop and pile up my wood. 

Friday, 17. — Mr. Cowan returned with me to my house, 
where we arrived about noon; and I enjoyed The prophet 
myself by my own fireside, with many of my atHome - 
friends around me, the remainder of the day. Mr. Cowan 
proposed to give me one-fourth of the city lots in Shoko- 

Saturday, 18. — Mostly about home' and at the office. 
Several called for counsel on points of law. Esquire War- 
ren, of Quincy, called on me. He had hurt his horse, and 
said it was not the first time he had missed it by not fol- 
lowing my advice. While at 'dinner, I remarked to my 
family and friends present, that when the earth was sancti- 
fied and became like a sea of glass, it would be one great 
urim and thummim, and the Saints could look in it and 
see as they are seen. 

L 5 

Letter of the Iwelve — Calling for Assistance for the Prophet* 

The Twelve to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in La 
Harpe, greeting: — 

Beloved Brethren: — We wish to present, briefly, one important 
item for your serious consideration. Our beloved President Joseph 
Smith is now delivered from the prosecution and oppression from with- 
out, by which he has been bound, and also by the same process has 
been relieved of his property; so that he has nothing now to hinder his 
devoting his time to the History of the Church and the spiritual interest 
thereof, except he has to spend his time in gathering food for his 

This is the point, brethren, whether you will do your duty in supply- 
ing the President with food, that he may attend to the business of the 

* This is the first mention made in the history of the Prophet of this idea which 
receives its fuller development in "Important Items of Instruction" given by him on 
the second of April, 1843, and found at length in the Doctrine and Covenants, sec- 
tion 130. In these "Items of Instruction" we learn that the place where God resides 
is a great urim and thummim, that the earth itself when sanctified and made an 
immortal sphere will be a urim and thummim to the inhabitants who dwell upon it 
whereby all things pertaining to inferior kingdoms will be revealed' to them, and 
to each of such inhabitants an individual urim and thummim will be given through 
which knowledge pertaining to kingdoms of a higher order will be revealed. 


Church, and devote his whole time to the spiritual affairs thereof; or 

shall he attend to your business [i. e., that which the Saints ought to 

do for the Prophet] by running here and there for a bushel of wheat 

or a pound of beef and pork, while the revelations to the Church 

cease? This question is for the Church to answer. Therefore we 

call upon the brethren in La Harpe at this time, for immediate 

relief. You are all well aware that we do not raise wheat, corn, beef, 

pork, tallow, lard, butter, eggs, and provisions and vegetables in the 

city, such as you all use, not excepting cotton, or woollen goods, or 

groceries, [a fact] which you are all well acquainted with. And we 

are the same kind of beings in Nauvoo as in the country; and what 

you raise and eat in La Harpe, we would eat in Nauvoo, if we could get 

it, our President not excepted. And everything which is required to 

fill a larder in La Harpe is required in this place; and by this you may 

know what is wanting by our President to prosecute the Lord's work 

and bring about your salvation. 

Brethren, we hope you will give an immediate answer to this by 

loaded teams or letter. 

Brigham Young, 


.Willard Richards, Clerk. 

Nauvoo, February 18, 1843. 

Sunday, 19.— Spent the day from nine in the morning 
till midnight, in the High'Council, who were attending to 
settlement of the case of Wilson Law and Uriel C. Nicker- 
a Difficulty. son? w k were [ n dispute about the title to 
certain lands on the Island. After hearing the testimony, 
I explained the laws of the United States, Iowa, and Illi- 
nois, and showed that Nickerson had the oldest claim and 
best right, and left it for Law to say how much Nickerson 
should have; and the parties shook hands, in token of a 
settlement of all difficulties. 

The following is copied from the Times and Seasons: — 

Letter of Sidney Bigdon to Alfred StoJces — Correcting Misrepresentations 

of Nauvoo Affairs. 

Nauvoo, Illinois. February 19, 1S43. 
Mr. Aljred Edward StoJces. 

Dear Sir:— In obedience to your request, I send you one number of 
each of the papers published in this place. I am well aware that 
designing men, for sinister purposes, have put in circulation reports con- 


eerning the people here, which are so monstrous that it is a matter of 
surprise how any rational being could profess to believe them at all. 
If I were even to profess to believe such incredible and ridiculous non- 
sense about any people, I should consider the public would have suf- 
ficient cause to scorn me as the mere tool of corrupt and foul slanderers: 
but anything to stop the progress of that which cannot be stopped by fact 
and scripture truth. That man must have a large stock of moral cour- 
age who dare in anywise profess belief in such outlandish representa- 
tions as are made in the public papers concerning the people of Nau- 
voo, and circulated orally by wicked and designing men. The old, stale 
story about common stock, in defiance of fact and truth, it would ap- 
pear by your letter and that of your friend Evans, is professedly be- 
lieved by the people in the vicinity of Waynesville, Ohio. This false- 
hood was invented by an ignorant blockhead, by the name of Matthew 
Clapp, who, for want of any other means to stop the progress of truth 
in its more incipient stages, invented this falsehood, and, finding it took 
with persons of his own stamp, circulated it with untiring perseverance, 
in direct opposition to the testimony of his senses, knowing, at the time 
he commenced circulating it, that it was false. He was a preacher of 
the Campbellite faith. 

It would require the ignorance of barbarians and the credulity of sav- 
ages to attempt a belief in the falsehoods which are circulated against 
the Saints with great zeal by many. I have never supposed that the 
authors of these defamatory tales ever expected the public would 
believe them; but they expected that men of corrupt minds, like them- 
selves, would profess to believe them; neither do I now believe that 
those who profess to believe them do actually believe one word of them; 
but they profess to do it, thinking that, by so doing, they can make 
some headway against us: but it is a vain attempt; for every attempt 
of the kind has only excited inquiry, awakened curiosity, and caused 
investigation, which have, in every instance, resulted in an increase of 
members to the Church; so that we grant full license to all defamers to 
do their uttermost. 

Our city is a great thoroughfare : people of all classes are crowding 
into it; multitudes who do not belong to tiie Church of Latter-day Saints 
are seeking locations where they can prosecute their respective callings. 
If you wish the papers, you can put the money into a letter, and the 
postmaster at your place will send it without expense. 

Yours, with respect, 

Sidney Rigdon, P. M. 

Elder William Henshaw having been directed by Elder 
Lorenzo Snow to go to South Wales, he commenced 


preaching in the English language privately to several 
families in Pen y Darren, near Merthyr Tydvil, Glamor. 
„ . . , ganshire. A number of the people believed 

Beginning or . 

the work in his testimony, and this day he baptized Wil- 
liam Eees Davis, his wife, and two of his sons, 
and commenced preaching publicly in Brother Davis's 
house, about one- third of the people only understanding 
the English language. 

Monday, 20. — About seventy of the brethren came to- 
gether, according to previous notice, and drawed, sawed, 
wood-cutting chopped, split, moved, and piled up a large lot 
Prophet^ °^ wo °d i n m Y yard. The day was spent by 

Home. them with much pleasantry, good humor and 

feeling. A white oak log, measuring five feet four inches 
in diameter was cut through with a cross-cut saw, in four- 
and-a-half minutes, by Hyrum Dayton and Brother John 
Tidwell. This tree had been previously cut and hauled by 
my own hands and team. 

From nine to eleven this morning, I was reading in 
German; and from eleven to twelve, held mayor's court 
on assumpsit, Charles R. Dana, v. William B. Brink, 
which was adjourned ten days. 

Last night, Arthur Milliken had a number of books 
stolen, and found them this afternoon in Brother Hyrum's 
hayloft. Two boys, Thomas Morgan and Robert Taylor, 
were arrested on suspicion and brought before me for ex- 
amination. After a brief investigation, the court adjourned 
until ten o'clock tomorrow morning. 

While the court was in session, I saw two boys fighting 
in the street, near Mills*' Tavern. I left the business of 
The Prophet a the court, ran over immediately, caught one 
Peace Maker. Q j ^ e k y S ( w } 10 had begun the fight with 

clubs,) and then the other; and, after giving them proper 
instruction, I gave the bystanders a lecture for not inter- 
fering in such cases, and told them to quell all disturb- 
ances in the street at the first onset. I returned to the 


court, and told them that nobody was allowed to fight in 
Nauvoo but myself. 

In the evening, called at Brother Heber C. Kimball's. 

John Quincy Adams presented to the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States a petition signed by 51,863 
citizens of Massachusetts, praying congress to pass such 
acts and propose such amendments to the Constitution as 
would separate the petitioners from all connection with 
the institution of slavery.* 

Tuesday , 21. — Opened mayor's court at ten o'clock 
forenoon, according to adjournment. Robert Taylor was 
again brought up for stealing, and Thomas Morgan for 
receiving the books, [referred to above] and each sen- 
tenced to six months imprisonment in Carthage jail. 

At eleven I went to the Temple, and found m m 

r ' Temple Work- 

a large assembly, and Brother Haws preach- era' Difficui- 
ing about the Nauvoo House; after which, Mr. 

* Thia was but one of a series of such petitions from New England which Mr. 
Adams presented to the House of Representatives. In fact upon his entrance as a 
member of the House, in 1831, (following his term of President of the United 
States) he had begun an agitation of the slavery question in Congress, but his con. 
tention in the main was for the maintenance of the sacred right of petition by the 
people, which right had undoubtedly been abridged by some unwise resolutions 
that had been adopted by the Congress of the United States. In 1838 a set of reso- 
lutions was adopted in the House by a vote of 146 to 52, in which, among other thiugs, 
it was "Resolved, that petitions for the abolition of slavery in the District of Co- 
lumbia and territories of the United States, and against the removal of slaves rrom 
one state to another, was part of the plan of operation set on foot to affect the 
institution of slavery in the southern states and thus tending, indirectly, to destroy 
that institution within their limits. * * * And that every petition, memorial, 
resolution, proposition, or paper touching or relating in any way or to any extent 
whatever to slavery as aforesaid, or the abolition thereof, shall on presentation 
thereof, without any further question thereon, be laid upon the table without being 
debated, printed, or referred," In the Congress of 1842, notwithstanding these 
resolutions, Mr. Adams, in January, presented a petition from the citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, "praying the immediate adoption of measures peaceably t 
desolve the union of these states, signed by Benjamin Emerson and four hundred 
and fifty-sis other persons, in which the reasons of the petition were set forth with in- 
structions to report an answer to the petitioners showing the reasons why the prayer 
of it ought not to be granted." (Stepheus' History of the U. S.) Mr. Adams of 
course had no sympathy with this and many other petitions that he presented, but 
he held the right of petition to be sacred, and he continued the fight for it until 
he saw such changes in the rules of the House of Representatives as allowed peti- 
tions on the question of slavery to be received without objection and freely dis- 


Lucian Woodworth, the architect of the house, continued 
the subject, and said, "When I have had a pound of meat 
or a quart of meal, I have divided with the workmen. 
['Pretty good doctrine for Paganism,' said I. At this 
time Mr. Woodworth was not baptized, and called himself 
the Pagan Prophet.] We have had about three hundred 
men on the job, and some of the best men in the world. 
Those that have not complained I want to continue with 
me; and those that hate 'Mormonism' and everything 
else that's good, I want them to get their pay and run 
away as quickly as possible." When Mr. Woodworth had 
done speaking, I addressed the multitude in substance as 
follows : — 

Remarks of the Prophet to Workmen on the Temple. 

Well, the Pagan Prophet has preached us a pretty good sermon this 
morning, and I don't know that I can better it much; but I feel dis- 
posed to break off: the yoke of oppression, and say what I have a mind 
to. If the pagans and the Pagan Prophet feel more for our prosperity 
than we do for ourselves, it is curious; I am almost converted to his 
doctrine. He has prophesied that if these buildings go down, it will 
curse the place. I verily know it is true. Let us build the Temple. 
There may be some speculations about the Nauvoo House, say some. 
Some say, because we live on the hill, we must build up this part on 
the hill. Does that coat fit you, Dr. Foster? (Foster: "Pretty well.") 
Put it on, then. This is the way people swell, like the toad in the fable. 
They'll come down under the hill among little folks and say, "Brother 
Joseph, how I love you; can I do anything for you?" and then go 
away secretly and get up opposition, and sing out our names to stran- 
gers and scoundrels with an evil influence. I want all men to feel for 
me, when 1 have shook the bush and borne the burden in the heat of 
the day; and if they do not, I speak in authority, in the name of the 
Lord God, they shall be damned. 

Some say that the people on the flats are aggrandizing themselves by 
the Nauvoo House. But who laid the foundation of the Temple? 
Brother Joseph, in the name of the Lord, — not for his aggrandizement, 
but for the good of the whole of the Saints, Our speculators say, 
"Poor folks on the flat are down, and keep them down." How the 
Nauvoo House cheats this man and that man, say the speculators. 
Those who report such things as facts ought to hide their heads in 
hollow pumpkins, and never take them out again. 


The first principle brought into consideration is aggrandizement. 
Some think it unlawful; but it is lawful with any man, while he has 
a disposition to aggrandize all around him. It is a false principle for a 
man to aggrandize himself .at the expense of another . Everything 
that God does is to aggrandize His kingdom. And how does He lay the 
foundation? "Bnild a Temple to my great name, and call the attention 
of the great, the rich, and the noble.*' But where shall we lay our 
heads? In an old log cabin. 

I will whip Hirum Kimball and Esquire Wells, and everybody 
else, over Dr. Foster's head, who, instead of building the Nauvoo 
House, build a great many little skeletons. See Dr. Foster's mammoth 
skeletons rising all over the town; but there is no flesh on them; they 
are all for personal interest and aggrandizement. But I do not care 
how many bones there are in the city; somebody may come along and 
clothe them. See the bones of the elephant yonder, (as I pointed 
to the big house on Mulholland Street, preparing for a tavern, as yet 
uncovered,) the crocodiles and man-eaters all about the city, such as 
grog shops, and card shops, and counterfeit shops, &c, got up for their 
own aggrandizement, and all for speculation, while the Nauvoo House 
is neglected. Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. 
The building of the Nauvoo House is just as sacred in my view as the 
Temple. I want the Nauvoo House built. It must be built. Our sal- 
vation [as a city] depends upon it. -" 

When men have done what they can or will do for the Temple, let 
them do what they can for the Nauvoo House. We never can accom- 
plish one work at the expense of another. There is a great deal of 
murmuring in the Church about me; but I don't care anything about it. 
I like to hear it thunder, and I like to hear the Saints grumble; for the 
growling dog gets the sorest head. If any man is poor and afflicted, 
let him come and tell of it, and not complain or grumble about it. 

The finishing of the Nauvoo House is like a man finishing a fight; if 
he gives up, he is killed; if he holds out a little longer, he may live. 
I'll tell you a story: A man who whips his wife is a coward. When I 
was a boy, I once fought with a man who had whipped his wife. It 
was a hard contest; but I still remembered that he had whipped his 
wife; and this encouraged me, and I whipped him till he said he had 
enough. Brethren, hurry on to the Nauvoo House thus, and you will 
build it. You will then be on Pisgah's top, and the great men will 
come from the four quarters of the earth — will pile the gold and silver 
into it till you are weary of receiving them; and if you are not careful, 
you will be lifted up, and become full of pride, and will be ready to de- 
stroy, yourselves, and they will cover up and clothe all your former sins 
and, according to the scripture, will hide a multitude of sins; and you 


will shine forth fair as the sun, clear as the moon, and you will become 
terrible, like an army with banners. 

I will say to those who have labored on the Nauvoo House, and can- 
not get their pay — Be patient; and if any man takes the means which 
are set apart for the building* of that house, and applies it to his own 
use, let him, for he will destroy himself. If any man is hungry, let 
him come to me, and I will feed him at my table. If any are hungry 
or naked, don't take away the brick, timber and materials, that belong 
to that house, but come and tell me, and I will divide with them to the 
last morsel; and then if the man is not satisfied, I will kick his 

There is a great noise in the city, and many are saying there cannot 
be so much smoke without some fire. Well, be it so. If the stories 
about Joe Smith are true, then the stories of John C. Bennett are true 
about the ladies of Nauvoo; and he says that the Ladies' Relief Society 
are all organized o£ those who are to be the wives of Joe Smith. 
Ladies, you know whether this is true or not. It is no use living 
^ among hogs without a snout. This biting and devouring each other I 
cannot endure. Away with it. For God's sake, stop it. 

There is one thing more I wish to speak about, and that is political 
economy. It is our duty to concentrate all our influence to make pop- 
ular that which is sound and good, and unpopular that which is un- 
sound. 'Tis right, politically, for a man who has influence to use it, as 
well as for a man who has no influence to use his. From henceforth I 
will maintain all the influence I can get. In relation to politics, I will 
speak as a man; but in relation to religion I will speak in authority. If 
a man lifts a dagger to kill me, I will lift my tongue. 

When I last preached, I heard such a groaning, I thought of the Pad- 
dy's eel. When he tried to kill it, he could not contrive any better 
way to do it, so he put it into the water to drown it; and as it began to 
come to, "See," said he, "what pain it is in; how it wiggles its tail." 
So it is with the nation: the banks are failing, and it is our privilege to 
say what kind of currency we want. We want gold and silver to build 
the Temple and Nauvoo House: we want your old nose-rings, and 
finger rings, and brass kettles no longer. If you have old rags, watches 
guns, &c, go and peddle them off, and bring the hard metal; and if we 
will do this by popular opinion, we shall have a sound currency. Send 
home all bank notes, and take no more paper money. Let every man 
write back to his neighbors before he starts for home to exchange his 
property for gold and silver,that he may fulfil the scripture, and come up 
to Zion, bringing his gold and silver with him. I have contemplated these 
things a long time, but the time had not come for me to speak of them 
till now. I would not do as the Nauvoo House committee have done — 


sell stock for an old store-house, where all the people who tried to live 
in it died, and put that stock into a man's hands to go east and pur- 
chase rags to come here and bniid mammoth bones with. 

As a political man, in the name of old Joe Smith, I command the 
Nauvoo House committee not to sell stock in the Nauvoo House without 
the gold or silver. We must excuse Brother Snider, for he was in Eng- 
land when the committee sold stock for the store-house. I leave this 

This meeting was got up by the Nauvoo House committee. The 
pagans, Roman Catholics, Methodists and Baptists shall have place in 
Nauvoo — only they must be ground in Joe Smith's mill. I have been 
in their mill. I was ground in Ohio and York States, in a Presbyter- 
ian smut machine, and the last machine was in Missouri; and the last 
of all, I have been through the Illinois smut machine; and those who 
come here must go through my smut machine, and that is my tongue. 

As I closed, Dr. Robert D. Foster remarked to the assembly — "Much 
good may grow out of a very little, and much good may come out of 
this. If any man accuses me of exchanging Nauvoo stock for rags, &c, 
he is mistaken. I gave a thousand dollars to this house, (this he said 
upon his own responsibility) and fifty dollars to the Relief Society, and 
some to Fullmer to get stone to build Joseph a house; and I mean to 
build Joseph a house, and you may build this, and I will help you. I 
mean to profit by this: and I will divide the mammoth bones with you. 
I am guilty of all of which I have been charged. I have signed my 
name to a petition to have William H. Rollison to have the postofiice. 
I did not then know of a petition for Joseph Smith." 

I replied — "I thought I would make a coat; but it don't fit the doctor 
only in the postofiice. If it does fit any one let him put it on. The 
doctor's mammoth bones are skeletons, and as old Ezekiel said, I com- 
mand the flesh and sinews to come upon them, that they may be 

Wednesday, 22. — At nine this morning Brother Abel 
Owen presented a claim of considerable amount against 
Carter, Cahoon & Co., Kirtland, and notes of Oliver 
Granger of about $700 for payment. He said he was 
poor and unable to labor, and wanted something to live 
on. I told him to burn the papers, and I would help him. 
He gave me the papers, and I gave him an order on Mr. 
Cowan for fifteen dollars worth of provisions. This was 
a gift, as the Church was not obligated to pay those debts. 

I rode about the city with Mr. Cowan during the day, 
and also read German. 


The latest accounts from the East Indies state that the 
cholera was raging in Burmah, Asia, to a fearful extent, 
whole villages in the interior had become desolate either 
by flight or death. 

Thursday, 23. — This morning read German and rode 
out a few miles, but did not get off my horse. 

In the afternoon Mr. Bagby called to collect county and 
state taxes. Brother Dixon called concerning some lost 
or stolen property. I burned twenty-three dollars of city 
scrip, and while it was burning, said, "So may all un- 
sound and uncurrent money go down ! ' ' Gave my clerk 
instructions not to pay any more taxes on the Hotchkiss 

Elder Amasa Lyman started for Shokoquon this morn- 
ing and commenced preaching in that place. 

Piled my bond as mayor of the city of Nauvoo. 

Friday, 24. — Rode out with Elder Brigham Young; 
dined from home; called on Dr. Foster; had some conver- 
sation about the postoffice and several other matters; 
returned to my office; and at three o'clock walked out 
with Elder Young. 

In reply to W. W. Phelps's Vade Mecum, or "Go with 
me, 1 ' of 20th of January last, I dictated an answer: [It 
consisted of the ' 'Revelation known as the Vision of the 
Three Glories," Doctrine and Covenants, section lxxvi, 
made into verse.] 

Saturday, 25. — This morning Brother Samuel C Brown 
made me a present of a gold watch. Spent the forenoon 
in the city council. The council passed "An ordinance in 
relation to interments," "An ordinance in relation to the 
duties of city attorney," and an ordinance concerning a 
market on Main Street." Stephen Markham resigned his 
office as an alderman, and Wilson Law was elected to fill 
his place. 

At three o'clock the council assembled after an adjourn- 
ment for dinner. The subject of a sound currency for the 
city having previously arisen, I addressed the couucil at 


considerable length, giving, amongst others, the follow- 
ing hints. 

Views of the Prophet on Constitutional Powers. 

Situated as we are, with a flood of immigration constantly pouring in 
upon us, I consider that it is not only prudential, but absolutely neces- 
sary to protect the inhabitants of this city from being imposed upon by 
a spurious currency. Many of our eastern and old country friends are 
altogether unacquainted with the situation of the banks in this region 
of country; and as they generally bring specie with them, they are per- 
petually in danger of being gulled by speculators. Besides there is so 
much uncertainty in the solvency of the best of banks, that I think it 
much safer to go upon the hard money system altogether. I have 
examined the Constitution upon this subject and find my doubts 
removed. The Constitution is not a law, but it empowers the people to 
make laws. For instance, the Constitution governs the land of Iowa, 
but it is not a law for the people. The Constitution tells us what shall 
not be a lawful tender. The 10th section declares that nothing else 
except gold and silver shall be lawful tender, this is not saying that 
gold and silver shall be lawful tender. It only provides that the states 
may make a law to make gold and silver lawful tender. I know of no 
state in the Union that has passed such a law; and I am sure that Illi 
nois has not. The legislature has ceded up to us the privilege of enact- 
ing such laws as are not inconsistent with the Constitution of the United 
States and the state of Illinois; and we stand in the same relation to 
the state as the state does to the Union. The clause referred to in 
the Constitution is for the legislature — it is. not a law for the people- 
The different states, and even Congress itself, have passed many laws 
diametrically contrary to the Constitution of the United States. 

The state of Illinois has passed a stay law making property a lawful 
tender for the payment of debts; and if we have no law on the subject 
we must be governed by it. Shall we be such fools as to be governed 
by its laws, which are unconstitutional? No! We will make a law for 
gold and silver; and then the state law ceases and we can collect our^ 
debts. Powers not delegated to the states or reserved from the states 
are constitutional. The Constitution acknowledges that the people have 
all power not reserved to itself. I am a lawyer; I am a big lawyer and 
comprehend heaven, earth and hell, to bring forth knowledge that shall 
cover up all lawyers, doctors and other big bodies. This is the doctrine 
of the Constitution, so help me God. The Constitution is not law to us, 
but it makes provision for us whereby we can make laws. Where it 
provides that no one shall be hindered from worshiping God according 

19 Vol. V 


to his own conscience, is a law. No legislature can enact a law to pro. 
hibit it. The Constitution provides to regulate bodies of men and not 

Alderman Wells and Counselor Orson Pratt objected to 
the ordinance regulating the currency from taking imme- 
diate effect. Orson Spencer and Brigham Young spoke in 
favor of the bill. I invited W. W. Phelps and Dr. Wil- 
lard Richards, who were present, to give their opinion on 
the bill. They both spoke in favor of a gold and silver 
currency, and that it take immediate effect in the city. 

The bill was postponed until the next council. 

Sunday, 26. — At home all day. My mother was sick 
with inflammation of the lungs, and I nursed her with my 
own hands. 

Monday, 27. — I nursed my mother most of the day, 
who continued very sick. I issued a search warrant for 

Brother Dixon to search Fidler's and John 

Eagle's houses for a box of stolen shoes. 

Tuesday, 28. — Mostly with my mother and family. 
Mr. John Brassfield, with whom I became acquainted 
in Missouri, called on me and spent the day and night. In 
the afternoon, mother was somewhat easier; and at 
four o'clock I went to Elder Orson Hyde's to dinner. 

I saw a notice in the Chicago Express that one Hyrum 
Redding had seen the sign of the Son of Man, &c; and 
I wrote to the editor of the Times and Seasons, as 

The "Sign" of the Son of Man. 

Sir: — Among the many signs of the times and other strange things 
which are continually agitating the minds of men, I notice a small spec- 
ulation in the Chicago Express, upon the certificate of one Hyrum Red- 
ding, of Ogle county, Illinois, stating that he has seen the sign of the 
Son of Man as foretold in the 24th chapter of Matthew. 

The slanderous allusion of a "seraglio" like the Grand Turk, which 
the editor applies to me, he may take to himself, for, "out of the 
abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." Every honest mau who 
has visited the city of Nauvoo since it existed, can bear record of better 
things, and place me in the front ranks of those who are known to do 


good for the sake of goodness, and show all liars, hypocrites and abom- 
inable creatures that, while vice sinks them down to darkness and woe, 
virtue exalts me and the Saints to light and immortality. 

The editor, as well as some others, "thinks that Joe Smith has his 
match at last," because Mr. Redding thinks that he has seen the sign of 
the Son of Man. 0iu.t I shall use my right, and declare that, notwith- 
standing Mr. Redding may have seen a wonderful appearance in the 
clouds one morning about sunrise (which is nothing very uncommon in 
the winter season,) he has not seen the sign of the Son of Man, as fore- 
told by Jesus; neither has any man, nor will any man, until after the 
sun shall have been darkened and the moon bathed in blood; for the 
Lord hath not shown me any such sign; and as the prophet saith, so it 
must be — "Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but He revealeth His 
secret unto His servants the prophets." (See Amos 3:7.) Therefore 
hear this, earth: The Lord will not come to reign over the righteous, 
in this world, in 1843, nor until everything for the Bridegroom is 


Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Smith. 




Wednesday j March 2, 1843. — This morning I read and 
recited in German, went to my office, and reviewed my 
valedictory letter in the Times and Seasons, No. 7, Vol. 4; 
after which, I went with Marshal Henry Gr. Sherwood 
to procure some provisions for Thomas Morgan and Robert 
Taylor, who, on petition of the inhabitants of the city, I 
had directed should work out their punishment on the 
highways of Nauvoo. 

Elder Orson Hyde called on me this afternoon to bor- 
The Prophet's row a horse. I instructed my ostler to put the 
cheerfulness. Lieutenant-General's saddle on my horse, 
"Joe Duncan," and let Elder Hyde ride the * 'governor" 
on the Lieutenant- General's saddle. 

Signed a power of attorney, dated February 28th, to 
Amasa Lyman, to sell all the lands in Henderson county, 
Illlinois, deeded to me by Mr. McQueen. 

The Mississippi froze up on the 19th of November last, 
and still continues so. Wagons and teams constantly 
pass over on the ice to Montrose. 

I am constantly receiving applications from abroad for 
elders, which were replied to in the Times and Seasons of 
this day — that the conference on the 6th of April next, 
will attend to as many of the applications as possible. 

The council of the Twelve Apostles wrote to Ramus, 
Lima, Augusta, and other branches, as follows: — 


Ihe 'licelve to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in and 
about Ramus, greeting: — 

Beloved Brethren: — As our beloved President Joseph Smith is 
now relieved from his bondage and his business, temporarily, and his 
property, too, he has but one thing to hinder his devoting his time to 
the spiritual interests of the Church, to the bringing forth of the reve- 
lations, translation, and history. And what is that? He has not pro- 
vision for himself and family, and is obliged to spend his time in pro- 
viding therefor. His family is large and his company great, and it re- 
quires much to furnish his table. And now, brethren, we call on you 
for immediate relief in this matter; and we invite you to bring our Pres- 
ident as many loads of wheat, corn, beef, pork, lard, tallow, eggs, 
poultry, venison, and everything eatable at your command, (not exept- 
ing unfrozen potatoes and vegetables, as soon as the weather will ad- 
mit^ flour, etc., and thus give him the privilege of attending to your spir- 
itual interest. 

The measure you mete shall be measured to you again. If you give 
liberally to your President in temporal things, God will return to you 
liberally in spiritual and temporal things too. One or two good new 
milch cows are much needed also. 

Brethren, will you do your Tvork, and let the President do his for you 
before God? We wish an immediate answer by loaded teams or letter. 

Your brethren in Christ, in behalf of the quorum, 

Brigham Young, President. 

Willard Richards, Clerk. 

P. S. Brethren, we are not unmindful of the favors our President has 
leceived from you in former days. But a man will not cease to be 
hungry this year because he ate last year. 

B. Y. 

W. E. 

Some thirty inhabitants of Saratogo, New York, have 
died recently of a disease called the black tongue. 

About this time, a slide from Mount Ida, near Troy, 
New York, took place, burying ten houses and killing 
thirty or forty persons. 

Thursday, 2. — I was engaged in the court- room, sitting 
on the case of Charles R. Dana versus William B. Brink 
all day. In the evening, examining Blackstone and Phil- 
lips on evidence. 

I visited with Elders Brigham Young and Orson Hyde, 
with their wives, at Elder Heber C. Kimball's. 


The legislature of Illinois took up the bill to repeal the 
Nauvoo City Charter. 

Nauvoo Charter in the House of the Illinois Legislature. 

Mr. Davis, of Bond county, moved to take up the bill to repeal a part 
of the Nauvoo Charter. Objections being made by several members, 
it was decided in the affirmative, and placed on the orders of the day; 
the question being un ordering the bill to a third reading. 

Mr. Simins moved the previous question. 

Mr. Logan hoped the previous question would not be sustained. Some 
of the provisions proposed to be repealed are very innocent ones, and 
he thought the house would be willing to retain them. He wanted to 
repeal the provisions allowing the writ of habeas corpus and some 
others. The previous question was then lost. 

Mr. Logan denied that any discussion had been had on the provisions 
of the Charter proposed to be repealed. He wanted the gentlemen inter- 
ested to have an opportunity to be heard. 

Mr. Thomas B. Owen, of Hancock, went into the subject at some 
length. He compared the Charter of Nauvoo with any other city in the 
State, and showed that the bill repealed the same powers in the Nauvoo 
Charter which others contained and are permitted to retain. He thought 
this unjust, and was opposed to the principle of making such distinc- 
tions. He bore testimony to the good order and industry of the Mor- 
mons, and he had no doubt but they were much abused. 

He alluded to the course of the Whigs during the canvass of the last 
election, and appealed to his party to sustain the Mormons, as they had 
so nobly carried the last election. He cautioned them against taking 
the other course, and predicted, if they did, that they would be the 
means of electing a Whig to Congress in that district, and at the next 
gubernatorial election would elect the governor also; that the arms of 
the Whigs were open to receive them [The "Mormons.''] 

Friday, 3. — I was again sitting on the case of Dana 
versus Brink until half -past ten p. m. Many witnesses 
were examined, many lawyers' pleas made, and much law 
read. It was a very tedious suit, and excited much feel- 
ing among the people. When I returned home, I found 
my mother's health improving. In company with Dr. 
Willard Richards I visited Sister Durphy, who was sick. 

Bishop Newel K. Whitney returned from Eamus this 
evening, with five teams loaded with provisions and grain, 


as a present to me, which afforded rue very seasonable 
relief. I pray the Lord to bless those who gave it abund- 
antly ; and may it be returned upon their heads an hun- 
dred fold ! 

Action oj the House Repealing Part oj the Nauvoo Charter, 

Mr. William Smith, of Hancock, moved a roll call of the house (some 
members were leaving). 

The bill passed by yeas and nays, as follows: — 

Yeas — Messrs. Aldrich, Baillache, Bell, Blakeman, Bone, Brinkley, 
Brown (of Sangamon), Burklow, Busey, Caldwell, Cloud, Cochran, 
Compton, Courtright, Danner, Dollins, Douglas, Edwards, Epler, Er- 
vin, Ewing, Ficklin, Flanders, Fowler, Glass, Gobble, Haley, Hain- 
baugh, Hick, Hickman, Hinton, Horney, Howard, Hunsucker, Keorner* 
Kuykendall, Lawler, Loy, McClernand, Marshall, Menard, Mitchell. 
Murphy, Nesbit, Norris, Penn, Shurley, Simms, Thomson, Turner, 
Vance, Vinyard, Weatherford, Wheat, White, Whitten, Wilson and 
Woodworth— 58. 

Nays — Messrs. Adams, Ames, Andrus, Arnold, Brown (of Pike), 
Browning, Collins, Cushman, Dougherty; Dubois, Graves, Hanniford,. 
Hanson, Harper, Hatch, Jackson (of McHenry), Jackson (of White- 
side), Jonas, Kendall, Langwortby, Lockhart, Logan, McDonald (of 
Calhoun), McDonald (of Joe Davis), Owen, Pickering, Smith (of Craw- 
ford), Smith (of Hancock), Spicer, Stewart, Tackerbury, Vandever, 
Whiteomb, and Mr. Speaker — 33. 

The Speaker: The bill is passed. The title of the bill:— (The Speaker 
recited the title of the bill). 

Mr. Smith, of Hancock: I wish to amend the title of the bill. (Pro- 
found silence.) , 

The Speaker: The title has passed. 

By several members: In time, in time. 

Mr. Smith sent his amendment to the chair. 

The Speaker: The amendment is not respectful, and not in order. 

Great sensation. Several members called for a reading of the amend- 

The amendment was read — il A bill for an act to humbug the citizens 
of Nauvoo." (Profound sensation. ) 

Mr. Smith said he considered the, amendment as perfectly describing 
the contents of the bill. He was anxious that things should be called 
by their right names. 

The chair decided that the amendment was not in order. 

A member: I wish a vote, to ascertain if the house does not sustain 
the decision of the chair. 


Mr. Smith withdrew his amendment. 
The title of the bill then passed. 

English papers report an eruption of Mount Etna ; con- 
siderable torrents of lava flowing towards Bronte, doing 
immense damage. 

Saturday, 4. — In council with Brother Benjamin F. 
Johnson and others from Ramus, on the subject of build- 
ing a meetinghouse there, out of Church prop- 
msposin°gof erty. I told them the property of the Church 
church Prop- s k uld be disposed of by the direction of the 
Trustee-in-Trust, appointed by the voice of the 
whole«Church, and made the following comparison: — There 
is awheel; Nauvoo is the hub: we will drive the first spoke 
in Ramus, second in La Harpe, third Shokoquon, fourth 
in Lima: that is half the wheel. The other half is over 
the river: we will let that alone at present. We will call 
the Saints from Iowa to these spokes, then send elders 
over and convert the whole people. 

I agreed to go to Ramus this day week. 

At ten o'clock, I attended the city council.- 

The Questions of "Currency^ and Blood Atonement , in the Nauvoo 

City Council. 

Prayer by George A. Smith, when a bill regulating 1 the currency was 
read; and, as the Legislature of Illinois have long been trying to repeal 
the charter of Nauvoo, I made some remarks (as I had frequently done 
on former occasions), to show the council and others that the legislature 
can not constitutionally repeal a charter where there is no repealing 
clause. After which, I read a letter from James Arlington Bennett, 
dated February 1, 1843, which confirms my decision. 

In debate, George A. Smith said imprisonment was better than hang- 

I replied, I was opposed to hanging, even if a man kill another, I 
will shoot him, or cut off his head, spill his blood on the ground, and 
let the smoke thereof ascend up to God; and if ever I have the privilege 
of making a law on that subject, I will have it so. 

In reply to some of the councilors, who thought it impolitic to stop 
circulating bank notes as currency at once, I replied, I would use a 
figure, and talk like some foolish fathers do to their children. If you 
want to kill a serpent, don't cut off his head, for fear he will bite you; 


but cut off his tail, piece by piece, and perhaps you won't get bit. It 
s the same with this bill. I say, if paper currency is an evil, put it 
down at once. When councilors get up here, I want them to speak 
sense. Great God, where is common sense and reason? Is there none 
on the earth? Why have the canker remaining any longer to sap our 
life? If you get hold of a $5 bill, you can get nothing with it. There is 
no one who dares to touch it, fearing it to be a counterfeit, or the note 
of a broken bank. I wish you had my soul long enough to know how good 
it feels. I say it is expedient when you strike at an enemy, to strike 
the most deadly blow possible. 

Councilor Hyde asked me what an editor should do. I told him, ad- 
vertise in your next paper to your agents to send you gold and silver, 
as paper will no longer be taken as pay.* 

The ordinance regulating currency in the city passed by a unanimous 
vote, as follows: — 


Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Nauvoo, that, 
from and after the passage of this bill, gold and silver coin only can be 
received a lawful tender in payment of city taxes and of debts, and also 
of fines imposed under the ordinances of the city. 

Sec. 2. That city scrip shall not hereafter be emitted as monied cur- 
rency; provided, however, that nothing in this bill shall be so construed 
as to prevent the redemption of previous emissions. 

Sec. 3. That any person passing counterfeit gold, or silver, or copper 
coin, or counterfeit or spurious paper currency, or aiding or abetting 
therein, or holding the same with intent to pass it, knowing it to be 
such, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to 
imprisonment or hard labor in the city, for a term not exceeding four- 
teen years, or all these penalties at the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 4. That any person passing a paper currency, or aiding and 
abetting therein, or holding the same with intent to pass it within the 
bounds of this city corporation, shall be liable to a fine of one dollar for 
every dollar thus offered or passed, to be recovered as in action of debt; 
one-half of said fine to be paid to the complainant, the other half to the 
said corporation. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

I was re-elected Registrar of Deeds for the city. 

Dr. Samuel Bennett was chosen Alderman, and Albert P. Rockwood, 
Elijah Fordham, and Charles C. Rich, Firewardens in the city. 

* These remarks and the passage of the ordinance making gold and silver alone 
Legal Tender in Nauvoo is further evidence that the Prophet regarded Nauvoo* 
under her charter as a "city state" — see the subject discussed in Introduction to 
Vol, IV of this History, pp. xxii-xxv. 


By my suggestion, the Committee on Public Works were instructed 
to prepare an ordinance to provide for the erection of a city prison. 

On returning to my office after dinner, I spoke the fol- 
ltemsofin- lowing proverb : For a man to be great, he 
s traction. must not dwell on small things, though he 

may enjoy them; this shows that a Prophet cannot 
well be his own scribe, but must have some one to write 
for him. 

The battle of Gog and Magog will be after the millen- 
nium. The remnant of all the nations that fificht against 
Jerusalem were commanded to go up to Jerusalem to wor- 
ship in the millennium, 

I told Dr. Richards that there was one thing he failed 
in as a historian, and that was noting surrounding objects, 
weather, etc. 

I dictated to my scribe my decision in the case of Brink 
versus Dana, until half-past four p. m. 

This day, Mr. Warren, in the State Senate, 
Parts of the moved to take from the table the bill to repeal 
ter U oefeated r the charter of the city of Nauvoo; but the 

in the Senate. ^^ refuged to repea i ^ Naygj yj . aye ^ 16 

Orrin. Porter Rockwell was taken prisoner in St. Louis 
by the Missourians, on an advertisement accusing him of 
shooting ex-Governor Boggs on the 6th day of May, 1842. 

Sunday, 5. — I stayed at home all day to take care of my 
mother, who was still sick. 

A severe-shock of an earthquake felt at Memphis, Tenn. 

Monday, 0\ — I read, in the Boston Bee, a letter from 
Elder George J. Adams, and also another communication 
showing the progress of the truth in Boston and vicinity. 
At 'nine o'clock, called in my office, and requested Dr. 
Richards to write to the Bee; after which, I recited in 
German until dinner, and in the evening rode out to visit 
the sick. 

The Municipal Court was in session to hear any com- 
plaints against the city assessment, but none appeared. 


In the evening a grand display of burning prairie on the 
Iowa side of the river. 

Tuesday, 7. — I was in my office at nine a. m. , and re- 
viewed my decision in the case of Brink versus Dana, and 
conversing with Dr. Richards on the subject of medicine. 
After dinner, I executed several deeds for city lots, and 
settled with the purchasers, assisted by William Clayton. 

Brother David Manhard, of Lee county, Iowa, brought 
me two loads of corn and one hog; for which may the 
Lord bless him ! 

East wind through the day. Commenced raining at 
three p. m. 

Wednesday, 8. — In office at eight a. m., and signed 
some documents in relation to the Nauvoo Legion, and 
also settling with William Ford. Rode out with Mr. John 
B. Cowan in the evening. 

In the evening, a meeting was held in the house of 
Elder Heber C. Kimball, which was crowded. He preached 
from Jeremiah xviii, 2-5, on the figure of clay in the hands 
of the potter. 

The ship Yorkshire left Liverpool, England, with eighty- 
three Saints on board, under the supervision of Elders 
Thomas Bullock and Richard Rushton. 

A terrible earthquake occurred at Guadeloupe and other 
West India Islands. Thousands of persons buried under 
the ruins of the fallen houses. 

Thursday, 9. — Mr. John B. Cowan took the decision of 
Judge Pope in the United States District Court, on the 
5th January last, and other papers relating precaution 
thereto, also Mr. Butterfield's opinion, to lay sfurT^^ove- 
before the governor of Iowa, in order to in- ^Prophet st 
duce him to recall a writ issued on the requi- iu Iowa - 
sition of the governor of Missouri, for my arrest, in case 
I should visit my friends in Iowa. 

I told Brother Phelps that he should be a lawyer and 
understand law, and the time will come when I shall not 


need say to you, Thus and thus is the law; for you shall 
know it. 

E. H. Mower wrote rne from Clinton county, Indiana, 
that he had recently baptized thirty-two, and a great many* 
-were inquiring after the truth. 

William 0. Clark gave me a load of corn, and Sanford 
Porter gave me a hog. 

Rain and sleet the whole of the day. 

Friday, 10. — Clear and cold day. 

I opened court at ten a. m. Messrs. Emmons and 
Skinner, counsel for plaintiff; and Messrs. Marr and Rig- 
don, counsel for defendant. Parties to the suit present 
and many spectators.* Court decided after full hearing 
of the case that plaintiff recover from the defendant the 
sum of his bill, ninety-nine dollars and cost. After I had 
delivered my decision, I referred to the threat of the de- 
fendant's counsel to intimidate, etc. Counsel explained 

I directed Lucien Woodworth to fix a room to confine 
the city prisoners in. 

I told Theodore Turley that I had no objection to his 
building a brewery. 


"As finest steel doth show a brighter polish 

The more you rub the same, 
E'en so in love rebuke will ne'er demolish 

A wise man's goodly name," 

I issued an execution against Dr. Brink, and a search- 
warrant on oath of William Law, to search the house of 
Dial Sherwood. In the evening, the marshal brought two 
try squares, one padlock, one shirt; also a bit stock, 
smoothing-plane, and other tools, some of which were 
claimed as stolen property. 

Friday, 10.— With Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff 

* The case was one in which mal-practice was charged against Dr. William B. 
Brink in a case of accouchement of Charles A. Dana's wife. 


and many others, about seven p. m., I discovered a 
stream of light in the southwest quarter of the heavens. 
Its pencil rays were in the form of a broad signs in the 
sword, with the hilt downward, the blade HeaTens - 
raised, pointing from the west, southwest, raised 
to an angle of forty-five degrees from the horizon, and 
extending nearly, or within two or three degrees to the 
zenith of the degree where the sign appeared. This sign 
gradually disappeared from half-past seven o'clock, and 
at nine had entirely disappeared. As sure as there is a 
God who sits enthroned in the heavens, and as sure as He 
ever spoke by me, so sure will there be a speedy and 
bloody war; and the broad sword seen this evening is the 
sure sign thereof. 

Last night I dreamed that a silver-headed old man 
came to me and said there was a mob force coming upon 
him, and he was likely to lose his life. He had heard 
that I was a lieutenant-general, having the The Prophet's 
command of a large force, and that I always Dream - 
sought to defend the oppressed, and that I was also a 
patriot, and disposed to protect the innocent and 
unoffending; and he wanted that I should protect him, 
and had come to hear with his own ears what I would say 
to him. I told him I wanted some written documents to 
show the facts that they [the mob] were the aggressors, 
and I would raise a force sufficient to protect him, and 
would collect the Legion. The old man turned to go from 
me. When he got a little distance, he suddenly turned 
again, and said to me, "You must call out the Legion/' 
and he would have the papers ready when I arrived. 
And, said he, "I have any amount of men, which you can 
have under your command." 

A shock of an earthquake felt in Lancashire, England, 
and on the Isle of Guernsey, produced considerable 

The papers teem with accounts of singular phenomena. 
Fearful sights are seen in all parts of the world. 


Saturday , 11. — Very cold last night. The water froze 
in the warmest rooms in the city. 

At nine a. in., I started in company with Brother 
Brigham Young, to Ramus, and had a delightful drive. 
Arrived at Brother McClary's at a quarter to four. Lodged 
with Brother Benjamin F. Johnson. In the evening, 
when pulling sticks, I pulled up Justus A. Morse, the 
strongest man in Eamus, with one hand. 

It is reported in the papers that the workmen employed 
on the General Fratt (a steamboat which was burned and 
sunk last fall near Memphis in the Mississippi,) with a 
• diving bell, on the 3rd of January, found the wreck in 
about twenty- four feet of water. On that night was an 
earthquake. Next day the wreck had disappeared, no 
trace could be found, and the water was from one hundred 
to one hundred and twenty feet deep, and for about one 
hundred feet no bottom; and in another place a bar was 
discovered where previously was deep water. 

The Neiu York Herald publishes "The Vision" in 
poetry, &c. ; also Miss Eliza R. Snow's Festival Song; — 
an unusual act of liberality towards the Saints, for a 

r~l$unday, 12. — I preached to the Saints at Ramus, in 
The Prophet the morning, taking for a text 14th chapter 
at Ramus. f j hn, 2nd verse: — "In my Father's house 
are many mansions. 7 ' 

I found the brethren well, and in good spirits. In the 
afternoon, Brother Brigham preached. Stayed at Brother 
Benjamin F. Johnson's all night. 

Elder George J. Adams having been called to Nauvoo, 
twelve hundred inhabitants of Boston petitioned for 
Elders Heber 0. Kimball and Orson Hyde to come and 
labor in that place. A similar petition was also sent from 
Salem, Massachusetts, by Elder Erastus Snow. 

Monday, 13. — I wrestled with William Wall, the 
most expert wrestler in Ramus, and threw him. 

In the afternoon, held a Church meeting. Almon W. 


Babbitt was appointed, by the vote of the people, the 
presiding elder of that place. 

In the evening meeting twenty-seven children were 
blessed, nineteen of whom I blessed myself, with great 
fervency. Virtue went out of me, and my strength left 
me, when I gave up the meeting to the brethren. 

Mercury was three degrees below zero, at sunrise in 

Mr. Ivins arrived at Nauvoo, and stated that Orrin Port- 
er Rockwell came with him from New Jersey to St. Louis, 
when Rockwell was arrested by advertisement on the 4th 
of March, and put in St. Louis jail. 

Elder Hyde went to Quincy to preach. 

Newspapers report that iron filings and sulphur have 
fallen in the form of a snow storm in five counties in 

Tuesday, 14. — Elder Jedediah M. Grant enquired of me 
the cause of my turning pale and losing 

- i i.i it • i-ii ? TheProphet's 

strength last night while blessing children. I Explanation 
told him that 1 saw that Lucifer would exert went Out of 
his influence to destroy the children that I was 
blessing, and I strove with all the faith and spirit that I 
had to seal upon them a blessing that would secure their 
lives upon the earth ; and so much virtue went out of me 
into the children, that I became weak, from which I have 
not yet recovered; and I referred to the case of the 
woman touching the hem of the garment of Jesus. 
(Luke, 8th chapter). The virtue here referred to is the 
spirit of life; and a man who exercises great faith in 
administering to the sick, blessing little children, or 
confirming, is liable to become weakened. 

Elder Brigham Young and myself returned from 
Ramus, and after a severely cold ride in a heavy snow- 
storm, arrived in Nauvoo about four p. m. 

Mr. Wilson, the assessor for the county of Hancock, 
assessed a number of lots to Dr. Willard Richards, which 
he had previously assessed to me as trustee in trust, in 



order no doubt, to collect taxes twice, for the benefit of 
his own pocket, or to make trouble to the "Mormons;" 
about which the following letter was written : 

Willard Richards to Mr. Bagby, Anent Taxes. 

Mr. Bagby, — Sir: — I received an anonymous letter this morning, 
which was dated at Warsaw, requesting an immediate answer. I know 
not to whom to direct the answer; but as it appears to be concerning 
taxes, I suppose it most probable that you are the person, and direct 
my answer accordingly. 

I received your letter from Carthage, and requested Mr. Clayton to 
answer it, which he did, stating the facts in the case, which, in sub- 
stance, I will repeat: 

In the year 1842 I had no taxable property in Illinois, real or 
personal. I never erave Mr. Wilson, the assessor, a list by which to assess 
lots to me. If ever I gave him any list, it was to assist him in the informa- 
tion what lots to assess to the "trustee in trust, 15 and for no other pur- 
pose; which Mr. Wilson verv well knew at the time, and now knows it* 

You ask, "What shall I do with the lots?" I answer, "They are 
lots which on another part of your list, are assessed to the trustee in 
trust, or Mr. Smith; and, doubtless, it would be the most just and 
equitable course for the assessor to correct his error, and let the matter 
rest where it was originally. But if this cannot be, you must take your 
own course. It is not for me to advise you in your duty. But of this 
I can advise you — that I have not the first farthing of personal property 
liable to taxation in this county, or to be sold for taxes this side of 

Yours respectfully, 

Willard Richards. 

At half -past seven o'clock in the evening, the sword 
which had made its appearance [in the heavens] for 
several evenings past, moved up nearer the moon and 
formed itself into a large ring round the moon. Two balls 
immediately appeared in the ring opposite each other, 
something in the form of sun-dogs. 

Wednesday, 15. — I wrote a letter to George J. Adams, 
The wasp an d signed several deeds. In the office most 
changed to f ^he day. Gave the following name to 

The Nauvoo J ° 

Neighbor. the Wasp, enlarged as is contemplated — 


The Nauvoo Neighbor, our motto, "The Saints' Singularity 
is Union, Liberty, Charity." The following is an extract 
from the prospectus of this date: 

Prospectus of the Nauvoo Neighbor, 

We feel pleasure in announcing to our readers and the public generally 
that we have determined to enlarge the Wasp to double its size, as soon 
as the present volume shall be completed, which will be on the 19th of 

It made its appearance in the world near twelve months ago, small 
in stature, dressed in a very humble garb, and under very inauspicious 
circumstances. It was then thought by mauy that its days would not 
be long in the land, and that at any rate it would not survive the sickly 
season. Many of its elder brethern, who thought that they had 
attained to the size of manhood, sneered contemptuously at the idea of 
their smaller and younger brother taking the field; and, like David's 
brethren, they thought that he was but a stripling, and that he would 
certainly fall by the hand of some of the great Goliaths. But, on the 
contrary, while some of advanced years, noble mien, and possessing a 
more formidable appearance, have given up the ghost, the little Wasp 
has held on in the even tenor of his way, the untiring, unflinching 
supporter of integrity, righteousness and truth, neither courting the 
smiles nor fearing the frowns of political demagogues, angry partisans, 
or fawning sycophants. Partaking so much of the nature of the 
industrious bee, it has gathered honey from every flower, and its pages 
are now read with interest by a large and respectable number of 

As the young gentleman is now nearly a year old, we propose on his 
birthday to put on him a new dress, and to make him double the size, 
that he may begin to look up to the world, and not be ashamed of 
associating with his older brethren. And as he has acted the part of a 
good Samaritan, we propose giving him a new name. Therefore his 
name shall no longer be called the "Wasp," but the "Neighbor." 

I prophesied, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
that Orrin Porter Rockwell would get away . . 

° •* A Prophecy as 

honorably from the Missourians. I cautioned to Orrin Pon- 

tt i'i r»*niTT er Rockwell. 

Peter Hawes to correct his boys : for if he did 

not curtail them in their wickedness, they would 

eventually go to prison. 

20 Vol. v. 


1 dreamed last night that I was swimming in a river of 
pure water, clear as crystal, over a shoal of fish of the 
largest size I ever saw. They were directly under my 
belly. I was astonished, and felt afraid that they might 
drown me or do me injury. 

The Wasp has the following editorial : — 

Ihe Nauvoo Charter — A Guaranteed Perpetual Succession. 

What reliance can be placed upon a legislature that will one session 
errant a charter to a city, with "perpetual succession," and another ses- 
sion take it away? We expect, however, that this honorable body be- 
lieve in the common adage — * 'Promises and pie-crusts are made to be 
broken,-' and we have sometimes ourselves seen boys crying for their 
marbles again, after they have given them away. 

We suppose, however, with them, that the words 'perpetual succession" 
do not mean what they say. The house, in the dignity of its standing, 
passes a bill, at the request of the people, telling them that they shall 
have a charter granting them several privileges, and telling them that 
it shall be perpetual, without any repealing clause. It is made a law, 
and the grand seal of state appended to it. The people, on the good 
faith of the state, go to work and improve under the provisions of that 
charter. Companies are formed, buildings are erected, and money ex- 
pended; but by-and-by they find out that they have been leaning upon 
a broken reed, that there is no dependence to be placed in government, 
that they [the legislature] have broken their most sacred promises, 
violated their plighted faith, and wantonly and wickedly sought to in- 
jure thousands of men who relied on their promises, by an unprece- 
dented, unconstitutional, and tyrannical law, trampling under foot the 
faith of the state, and virtually saying that the members of the legis. 
lature that granted the charter were all fools or knaves, and that we, 
the pure representatives of the people, must break the plighted faith of 
the state to set them right! 

The New York Herald gives a list of indebtedness of the 
several states who refuse to pay the same, as follows: — 

Indebtedness of the States. 

Pennsylvania, $29,129,123; Georgia, $3,184,323; Indiana, $12,129,339 
Maryland, $20,901,040; Louisiana, $21,213,000; Mississippi, $5,500,000 
Illinois, $13,836,379; Alabama, $9,S43,536; Arkansas, $3,900,000 
Michigan, $5,611,000; Florida, $3,500,000. 


A great fire at Valparaiso, unequalled heretofore in Chili, 
Damage $2,000,000. 

Thursday, 16. — In the office, reading papers, and gave 
counsel to Brother Hyram, Dr. Foster, and many others. 

Friday, 17. — Part of the day in my office ; the remainder 
at home. 

Settled with Father Perry; gave him a deed for eighty 
acres of land and city lot, and prophesied that it would 
not be six months before he could sell it for cash. 

At four p. m., Newel K. Whitney brought in a letter 
from R. S. Blennarhassett, Esq., St. Louis, dated 7th 
instant, concerning Orrin Porter Rockwell ; which I imme- 
diately answered. 

Reports reached us that new indictments had been found 
against myself, Brother Hyrum, and some hun- Renewal of 
dred others, on the old Missouri troubles, and oid Missouri 
that John C. Bennett was making desperate 

The Island of Hong-Kong was ceded to Great Britain 
by the Emperor of China, who opened five ports to the 
English trade by treaty. 

Saturday, 18. — I was most of the forenoon in the office, 
in cheerful conversation with Dr. Willard Richards and 
others. Finishing writing a letter to Arlington Bennett. 

About noon, I lay down on the writing table, with my 
head on a pile of law books, saying, " Write ThePro het 
and tell the world I acknowledge myself a "studying" 

n Law! 

very great lawyer; I am going to study law, 

and this is the way I study it;" and then fell asleep. 

Rode out in the afternoon with William Clayton, look- 
ing at lots for Bishop Newel K. Whitney, and afterwards 
played ball with the boys. 

The French seized upon the Society group of Pacific 

Sunday, 1 9.— Rode out with Emma and visited my 
farm; returned about eleven, a, m., and spent the re- 
mainder of the dav at home. 


Dirnick B. Huntington started for Chicago, with a letter 
to Mr. Justin Butterfield, U. S. Attorney, concerning 
Orrin Porter Rockwell. 

Received a letter from Elder Parley P. Pratt, giving a 
synopsis of his mission to England since August, 1839, in 
The work of which I find he has published, since April, 
R ld p e rat P Hn ey 18il , (at which time the remainder of the 
England. Twelve returned home,) 1,500 ''Hymn Books," 

2,500 "Voice of Warning," 3,000 Tracts, entitled "Heaven 
on Earth," 3,000 copies of "Elder Hyde's Mission to 
Jerusalem," 10,000 copies of "A Letter to the Queen," 
and some other works, and continued the Star monthly. 
He left England October 20, 1842, and, after a voyage of 
ten weeks, arrived in New Orleans, being ice-bound on 
the river; and having a dislike to the outlaws who govern 
Missouri, he wintered at Chester, Illinois. On the news 
of his arrival, he was warmly pressed to preach, which he 
did several times, and baptized two men in that place. 

Sir James South, Sir John Herschel, and other astron- 
omers in Europe have published notices of the sword 
Scientists on seen in the heavens on the eve of the 10th and 
the comet. several successive evenings. They represent 
it as the stray tail of a comet, as no nucleus could be dis- 
covered with the most powerful instruments. At Paris, 
M. Arago communicated to the Academy of Sciences, on 
the subject of the comet, that the observations of the 
astronomers were not complete, the nucleus not being dis- 

Monday, 20. — I rode out to see Hiram Kimball, with 
Mrs. Butterfield, about a deed for the Lawrence estate. 
Settled with Dr. Robert D. Foster, and gave him a note 
to balance all demands; and afterwards acknowledged 
about twenty deeds to different individuals, which occupied 
my time until about three p.m. 

A letter appears in the Millennial Star, giving particu- 
lars of the passage of the ship S wanton, from Liverpool, 
and arrival at New Orleans, loaded with Saints, in which 


the power of the holy priesthood was manifested in the 
healing of the sick: — 

Excerpt of Letter from Millennial Star. 

The stewart of this vessel was so injured by a blow from one of the 
crew, that his life was despaired of; and I stood over him for some 
time, and thought that life was gone. The captain had administered to 
him all that he could think of in the way of medicine, but to no effect; 
and after they gave up all hopes of his recovery, at twelve o'clock at 
night, he sent for Elder Lorenzo Snow,* and by anointing him with oil, 
and the laying on of hands, in the name of the Lord, he was there and 
then raised up and perfectly healed. For this token of the divine favor 
we will praise the God of Israel. 

Tuesday, 21. — Was in the office about nine, writing 
orders. About noon, started with William Clayton for 
Shokoquon. Dined at Brother Russel's, and then resumed 
our journey to Libeus T. Coon's, sixteen miles, when I 

Wonderful signs have been seen in the heavens during 
the week. 

A Sign in the Heavens. 

This night, about twelve o'clock, the pilot and officers of the steamer 
William Penn, on the Ohio river, between Aurora and the rising sun, 
Indiana, observed a great light in the sky, in the form of a serpent. It 
turned to a livid, bright red, deep and awful, and remained stationary 
among the stars for two or three minutes, and then in a gradual man- 
ner formed a distinct roman Gr: in about a minute and a half, it turned 
into a distinct 0, and afterwards changed to a plain D, when it turned 
into an oblong shape, and gradually disappeared.! 

Wednesday, 22. — Was spent in visiting my friends. 

Elder Edwin D. Woolley writes from Westfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, that he has baptized twenty and organized a 
branch in Little Eiver village. 

Elder James Burnham died in Eichmond, Massachu- 

* Elder Snow was in charge of this company of Saints, 

t This description is condensed from ar article in the Times and Seasons {Vol, 
IV, No. 10), quoted from a paper called the Daily Sun, but whether a New York 
or a local Illinois paper cannot be learned. 


setcs, aged 46. He had been on a mission to England and 
Wales about two years, and was then on a mission in the 
Eastern States, and, through excessive labor and expos- 
ure, brought on quick consumption. He left a wife and 
several children to lament his loss. 

Thursday, 23. — Spent the day in visiting my friends. 

At seven-and-a-half, a. m., the heavens exhibited a 
signs in the splendid appearance of circles, accompanied 
Heavens. ^y mock suns. For further particulars, see 
Times and Seasons, page 151. 

The sword has been seen for several nights past; also, 
on the opposite side of the horizon, a black streak about 
the size of the light one. While the one is as black as 
darkness, the other has considerably the appearance of 
the blaze of a comet; but it is not a comet, for it appears 
about seven o'clock, and disappears about nine. 

Friday, 24. — I took a ride to Camp Creek; met Brother 
Clayton; returned to Libeus T. Coon's, where we warmed 
for an hour, and then returned home. 

In the evening, two teams arrived from Lima, loaded 
with provisions; also one load from Augusta. 

The St. Louis Republican says: — 

"At Point-a-Pitre, Guadaloupe, one of the West India 
Islands, 2,000 persons ran together in the public square, 
when the earth opened and swallowed the whole mass." 

The papers report that General Napier, with 3,700 Eng- 
lish troops, gained a brilliant victory over the Belochee 
army of 22,000 men, on the 17th ult. 

Saturday, 25. — In the office at eight, a. m. ; heard a 
report from Hyrum Smith concerning thieves ; whereupon 
I issued the following 


Jo the Citizens of Nauvoo: 

Whereas it appears, by the republication of the foregoing proceed- 
ings and declaration, that I have not altered my views on the subject of 
stealing: And 


Whereas it is reported that there now exists a band of desperadoes, 
bound by oaths of secrecy, under severe penalties in case any member 
of the combination divulges their plans of stealing and conveying prop- 
erties from station to station, up and down the Mississippi and other 
routes: And 

Whereas it is reported that the fear of the execution of the pains and 
penalties of their secret oath on their persons prevents some members 
of said secret association (who have, through falsehood and deceit, been 
drawn into their snares,) from divulging the same to the legally-con- 
stituted authorities of the land: 

Know ye, therefore, that I, Joseph Smith, mayor of the city of Nau- 
voo, will grant and insure protection against all personal mob violence 
to each and every citizen of this city who will freely and voluntarily 
come before me and truly make known the names of all such abomin- 
able characters as are engaged in said secret combination for stealing, 
or are accessory thereto, in any manner. And I would respectfully 
solicit the co operation of all ministers of justice in this and the neigh- 
boring states to ferret out a band of thievish outlaws from our midst. 

Given under my hand at Nauvoo City, this 25th day of March, A. D., 

Joseph Smith. 

Mayor. of said City* 

Eeceived a letter from Grand Master A. Jonas, request- 
ing the loan of cannon, to celebrate the organization of 
the new county of Marquette, which I granted. 

Also received a letter from United States Senator 
Richard M. Young, with a bond for a quarter section of 

I baptized Mr. Mifflin, of Philadelphia. 

Issued a writ for the arrest of A. Fields, for disorderly 
conduct. He was brought in drunk about noon, and 
abused the court. I ordered him to be put in irons till he 
was sober. 

The High Council, with my brother Hyrum presiding, 
sat on an appeal of Benjamin Hoyt, from the decision of 
David Evans, bishop; which was, that Brother 

tt" .n. i , • , Case of Benj. 

Hoyt cease to call certain characters witches Hoyt Before 

or wizards, cease to work with the divining 1R 

rod. and cease burning a board or boards to heal those 


whom he said were bewitched. On hearing the case, the 
council decided to confirm the decision of Bishop Evans. 

The St. Louis Gazette reports "an awful gale" within 
the last six weeks. 154 vessels were wrecked on the coast 
Destructive of England, and 190 lives lost; on the coast 
Tempests. f Ireland, 5 vessels and 134 lives; on the 

coast of Scotland, 17 vessels, 39 lives; and on the coast 
of France, 4 vessels and 100 lives: value of vessels and 
cargoes, roughly estimated, $4,125,000. 

The Thames Tunnel completed and opened for foot 
passengers, when 30,000 persons passed through the first 

Elder William Henshaw, who has encountered consider- 
able opposition since he commenced preaching in South 
Wales, organized the Pen-y-darran branch, 

Opposition to ' . ° __,,„ ^ , ' 

the work in and ordained William Rees Davis, priest, who 
commenced preaching in the Welsh language, 
which caused opposition to increase and a considerable 
number to receive the gospel. While he established that 
branch of the Church, Brother Henshaw supported him- 
self by work in the coal mines. 

Sunday, 26. — At home, the weather being too severe for 

Monday, 27. — I dictated the following letter to Sidney 
Eigdon : — 

Letter of Joseph Smith to Sidney Bigdon — Expressing Belief in Bigdon 1 s 
Complicity in Conspiracy, with John C. Bennett et al. 

Dear Sir: — It is with sensations of deep regret and poignant grief 
that I sit down to dictate a few lines to you this morning, to let you 
know what my feelings are in relation to youiself, as it is against my 
principles to act the part of a hypocrite or to dissemble in anywise 
whatever with any man. I have tried for a long time to smother my 
feelings and not let you know that I thought that you were secretly and 
underhandedly doing all you could to take the advantage of and injure 
me; but whether my feelings are right or wrong remains for eternity to 

I cannot any longer forbear throwing off the mask and letting you 


kuow of the secret wranglings of my heait, that you may not be de. 
•ceived in relation to them, and that you may be prepared, sir, to take 
whatever course you see proper in the premises. 

I am, sir, honest, when I say that I believe and am laboring under 
the fullest convictions that you are actually practicing deception and 
wickedness against me and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints; and that you are in connection with John C. Bennett and George 
W. Robinson in the whole of their abominable practices, in seeking to 
destroy me and this people; and that Jared Carter is as deep in the mud 
as you, sir, are in the mire, in your conspiracies; and that you are in 
the exercise of a traitorous spirit against our lives and interests, by 
combining with our enemies and the murderous Missourians. My feel- 
ings, sir, have been wrought upon to a very great extent, in relation to 
yourself, ever since soon after the first appearance of John C. Bennett 
in this place. There has been something dark and mysterious hovering 
over our business concerns, that are not only palpable but altogether 
unaccountable, in relation to the post office. And, sir, from the very 
first of the pretensions of John C. Bennett to secure to me the post 
office, (which, by-the-bye, I have never desired, if I could have justice 
done me in that department, without my occupancy,) I have known, sir, 
that it was a fraud practiced upon me, and of the secret plottings and 
connivings between him and yourself in relation to'the matter the whole 
time, as well as many other things which I have kept locked up in my 
own bosom. But I am constrained, at this time, to make known my 
feelings to you. 

I do not write this with the intention of insulting you, or of bearing 
down upon you, or with a desire to take any advantage of you, or with 
the intention of laying even one straw in your way detrimental to your 
character or influence, or to suffer anything whatever that has taken 
place, which is within my observation or that has come to my knowl- 
edge to go abroad, betraying any confidence that has ever been placed 
in me. But I do assure you, most sincerely, that what I have said I 
verily believe; and this is the reason why 1 have said it — that you may 
know the real convictions of my heart, not because I have any malice 
or hatred, neither would I injure one hair of your head; and I will as- 
sure you that these convictions are attended with the deepest sorrow. 

I wish to God it were not so, and that I could get rid of the achings 
of my heart on that subject; and I now notify you that unless some- 
thing should take place to restore my mind to its former confidence in 
you, by some acknowledgments on your part, or some explanations 
that shall do away my jealousies, I must, as a conscientious man, publish 
my withdrawal of my fellowship from you to the Church, through the 
medium of the limes and Seasons, and demand of the conference a hear- 


ing concerning your case; that, on conviction of justifiable grounds, 
they will demand your license. I could say much more, but let the 
above suffice for the present. 

Yours, in haste, 

Joseph Smith. 

I sent the above communication to Elder Rigdon by 
Dr. Willard Richards ; to which I received the following 

Sidney Migdon to Joseph Smith — Denies Existence of Just Cause of the 
PropheVs Suspicions. 

President Joseph Smith. 

Dear Sir: — 1 received your letter by the hands of Dr. Richards a few 
minutes since, the contents of which are surprising to me, though I am 
glad that you have let me know your feelings, so as to give me a chance 
to reply to them. 

Why it is that you have the feelings which yoa seem to entertain, I 
know not; and what caused you to think that I had any connection with 
John C. Bennett at any time is not within my power to say. 

As to the post office, I never asked Bennett one word about it when 
I made application for it. If he ever wrote to the department at Wash- 
ington anything about it, it was and is without my knowledge; for 
surely I know of no such thing being done at any time; neither did I 
know, at the time I applied for the office, that you intended to apply for 
it; nor did I kno^ of it for some time afterwards. As far as the post 
office is concerned, these are the facts. I wrote myself to the depart- 
ment, offering myself as an applicant, and referred the department to 
several members of Congress to ascertain my character. This is all I 
ever did on the subject. I never wrote but one letter to the department 
on the subject; neither had I at the time any acquaintance of any 
amount with Bennett, nor for a very considerable time afterwards. He 
never was at our house but very little, and then always on business, 
and always in a hurry, diu his business, and went off immediately. I 
know not that Bennett ever knew that I had applied for the office; and 
I am quite satisfied he did not till some time after I had written to the 
department on the subject; and if he ever did anything about it, it was 
and is to this day without my having any knowledge of it. 

As to the difficulties here, I never at any time gave Bennett any 
countenance in relation to it, and he knows it as well as I do, and feels 
it keenly. He has threatened me, severely, that he could do with me 
as he pleased, and that if I did not cease to aid yon and quit trying to 


save "my Prophet," as be calls you, from the punishment of the law, 
he would turn against me; and while at St. Louis, on his way to Upper 
Missouri, he, in one of his speeches, made a violent attack on myself, 
all predicated on the fact that I would not aid him. Such are his feel- 
ings on the subject and his threatenings. 

As to Jared Carter, if there is anything in his mind unfavorably dis- 
posed to you, he has, as far as I know, kept it to himself; for he never 
said anything to me, nor in my hearing, from which I could draw even 
an inference of that kind. He was here yesterday, when you came, 
much dejected in spirit in relation to his temporal affairs, and com- 
menced telling of the great injuries he had received by his son-in-law, 
and the great losses he had sustained by him, and seemed greatly 
dejected on account of it; but he never mentioned any other subject. 

When I went to La Harpe on Friday, it was purely in relation to 
temporal matters, making arrangements for provisions for the ensuing 
season and to regulate some matters in relation to property only. While 
there, I heard the report of the new indictments; and Mr. Higbee told 
me, the day before I went out, that I was among the number of those 
who were to be demanded. In relation to this, I made such inquiry as 
I thought would enable me to determine the fact, but failed in the at- 
tempt. I confess I felt some considerable interest in determining this 
fact, and felt anxious to know if I could find out how it was. 

Now, on the broad scale, I can assert in truth, that with myself and 
any other person on this globe there never was nor is there now existing 
anything privately or publicly to injure your character in any respect 
whatever; neither has any person spoken to me on any such subject. 
All that has ever been said by me has been said to your face, all of 
which you know as well as I. 

As to your rights in the post office, you have just the same as any 
other man. In the new case which occurred yesterday, I have examined 
all the laws and rules in this office, and find but one section in relation 
to it, and that indii^ectly, but gives the postmaster no right to abate the 
postage, nor make any disposition of the letter or letters; but address 
the department, and they will give such instruction in the case as they 
may deem correct. I have written on the subject to the department. 

I can conclude by only saying that I had hoped that all former diffi- 
culties had ceased for ever. On my part they were never mentioned to 
any person, nor a subject of discourse at any time nor in any place. I 
was tired hearing of them, and was iu hopes that they slumbered for 
ever. While at La Harpe the subject was never once mentioned. The 
only thing was the inquiry I made myself to find out, as far as I could, 
whether the report made to me by Mr. Higbee was correct or no, and 
this in relation to myself only. If being entirely silent on the subject at 


all times and in all places is an error, then I am guilty. If evading the 
subject at all times, whenever introduced by others, be a crime, then I 
am guilty; for such is my uniform custom. 

If this letter is not satisfactory, let me know wherein; for it is peace 
I want. I have been interrupted a great many times since I began to 
write, by people calling at the office. 


Sidney Rigdon. 
P. S. — I do consider it a matter of just offense to me to hear about 
Bennett's assisting me to office. I shall have a lower opinion of myself 
than I now have when I think I need his assistance. 

S. R. 

Opened court to try Field for drunkenness and abusing 
his wife. I fined him $10 and costs, and required him to 
find bail of $50 to keep the peace for six months. 

A conference held at Hartland, Niagara county, New 
York. Three elders and one priest were ordained, and 
five added to the Church. 

It is estimated that the Chinese loss, in their recent war 
with England, was 15,000 men, 1,500 pieces of cannon, 
and a great portion of their navy. 

Tuesday, 28. — I removed my office from the smoke 
house (which I have been obliged to occupy for some 
months,) to the small upper room in the new brick store. 
lnsult Josiah Butterfield came to my house and in- 

Resented. suited me so outrageously that I kicked him 
out of the house, across the yard, and into the street. 

Elder Brigham Young visited George A. Smith, who 
was very sick. 

Wednesday, 29. — Sat with Orson Spencer on a case of 
debt, and gave judgment against Dr. Foster, the defend- 

Thursday, 30. — In the office, in relation to a new bond 
presented to me by Dr. Brink, which I rejected as in- 
formal, and told Charles Ivins he might improve my share 
of the ferry one year, and cautioned him that if he did 
not consider Brink good for heavy damages, he would be 
foolish to be his bondsman. 


Brink afterwards took an appeal to the Municipal Court, 
to be tried on the 10th of April. 

Elder Hyde returned from Quincy, having delivered ten 
lectures and baptized three persons. 

At half-past one, p. m., I was called to sit as justice of 
the peace, with Alderman George W. Harris, on the case 
of Webb v. Rigby, for forcible entry and de- ml ^ , 

° J ' J The Prophet 

tainer. During the trial the court fined Esquire as a Justice of 

the Peace. 

0. C. Skinner twenty dollars for insulting a 
witness, and would have fined him ten dollars more for 
his contempt of court, but let him off on his submissive 
acknowledgments. The trial closed about one o'clock on 
Friday morning. 

Friday, 31. — At ten, a. m., I opened court for trial of 
Amos Lower, for assaulting John H. Burghard. After 
hearing testimony, fined Lower $10. 

Spent the afternoon at Mr. Lucian Woodworth's in 
company with Brother Hyrum, Heber C. Kimball, Orson 
Hyde, Wilford Woodruff, and Brother Chase, with our 
wives; had a good time, and feasted on a fat turkey. 



FERENCE OF APRIL 6th, 1843. 

Saturday, April 1, 1843. — Called at the office about ten 
a. in., for "the Law of the Lord;" and about noon I 
heard read "Truthiana" No. 3, from the Boston Bee. 
At two p. m., I started in company with Orson Hyde and 
William Clayton for Ramus. The roads were very muddy. 
We arrived about half-past six, p. m., and were very 
joyfully received by Brother Benjamin F. Johnson, where 
we slept for the night. 

Elders Brigham Young and John Taylor went to La 

The Times and Seasons contains a well written editorial 
upon the signs of the times. (See vol. iv, page 153.) 

Minutes of a Conference at Augusta, Lee County, Iowa, April 1st, 1843. 

James Brown was appointed the presiding Elder of the Augusta 
branch, which numbered eighty-four members in good standing, 
including two high priests, eleven elders, four priests, two teachers and 
one deacon. Twelve persons united with the branch. Seven elders, 
two priests and one deacon were ordained. One of the elders was a 
Lamanite of the Delaware tribe. A resolution was unanimously passed 
to uphold the first presidency and follow their counsels, and to use their 
utmost endeavors to build the Nauvoo House as well as the Temple. A 
number of discourses were preached during the conference, and several 
persons requested baptism at the close. 

Elder P. P. Pratt writes: 


Letter of Elder Parley P. Pratt Eulogizing Lorenzo D, Barnes, the First 
Elder to Die ivhile on a Foreign Mission. 

Alton, April 1, 1842. 

Dear Brother: — Brother Lorenzo Snow arrived at St. Louis last 
Wednesday, from England with about two hundred and fifty emigrants. 
They are now lying on a boat bound forNauvoo as soon as the river opens 
They sailed from England some time in January, and bring a copy of 
the Millennial Star and some private letters, und^r date of January 1st, 
1813. From these we learn the painful fact that our dear brother and 
fellow-laborer, Elder Lorenzo D. Barnes is gone to be with Christ. 
He lingered some weeks with a fever, and at length died in the triumphs 
of faith. 

He died on the morning of tho 20th of December last, at Bradford, 
— the first messenger of this last dispensation, who, for Christ's sake 
and the Gospel's, has laid down his life in a foreign land. 

'In this dispensation of Providence, an entire people are called to 
mourn. Brother Barnes was everywhere known and universally 
beloved as a meek, humble, and zealous minister of the Gospel, who 
has labored extensively for many years with great success. Such was 
his wisdom and prudence, and such his modesty and kindness, that he 
won the friendship not only of the Saints, but of thousands of various 
sects, and of those who made no profession. In short, his was the 
favored portion which falls to the lot of but few men, even 
among the great and good. He was loved and esteemed by many and 
hated by few, in all the wide circle of his acquaintance. But in the 
midst of a useful career on earth, he is suddenly and to us unexpectedly 
called away to a higher and more glorious field of action, with the 
spirits of the just, in the high council of the King of Kings. His spirit 
now justly claims an honored seat; his voice is now heard in the 
deliberations of the high and mighty ones, who are the principal movers 
in the great events of: the dispensation of the fullness of times, whilst 
his body lies sleeping far away from his native shore, on a distant 
island of the sea. 

No father or mother, or kindred were near 
To receive his last blessing or drop a kind tear, 
With heart-broken anguish to weep o'er his tomb. 
To adorn it with roses of richest perfume. 

Yet he was lamented with many a tear, 
By hearts full of sorrow— by soul's as sincere, 
Who in solemn procession repaired to the grave, 
To mourn for the stranger no kindness could save. 


'Twas a tribute from souls he had won for his Lord — 
Yea, brothers and sisters made nigh by his word, 
Whose love was as strong and whose friendship as pure— 
Whose grief was as heart-felt as heart can endure. 

His name and memory will be dear to thousands, and will be banded 
down to all generations, as one who has devoted his time from early 
youth in the service of his God and of his fellow-creatures, and has laid 
down his life for Christ's sake and the Gospel's, to find it again, even 
life eternal.* 

The Saints in England seem to be still rejoicing in the truth and 
increasing in numbers. 

The emigration to Nauvoo is gathering as a cloud, yea, they are 
flocking as doves to their windows from all parts of England and the 
United States. The ice remaining so late in the river has congregated 
them in St. Louis in great numbers, some from Ohio and the East, and 
from various places. I think that thousands will land in Nauvoo in the 
course of the spring. Yes, as soon as the ice is out, they will throng to 
Nauvoo in swarms. The people in Missouri are beginning to be more 
and more astonished, and are expressing great fears that "Joe Smith n 
will yet prevail, so as to restore the supremacy of the laws in that dark 
corner of the earth, where a gang of robbers and murderers have so 
Jong controlled a state. 

I long to be with you on the 6th of April, but fear that the ice will 

I am in haste, 

Yours in the new covenant, 

Parley P. Pratt. 

A Short Sketch oj the Rise of the "Young Gentlemen and Ladies RelieJ 
Society" from in the Times and Seasons. If 

In the latter part of January, 1813, a number of young people 
assembled at the house of Elder Heber C. Kimball, who warned them 

* Lorenzo D.Barnes, the subject of the above eulogy, was born in 1812, and 
ordained a member of the second quorum of Seventy at Kirtland, in 1835. When 
the Adam-ondi-Ahman stake of Zion was organized in June, 1838, he was made a 
member of the High Council, and also the secretary of that stake, though continuing 
^o hold the office of Seventy. He was one of the Seventy appointed to accompany 
the Twelve on their mission to Europe. (See minutes of the general conference of 
the Church, held in Quincy, Illinois, May 4, 5, G,'1839. History of the Church, 
vol. iii, pp. 24G-7.) He died December 20, 1842, at Bradford, England. In 1852 
his body was brought from England and interred in the Salt Lake City cemetery, 
where a suitably inscribed monument erected by the second quorum of Seventy 
Salt Lake City, marks his resting place, 

tVol.iv, p. 154-7. A reading of the above minutes will more clearly describe a Mutua 
Improvement Association than a Relief Society; and this incident may not 


against the various temptations to which youth is exposed, and gave an 
appointment expressly for the young at the house of Elder Billings; and 
another meeting was held in the ensuing week, at Brother Fair's 
school-room, which was filled to overflowing. Elder Kimball delivered 
addresses, exhorting the young people to study the scriptures, and 
enable themselves to "give a reason for the hope within them," 
and to be ready to go on to the stage of action, when their present 
instructors and leaders had gone behiud the scenes; also to keep good 
company and to keep pure and unspotted from the world. 

The next meeting was appointed to be held at my house; and 
notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, it was completely filled 
at an early hour. Elder Kimball, as usual, delivered an address, warning 
his hearers against giving heed to their youthful passions, and 
exhorting them to be obedient and to pay strict attention to the advice 
of their parents, who were better calculated to guide them on the 
pathway of youth than they themselves. My house being too small the 
next meeting was appointed to be held in the hall over my store. I 
addressed the young people for some time, expressing my gratitude to 
Elder Kimball for having commenced this glorious work, which would 
be the means of doing a great deal of good, and said the gratitude of all 
good men and of the youth would follow him through life, and he 
would always look back upon the winter of 1843 with pleasure. I 
experienced more embarrassment in standing before them than I should 
before kings and nobles of the earth; for I knew the crimes of which 
the latter were guilty, and I knew precisely how to address them; but 
my young friends were guilty of none of them, and therefore I hardly 
kuew what to say. I advised them to organize themselves into a society 
for the relief of the poor, and recommended to them a poor lame 
English brother (Maudesley) who wanted a house built, that he might 
have a home amongst the Saints; that he had gathered a few materials 
for the purpose, but was unable to use them, and he has petitioned for 
aid. I advised them to choose a committee to collect funds for tnis 
purpose, and perform this charitable act as soon as the weather 
permitted. I gave them such advice as I deemed was calculated to 
guide their conduct through life and prepare them for a glorious 

A meeting was appointed to carry out these suggestions, at which 
William Cutler was chosen president and Marcellus L. Bates, clerk. 
Andrew Cahoon, Claudius V, Spencer and Stephen Perry were 
appointed to draft a constitution for the society and the meeting 
adjourned to the 28th of March, when the said committee submitted a 

improperly be regarded as the first step towards that great movement in the Church 
which has heen such a mighty aid in holding to the faith of their fathers the youth 
of Israel. 

21 Vol. V 


dral^ of a constitution, consisting of twelve sections. The report was 
unanimously adopted, and the meeting proceeded to choose their 
officers, William Walker was chosen president; William Cutler, 
vice-president: Lorin Walker, treasurer; James M. Monroe, secretary. 
Stephen Perry, Marcellus L. Bates, Redden A. Allred, William H. 
Kimball and Garret Ivans were appointed a committee of vigilance. 
The meeting then adjourned until the next Tuesday evening. 

The next meeting was addressed by Elders Brigham Young, Heber 
C. Kimball and Jedediah M. Grant, whose instructions were listened to 
with breathless attention. 

The Boston Weekly Bee has the following: 


Sir: — On Thursday evening, March 23, agreeable to appointment, 
Elder George J. Adams addressed a large concourse of people on the 
Character and Mission of Joseph Smith the Prophet. In speaking of 
him, he bears a positive and direct testimony to the divinity 
of his mission. He does this without hesitation, just as if he 
meant what he said, and said what he meant. He does not say he hopes 
Joseph Smith is a true prophet, but says he is positive that such is 
the fact. On the Sabbath, March 26th, during the day, he introduced 
Elder E. P. Maginn, and gave him a high recommendation as an able 
minister of the fullness of the Gosptl, who is to take his place in Boston 
for the present. He also spoke of Elder Orson Hyde, one of the Twelve 
Apostles, that would probably visit them this spring; and, according to 
Adams' account of him, he must be a perfect Apollo in learning and 
eloquence. The Boylston hall was a perfect jam during the day and 
evening. On Tuesday evening he gave his farewell lecture. That was 
a rich treat indeed, embodying the outline of the faith and doctrine of 
Latter-day Saints. But on Wednesday evening, at the great tea party, 
was the time it was clearly manifested that kindest feelings existed in 
this city towards the Mormons. There were present on that occasion 
over five hundred people: three hundred and fifty sat down at the first 
table. After supper, Elder Adams delivered a very appropriate and 
eloquent address. It was listened to with profound attention, during 
which time we saw the tear start in many an eye. During his remarks 
he spoke very beautifully of "the marriage supper of the Lamb," that 
was to wind up this last dispensation, cause creation to cease to groan, 
and usher iu the long-looked-for period when universal religion, liberty 
and toleration shall be proclaimed from "mountain- top to mountain- top 
and every man in everyplace shall meet a brother and a friend." 


Yours truly, (not a Mormon, but) one of the many friends to that 
much abused people." 

D. W. R. 
Boston, April 1, 1843. 

Sunday, 2. — Wind N. E. Snow fell several inches, but 
melted more or less. 

At ten a. m. went to meetiDg. Heard Elder Orson 
Hyde preach, comparing the sectarian preachers to crows 
living on carrion, as they were more fond of ^ „ , 

& ' J Orson Hyde 

lies about the Saints than the truth. Alluding Corrected by 
to the coming of the Savior, he said, 
"When He shall appear, we shall be like Him, 
&c. He will appear on a white horse as a warrior, and 
maybe we shall have some of the same spirit. Our God 
is a warrior, (John xiv, 23.) It is our privilege to have 
the Father and Son dwelling in our hearts, &c." 

We dined with my sister Sophronia McCleary, when I 
told Elder Hyde that I was going to offer some corrections 
to his sermon this morning. He replied, "They shall be 
thankfully received." 

Important Items oj Instruction given by Joseph the Prophet at Bamus, 
Illinois, April 2nd, 1843 * 

\^hen the Savior shall appear, we shall see Him as He is. We shall 
see that He is a man like ourselves, and that the same sociality which 
exists among us here will exist among us there, only it will be coupled 
with eternal glory, which glory we do not now enjoy. (John xiv: 23.) 
~The appearing of the Father and the Son, in that verse, is a personal 
appearance; and the idea that the Father and the Son dwell in a man's 
heart is an old sectarian notion, and is false. 

In answer to the question, "Is not the reckoning of God's time, 
angel's time, prophet's time, and man's time according to the planet on 
which they reside? I answer, yes. But there are no angels who 
minister to this earth but those who do belong or have belonged to it. 
The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth; but they reside in 
the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire, where all 
things for their glory are manifest — past, present, and future, and are 
continually before the Lord. The place where God resides is a great 

See Doctrine and Covenants, section cxxx. 


Urim and Thnmmim. This earth in its sanctified and immortal state, 
will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim and Thummim to the 
inhabitants who dwell thereon, whereby all things pertaining to an 
inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order, will be manifest to 
those who dwell on it; and this earth will be Christ's. Then the white 
stone mentioned in Revelation ii: 17, will become a Urim and 
Thummim to each individual who receives one, whereby thing* 
pertaining to a higher order of kingdoms, will be made known; and a 
white stone is given to each of those who come into the celestial 
kingdom, whereon is a new name written, which no man knoweth save 
he that receiveth it. The new name is the key word. 

I prophesy, in the name of the Lord God, that the commencement of 
the difficulties which will cause much bloodshed previous to the coming 
of the Son of Man will be in South Carolina. It may probably arise 
through the slave question. This a voice declared to me while I was 
prayine: earnestly on the subject, December 25th, 1832.* 

I was once praying very earnestly to know the time of the coming of 
the Son of Man, when I heard a voice repeat the following: "Joseph, 
my son, if thou livest until thou art eighty five years old, thou shalt 
see the face of the Son of Man; therefore let this suffice, and trouble 
me no more on this matter." I was left thus, without being able to 
decide whether this coming referred to the beginning of the millennium 
or to some previous appearing, or whether I should die and thus see 
His face. I believe the coming of the Son of Man will not be any 
sooner than that time. 

At one p. m., attended meeting, I read the 5th chapter 
of Revelation, referring j particularly to the 

The Prophet ' , i 

Expounds the 6th verse, showing irom that the actual 
existence of beasts in heaven. Probably those 
were beasts which had lived on another planet, and not 
ours. God never made use of the figure of a beast to 
represent the kingdom of heaven. When it is made use 
of, it is to represent an apostate church. This is the first 
time I have ever taken a text in Revelation; and if the 
young Elders would let such things alone it would be far 

Then corrected Elder Hyde's rem irks, the same as I 
had done to him privately. 

* See Doctrine and Covenants, section lxxxvii. Also History of the Chuk*'h 
vol. I, chapter xxii, where the revelation here alluded to is griven in extenso. 

A. L>. 18431 HISTORY OF THE CHUKCH. 325 

At the close of the meeting we expected to start for 
Carthage, but the bad weather prevented; so I called 
another meeting in the evening. 

Between meetings I read in Revelation with Elder 
Hyde, and expounded the same, during which time 
several persons came in and expressed their fears that I 
had come in contact with the old scriptures. 

At seven o'clock meeting, I resumed the subject of the 
beast, and showed very plainly that John's vision was 
very different from Daniel's prophecy — one referring to 
things actually existing in heaven ; the other being a figure 
of things which are on earth. 

The Persistence oj Intelligence — Blessings Predicated on Laio* 

Whatever principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will 
rise with us in the resurrection; and if a person gains more knowledge 
and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than 
another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. 
There is a law irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of 
this world, upon which all blessings are predicated; and when we 
obtain jany blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which 
it is predicated. 

.The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man s; the 
Son also; but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is 
a personage of Spirit. Were it not so, the Holy Ghost could not dwell 
in us. A man may receive the Holy Ghost, and it may descend upon 
him and not tarry with him. 

"What is the meaning of the scripture, 'He that is 
faithful over a few things shall be made 

tf , , . p . Questions 

ruler over many; and he that is faithful submitted to 

, „ ! t , the Prophet. 

over many, shall be made ruler over many 
more'? What is the meaning of the parable of the Ten 
Talents? Also the conversation with Nicodemus, 'Except 
a man be born of water and of the Spirit'? " were questions 
put to me which I shall not answer at present. 

I closed by flagellating the audience for their fears, 
and called upon Elder Hyde to get up and fulfill his 

* See Doctrine and Covenants, section cxxx. 


covenant to preach three-quarters of an hour, otherwise I 
would give him a good whipping. 

Elder Hyde arose and said "Brothers and sisters, I 
feel as though all had been said that can be said. I can 
say nothing, but bless you." 

At the close of the meeting, we returned to Benjamin F. 
Johnson's, where we slept; and I remarked chat the 
hundred and forty-four thousand sealed are the priests 
who should be anointed to administer in the daily sacrifice. 

Dimick B. Huntington returned from Chicago, having 
had a very cold and severe journey. The ice in Chicago 
harbor was three feet thick. Brought me a letter from 
Mr. Justin Butterfield. 

Monday, April 3. — Miller's day of judgment has 
arrived, but it is too pleasant for false prophets.* 

At two p. m., started for Carthage, where we arrived 
about four p. in., and stayed at Jacob B. Backenstos'. 

Elders Young and Taylor returned to Nauvoo, having 
preached four times. 

In the evening, reading the Book of Revelation with 
Elder Hyde and conversing with Esquire Backman. 

Upward of $12,000,000 have been recently expended by 
the French government to fortify the city of Paris. 

Tuesday, 4. — Spent five hours preaching to Esquire 
Backman, Chancery Robinson, and Backenstos. Back- 
man said, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." 

We left Carthage about two p. m., and arrived at 
Nauvoo, at have- past five. 

Wednesday, 5. — Sat with Aldermen Spencer, Wells, 
Hills, Harris, Whitney and Kimball, associate- justices in 
the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus, and 
discharged Jonathan and Lewis Hoopes from custody. 

A branch of the Church organized at Mount Holly, New 
Jersey, of twenty-five members, by Elder Newton. 

* This has reference to W T illiam Miller, who predicted that on the 3rd of April, 
1843, the Christ would come in glory, and the end of the world would come. See 
footnote, pa^e 272, this volume. 


Thursday, April 6*. — I was detained from conference to 
hear a case of assumpsit, Widow Thompson, versus 
Dixon, until eleven a. m. 

The first day of the fourteenth year of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Sun shone clear, 
warm and pleasant. The snow has nearly all disappeared, 
except a little on the north side of the hill above Zarahemla, 
Iowa. The ice is about two feet thick on the Mississippi, 
west of the Temple. A considerable number of the 
brethren crossed from the Iowa side of the river to the 
conference, on the ice. The walls of the Temple are from 
four to twelve feet above the floor. 

Minutes oj the General Conference, Beginning April 6th, 1843, 

An annual conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints was convened on the floor of the Temple. There were present — 
Hyrum Smith, Patriarch; Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson 
Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, George A. Smith, and Willard 
Richards, of the quorum of the Twelve; Elder Amasa Lyman, and a 
very large assembly of the elders and Saints. 

Elder Brigham Young announced that President Joseph Smith was 
detained on business, but would be present soon. 

Sang a hymn. 

Elder Amasa Lyman opened by prayer, and another hymn was sung. 

Elder Orson Pratt then read the third chapter of the second epistle of 
Peter, and spoke upon the subject of the resurrection. 

At ten minutes before twelve o'clock, President Joseph Smith and 
Elders Rigdon and Hyde arrived. 


At twelve o'clock, President Joseph Smith commenced by saying, 
4 'We all ought to be thankful for the privilege we enjoy this day of 
meeting so many of the Saints, and for the warmth and brightness of 
the heavens over our heads; and it truly makes the countenances of 
this great multitude to look cheerful and gladdens the hearts of all 
present." He next stated the object of the meeting, which was — 

First. To ascertain the standing of the First Presidency, which he 
should do by presenting himself before the conference. 

Second. To take into consideration the expediency of sending out the 

o28 HISTOKY O*' IHK CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Twelve, or some of them, amongst the branches of the Church, to ob- 
tain stock to build the Nauvoo house; for the time has come to build it. 
Third. The elders will have the privilege of appeals from the different 
conferences to this, if any such cases exist. 

These are the principal items of business which I have at present to 
lay before you. 

It is necessary that this conference give importance to the Nauvoo 
House. A prejudice exists against building it, in favor of the Temple: 
and the conference is required to give stress to the building of the Nau- 
voo House. This is the most important matter for the time being; for 
there is no place in this city where men of wealth, character and influ- 
ence from abroad can go to repose themselves, and it is necessary we 
should have such a place. The Church must build it or abide the result 
of not fulfilling the commandment. 

President Joseph then asked the conference if they were satisfied 
with the First Presidency, so far as he was concerned as an individual 
to preside over the whole Church, or would they have another? If, said 
he, I have done anything to injure my. character, reputation, or stand- 
ing, or have dishonored our religion by any means in the sight of angels 
or in the sight of men and women, I am sorry for it; and if you will 
forgive me, I will endeavor to do so no more. I do not know that I 
have done anything of the kind. But if I have, come forward and tell 
me of it. If any one has any objection to me, I want you to come boldly 
and frankly and tell me of it; and if not, ever after hold your peace. 

Motion was made and seconded, that President Joseph Smith con- 
tinue President of the whole Church. After a few minutes' silence, the 
motion was put by President Brigham Young, when one vast sea of 
hands was presented, and the motion was carried unanimously. 

President Joseph returned his thanks to the assembly for the mani- 
festation of their confidence, and said he would serve them according 
to the best ability God should give him. 

Elder Brigham Young moved, and Elder Orson Hyde seconded, that 
Elder Sidney Kigdon be continued in his office as counselor to President 

Elder Rigdon spoke, saying, "The last time I had the privilege of at- 
tending conference was at the laying of the corner stones of this Temple; 
and I have had but poor health since, and have been connected with cir- 
cumstances the most forbidding, which, doubtless, have produced some 
feelings. I have never had a doubt of the work. My feelings concern- 
ing Bennett were always the same. I told my family to guard against 
that fellow, for some time he will attempt to make a rupture among 
this people. I had so little confidence in him that I always felt myself 
at his defiance. I was once threatened by Warren Parrish, if I would 


not coincide with bis views; and I have just received such a threatening 
letter from John C. Bennett, that if I did not turn my course I should 
feel the force of his power. As there is now an increase of my health 
and strength, I desire to serve you in any way it is possible for me to 
do. If any one has any feelings against me, I hope they will express 

Dimick B. Huntington asked him what he meant when he said Ben- 
nett was a good man, etc., when he called him a perfect gentleman and 
he had nothing against him. 

Elder Rigdon said he did not recollect it. He did not then know as 
much about Bennett as he had learned afterwards. I say now, he never 
offered any abuse in my house. Bennett has never been about my 
house but little. I never saw auything about the man but what was re- 
spectable. He came to Robinson's. I was in debt to him, and conse- 
quently boarded him. I think Dimick must be mistaken. 

Dimick: I know I am not. I have no private pique against Elder 

The vote was then put and carried almost unanimously. 

President Joseph Smith presented William Law as his second coun- 
selor, who was sustained by unanimous vote. 

President Hyrum Smith, patriarch, said he wished to be tried, when 
it was voted unanimously that he retain his office of patriarch. He then 
blessed the people and asked the Lord to bless them also. 


President Joseph Smith said he 'did not know anything against the 
Twelve. If he did, he would present them for trial. It is not right that all 
the burden of the Nauvoo House should rest on a few individuals; and we 
will now consider the propriety of sending the Twelve to collect means 
for it. There has been too great a solicitude in individuals for the build- 
of the Temple to the exclusion of the Nauvoo House. Agents have had 
too great latitude to practice fraud by receiving donations, and never 
making report. The Church has suffered loss, and I am opposed to that 
system of collecting funds when any elder may receive moneys. I am 
opposed to any man handling the public funds of the Church who is not 
duly authorized. I advise that some means be devised for transacting 
business on a sure foundation. The Twelve are the most suitable per- 
sons to perform this business, and I want the conference to devise some 
means to bind them as firm as the pillars of heaven, if possible. The 
Twelve were always honest, and it will do them no hurt tojbind them. 
It has been reported that they receive wages at two dollars per day for 
their services. I have never heard this till recently, and I do not believe 
it. I know the Twelve have never had any wages at all. They have 


fulfilled their duties; they have always gone where they were sent, and 
have labored with their hands for their support when at home. If we 
send them into the world to collect funds, we want them to return those 
funds to this place, that they may be appropriated to the very purpose 
for which they were designed. I go in for binding up the Twelve solid, 
putting them under bonds; and let this conference institute an order to 
this end, and that the traveling expenses of the agents sh^ll not be 
borne out of the funds collected for building these houses; and let no man 
pay money or stock into the hands of the Twelve, except he transmit an 
account of the same immediately to the Trustee- in-Trust; and let no 
man but the Twelve have authority to act as agent for the Temple and 
Nauvoo House. I would suggest the propriety of your saying that no 
money should ever be sent by any man, except it be by some one whom 
you have appointed as agent, and stop every other man from receiving 
moneys. It has been customary for any elder to receive moneys for the 
Temple when he is traveling. But this system of things opened a wide 
field for every kind of imposition, as any man can assume the name of 
a " Mormon" elder and gather his pockets full of money and go to 
Texas. Many complaints have come to me of money being sent that I 
have never received. I will mention one case. He is a good man: his 
name is Daniel Russell, from Akron, New York. His brother Samuel 
had been east on business for him, and there received twenty or twenty- 
five dollars as a donation to the Temple, which he put in Daniel Rus- 
sell's bag, with his money, and forgot to take it out before he returned 
the bag. Two or three days after his return, he called on his brother 
for the money belonging to the Church; but Daniel thought Samuel had 
paid out too much of his money, and he would keep the Church's money 
to make good his own. I called to see Daniel Russell about the money, 
and he treated me so very politely, but did not give me to understand 
he ever meant to pay it. He said he did not know at the time that there 
was any Church money in the bag, — that he had paid it out, and he had 
none now. 

Samuel Russell, who brought the money from the east, stated to the 
conference that he did not think it was because his brother was short 
of funds that he kept it, for he had money enough. He had told him 
that he should not be out of fuuds again — that his brother had twenty 
dollars of the Church funds and some dried fruit for the President. 

President Joseph resumed: I give this as a sample of a thousand in- 
stances. We cannot give an account to satisfy the people on the Church 
books unless something is done. I propose that you send your moneys 
for the Temple by the Twelve or some agent of your own choosing; and 
if you send by others and the money is lost, it is lost to yourselves; \ 
cannot be responsible for it. Everything that falls into my hands shall 


be appropriated to the very thing it was designed for. It is wrong for 
the Church .to make a bridge of my nose in appropriating funds for the 
Temple. The act of incorporation required of me securities, which were 
lodged in the proper hands, as the law directs; and I am responsible for 
all that comes into my hands. The Temple committee are bound to 
me in the sum of $2,000, with good security. If they apply any prop- 
erty where they ought not, they are liable to me for it. Individuals are 
running to them with funds every day, and thus make a bridge over 
my nose. I am not responsible for it. If you put it into the hands of 
the Temple committee, neither I nor my clerk know anything of it. So 
long as you consider me worthy to hold this office, [Sole Trustee-in- 
Trust for the Church] it is your duty to attend to the legal forms be- 
longing to the business; and if not, put some other one in my place. 
My desire is that the conference minutes may go forth in such form 
that those abroad may learn the order of doing business, and that the 
Twelve be appointed to this special mission of collecting funds for the 
Nauvoo House, so that all may know how to send their funds safely, or 
bring them themselves and deliver them to the Trustee-in-Trust or his 
clerk, who can always be found in the office. Who are the Temple com- 
mittee, that they should receive the funds'? They are nobody. When 
I went to the White House at Washington, and presented letters of in- 
troduction from Thomas Carlin, governor of Illinois, to Martin Van 
Buren, he looked at them very contemptuously, and said, "Governor 
Carlin! Governor Carlin! Who's Governor Carlin? Governor Carlin's 
nobody." I erred in spirit: I have been sorry for it ever since. I 
confess my mistake; aud I here make my apology to all the world; and 
let it be recorded on earth and in heaven that I am clear of the sin of 
being angry with Martin Van Buren for saying, "Governor Carlin's 
nobody." All property ought to go through the hands of the Trustee- 
in-Trust. There have been complaints against the Temple committee 
for appropriating. Church funds more freely for the benefit of their own 
children than to others who need assistance more than they do; and the 
parties may have till Saturday to prepare for trial. 

It was then voted unanimously that the Twelve be appointed a com- 
mittee to collect funds to build the Nauvoo House and receive moneys 
for the Temple, with this proviso — That the. Twelve give bonds for the 
safe delivery of all funds coming into their hands belonging to the Nau- 
voo House and Temple to the Trustee-in-Trust; and that the payer also 
make immediate report to the Trustee-in-Trust of all moneys paid by 
him to the Twelve; and that the instructions of President Joseph Smith 
to the conference be carried into execution. 

Elder W. W. Phelps proposed that the Twelve sign triplicate receipts 
for moneys received, for the benefit of the parties concerned. 


Elder Brigham Young objected, and said he should never give re- 
ceipts for cash, except such as he put into his own pocket for bis own use; 
for it was calculated to make trouble hereafter, and there were better 
methods of transacting the business and more safe for the parties con- 
cerned; that he wished this speculation to stop, and would do all in his 
power to put it down: to which the Twelve responded, Amen. Elder 
Young asked if any one knew anything against any one of the Twelve 
— any dishonesty. If they did, he wanted it exposed. He said he knew 
of one who was not dishonest. He also referred to muzzling the ox 
that treadeth out the corn, etc. 

President Joseph said, I will answer Brother Brigham. There is no 
necessity for the Twelve being abroad all the time preaching and 
gathering funds for the Temple. Spend the time that belongs to preach- 
ing abroad, and the rest of the time at home to support themselves. It 
is no more for the Twelve to go abroad and earn their living in this 
way than it is for others. The idea of not muzzling the ox is a good old 
Quaker song; but we will make the ox tread out the corn first, and then 
feed him. I am bold to declare that I have never taken the first farth- 
ing of Church funds for my own use, till I have first consulted the proper 
authorities. When there was no quorum of the Twelve or High Priests 
for me to consult, I have asked the Temple committee, who had no par- 
ticular business with it; but I did it for the sake of peac. (Elder Cutler 
said it was so.) Let the conference stop all agents from collecting 
funds, except the Twelve. When a man is sent to preach the first prin- 
ciples of the gospel, he should preach that, and let the rest alone. 

Choir sang a hymn. 

Elder Orson Hyde prayed; and twelve minutes before two o'clock, 
p. in., conference adjourned for one hour. 

Ajternoon Session. 
[Conference re-assembled at three o'clock, p. m.] 


Patriarch Hyrum Smith commenced by saying that he had some com- 
munication to make to the conference on stealing, and he would do it 
while waiting for President Joseph Smith, and referred to the article in 
the last number of the Was}). Said he, I have had an interview with a 
man who formerly belonged to the Church. He revealed to me that 
there is a band of men, and some who pretend to be strong in the faith 
of the doctrine of the Latter-day Saints; but they are hypocrites, and 
some who do not belong to the Church, who are bound together by 
secret oaths, obligations, and penalties to keep the secret; and they 
hold that it is right to steal from any one who does not belong to the 


Church, provided they consecrate one-third of it to the building of the 
Temple. They are also making bogus money. 

This man says he has become convinced of the error of his ways and 
has come away from them to escape their fury. I wish to warn you all 
not to be duped by such men, [these outlaws] for- they are the Gadian- 
tons of the last days. 

He then read from the Wasp, as republished from the limes and 
Seasons, his own affidavit and the proceedings of the authorities of the 
Church generally, dated Nov. 26, 1841. The man who told me said, 
"this secret band refer to the Bible, Book of Doctrine and Covenants, 
and Book of Mormon to substantiate their doctrines; and if any of them 
did not remain steadfast, they ripped open their bowels and gave them 
to the cat-fish. M But no such doctrines are taught in those books 

They say that it has been taught from this stand that they are the 
little foxes that spoil the vines, and the First Presidency are the big 
foxes; aud the big foxes wanted the little foxes to get out of the city 
and spread abroad, so that the big foxes might have a chance; which 
everybody knows is false. All these things are used to decoy the foolish 
and uuwary. 

I will mention two names— David Holman and James Dunn. They 
were living in my house. I went to them and asked them if they were 
stealing for a livelihood? Holman confessed that he had stolen from 
the world, not from the brethren. I told them to get out of my house. 
David asked me to forgive him, and he lifted his hands towards heaven 
and swore, if I would forgive him, he would never do so again. Soon 
after he went to Montrose, where he was found stealing salt. He then 
stole a skiff and came across the river, stole a barrel of flour that had 
just been landed from a steamer, rowed down the river to Keokuk and 
sold the flour tor $2.00, saying he had picked it up in the river, and it 
was likely a little damaged, got his pay, and went his way. Dunn would 
not promise to quit stealing, but said he would go to St. Louis. I tell 
you today, the men that steal shall not long after be brought to the 
penitentiary. They will soon be brought to condign punishment. I 
demand, in the presence of God, that you will exert your wit and your 
power to bring such characters to justice. If you do not, the curse of 
God will rest upon you. Such things would ruin any people. Should 
I catch a Latter-day Saint stealing, he is the last man to whom I would 
show mercy. 

President Joseph Smith said, I think it best to continue this subject. 
I want the elders to make honorable proclamation abroad concerning 
what the feelings of the First Presidency are; for stealing has never 
been tolerated by them. I despise a thief. He would betray me if he 
could get the opportunity. I know that he would be a detriment to any 


cause; and if I were the biggest rogue in the world, he would steal my 
horse when I wanted to run away. 

It has been said that some were afraid to disclose what they knew of 
these secret combinations; consequently I issued a proclamation, which 
you may read in the Wasp, Number 48. If any man is afraid to disclose 
what he knows about this gang of thieves, let him come to me and tell 
me the truth, and I will protect him from violence. Thieving must be 

Opportunity was then offered to the elders to bring forward their ap- 
peals from other conferences; but no case was presented. 


President Joseph Smith continued his remarks and said, it is neces- 
sary that I make a proclamation concerning Keokuk and also in relation 
to the economy of the Church on that side of the river. 

The governor of Iowa has issued a writ in the same manner that Car- 
lin did, and it is now held in Iowa as a cudgel over my head. I was 
told by the United States attorney that the governor of Iowa had no 
jurisdiction after the decision of the Supreme Court, and that all writs 
thus issued were legally dead. Appeals have been made to Governor 
Chambers; but although he has no plausible excuse, he is not willing 
to kill that writ or to take it back. I will therefore advise you to serve 
them a trick that the devil never did, — i. e., come away and leave them; 
come into Illinois, pay taxes in Illinois, and let the Iowegians take their 
own course. I don't care whether you como away or not. I do not 
wish to control you; but if you wish for my advice, I would say, let 
every man, as soon as he conveniently can, come over here; for you 
can live in peace with us. We are all green mountain boys — Southern- 
ers, Northerners, Westerners, and every other kind of "ers," and wil 
treat you well: and let that governor know that we don't like to be im- 
posed upon, 

In relation to Keokuk, it has been supposed that I made a great bar- 
gain with a certain great man there. In the beginning of August last, 
a stranger ca«ie to my house, put on a very long face, and stated that 
he was in great distress — that he was a stranger in this city, and having 
understood that I was benevolent, he had come to me for help. He said 
that he was about to lose $1,400 of property at sheriff's sale for $300 in 
cash; that he had money in St. Louis, which he expected in two or three 
days; that the sale would take place the next day; and that he wanted 
to hire some money for two or three days. I thought on the subject over 
uight, and he came the next morning for an answer. I did not like the 
looks of the man; but thought I, he is a stranger. I then reflected upon 
the situation that I had been frequently placed in, and that I had often 


been a stranger in a strange land, and whenever I had asked for assist- 
ance I had obtained it; and it may be that he is an honest man; and if I 
turn him away, I shall be guilty of the sin of ingratitude. I therefore 
concluded to loan him $200 in good faith sooner than be guilty of in- 
gratitude. He gave me his note for the same, and said, "whenever you 
call on me, you shall have the money." Soon after, when I was taken 
with Carlin's writ, I asked him for the money; but he answered, "I 
have not got it from St. Louis, but shall have it in a few days." He 
then said, "since I saw you, a project has entered my mind, which I 
think mav be profitable both for you and me. I will give you a quit 
claim deed for all the land you bought of Galland, which is twenty 
thousand acres. You paid Galland the notes, and ought to have them: 
they are in my hands as his agent, and I will give them up. I also pro- 
pose deeding to you one-half of my right to all my land in the Iowa 
territory; and all I ask is for you to give your influence to help to build 
up Keokuk." I answered, "I have not asked for your property: I don't 
want it, and would not give a snap of my finger for it; but I will re- 
ceive the papers; and if I find it as you say, I will use my influence to 
help to buildup the place; but I won't give you anything for the land," 
and told him I wanted the $200 which was due me. He made out the 
deeds and gave them to me, and I got them recorded, and he gave up 
the notes, except a few. I then said to Uncle John Smith, if you go 
there with the brethren, I will give you the property. But he would 
not accept it. I then let the same gentleman have some cloth to the 
amount of $000 or $700. He began, soon after, to tell the brethren 
what obligations I was under to him. I then wrote him a letter ou the 
subject; but I have since found that he is swindling, and that there is 
no prospect of getting anything from him. He is owing me about 
$1,100; and I thought it my duty to publish his rascality, that the elders 
might do the same in that territory, and prevent the brethren from be- 
ing imposed upon. He has got a writing to this effect, that if he owned 
as much as he pretended and did as he said, I would give my influence 
to build up Keokuk, and on no other terms. His name is J. G. Remick. 
He took this plan to swindle me out of money, cloth, lumber, etc. I 
want all the congregation to know it, I was not going to use any in- 
fluence to have the brethren go to be swindled. My advice is, if they 
choose, that they come away from Keokuk, and not go there any more. 
It is not a good location. ^ 

I am not so much a "Christian" as many suppose I am. When a man 
undertakes to ride me for a horse, I feel disposed to kick up and throw 
him off, and ride him. David did so, and so did Joshua. My only 
weapon is my tongue. I would not buy property in Iowa territory: I 
consider it stooping to accept it as a gift. *~- 

336 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. ' [A.D. 1843 

In relation to the half-breed land, it is best described by its name — it 
is half-breed land; and every wise and judicious person as soon as he 
can dispose of his effects, if he is not a half-breed, will come away. I 
wish we could exchange some half-breeds and let them go over the 
river. If there are any that are not good citizens, they will be finding 
fault tomorrow at my remarks, and that is the key-word whereby you 
may know them. There is a chance in that place for every abomination 
to be practiced on the innocent, if they go; and I ask forgiveness of all 
whom I advised to go there. The men who have possession have the 
best title; all the rest are forms for swindling. I do not wish for the 
Saints to have a quarrel there. 

President Joseph Smith stated that the next business ^as to settle 
difficulties where elders have had their licenses taken away, etc, or 
their membership. But whilst they were preparing, if there was any 
such case, he would talk on other subjects. 


The question has been asked, can a person not belonging to the 
Church bring a member before the high council for trial? I answer, 
No. If I had not actually got into this work and been called of God, I 
would back out. But I cannot back out: I have no doubt of the truth. 
Were I going to prophesy, I would say the end [of the world] would 
not come in 1844, 5, or G, or in forty years. There are those of the rising 
generation who shall not taste death till Christ comes. 

I was once praying earnestly upon this subject, and a voice said unto 
me, "My son, if thou livest until thou art eighty-five years of age, thou 
shalt see the face, of the Son of Man." I was left to draw my own con- 
clusions concerning this; and I took the liberty to conclude that if I did 
live to that time, He would make His appearance. But I do not say 
whether He will make his appearance or I shall go where He is. I 
prophesy in the name of the Lord God, and let it be written — the Son 
of Man will not come in the clouds of heaven till I am eighty-five years 
old. Then read the 14th chapter of Revelation, Gth and 7th verses — 
"And I saw another angel fiy in the midst of heaven, having the ever- 
lasting gospel to preach unt^ them that dwell on the earth, and to every 
nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud voice, 
Fear God and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment is come." 
And Hosea, Gth chapter, After two days, etc., — 2,520 years; which 
brings it to 1890. The coming of the Son of Man never will be— never 
can be till the judgments spoken of for this hour are poured out: which 
judgments are commenced. Paul says, "Ye are the children of the light, 
and not of the darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief in 
the night. 1 ' It is not the design of the Almighty to come upon the earth 


and crush it and grind it to powder, but he will reveal it to His servants 
the prophets. 

Judah must return, Jerusalem must be rebuilt, and the temple, and 
water come out from under the temple, and the waters of the Dead Sea 
be healed. It will take some time to rebuild the walls of the city and 
the temple, &c. ; and all this must be done before the Son of Man will 
make His appearance. There will be wars and rumors of wars, signs in 
the heavens above and on the earth beneath, the sun turned into 
darkness and the moon to blood, earthquakes in divers places, the seas 
heaving beyond their bounds; then will appear one grand sign of the 
Son of Man in heaven. But what will the world do? They will say it 
is a planet, a comet, &c. But the Son of Man will come as the sign of 
the coming of the Son of Man, which will be as the light of the morning 
cometh out of the east. 

Choir sang a hymn. 

Prayer by W. W. Phelps. 

Adjourned at six p. m., until tomorrow morning. 

Friday , 7. — 

Conference convened at ten a. m. 

Singing, prayer by Elder Orson Hyde, and singing. 

President Joseph Smith stated that the next business in order was to 
listen to appeals of elders, &c; but none appeared. He was rather 
hoarse from speaking so long yesterday, and therefore said he would 
use the boys' lungs to^ay. 

The next business in order was to appoint some elders on missions. 

Voted that Jedediah M. Grant be sent to preside over the church at 

Voted that Joshua Grant be sent to preside over the church at 

Voted that Pelatiah Brown go to the village of Palmyra, in New 
York, and raise up a branch of the Church, 

Complaints Against the Temple Committee. 

The Temple committee was called up for trial. 

William Clayton said : Some may expect I am going to be a means of 
the downfall of the Temple committee. It is not so; but I design to 
show that they have been partial. Elder Higbee has overrun the 
amount allowed by the trustees about one-fourth. Pretty much all Elder 
Higbee's son has received has been in money and store pay. Higbee's 
son has had nothing credited on his tithing. William P. Cahoon has 

22 Vol.V. 


paid all his tenth; the other sons of Cahoon have had nothing to their 
credit on tithing. The committee have had a great amount of store 
pay. One man, who is laboring continually, wanted twenty-five cents 
in store pay when his family were sick; but Higbee said he could not 
have Eit. Pulaski S. Cahoon was never appointed boss over the 
stone-cutting shop, but was requested to keep an account of labor in it. 
During the last six months very little means have been brought into 
the Temple committee. There are certain individuals in this city who 
are watching every man who has anything to give the Temple, to get it 
from him and pay for the same in his labor. 

Alpheus Cutler said he did not know of any wrong he had done. If 
any one would show it, he would make it right. 

The conference voted him clear. 

Reynolds Cahoon said : This is not an unexpected matter for me to be 
called up. I do not want you to think I am perfect. Somehow or 
other, since Elder Cutler went up into the pine country, I have, from 
some cause been placed in very peculiar circumstances. I think I 
never was placed in so critical a position since I was born. When 
President Smith had goods last summer, we had better property; goods 
would not buy corn without some cash: instead of horses, &c, we took 
store pay. I have dealt out meal and flour to the hands to the last 
ounce, when I had not a morsel of meal, flour or bread left in my house. 
If the trustee, Brother Hyrum, or the Twelve, or all of them will 
examine and see if I have too much, it shall go freely. I call upon the 
brethren, if they have anything against me, to bring it forward and 
have it adjusted. 

Patriarch Hyrnm Smith said: I feel it my duty to defend the 
committee as far as I can; for I would as soon go to hell as be a 
committee-man. I will make a comparison for the Temple committee. 
A little boy once told his father he had seen an elephant on a tree; 
the people did not believe it, but ran out to see what it was: they 
looked, and it was only an owl. 

Reynolds Cahoon said, when Brother Cutler was gone, Brother Higbee 
kept the books, and they have found as many mistakes against Brother 
Higbee as in his favor. 

The conference then voted Cahoon clear. 

Elias Higbee said: I am not afraid or ashamed to appear before you. 
When I kept the books, I had much other business on my hands and 
made some mistakes. 

The conference voted in favor of Elder Higbee unanimously. 

President Joseph Smith stated that the business of the conference 
had closed, and the remainder would be devoted to instruction. It is 
an insult to a meeting for persons to leave just before its close. If they 


must go out, let them go half an hour before. No gentlemen will go 
out of meeting just at closing. 

Singing by the choir. 

Prayer by Elder Brigham Young. 

Ihe Afternoon Session. 

Conference called to order at two-thirty p. m. 

Singing. Prayer by Elder Brigham Young. Singing. 

Elder Orson Pratt delivered a discourse from the prophecy of 
Daniel on the Ancient of Days; for a synopsis of which see Times and 
Seasons, page 204. 

While the choir was singing, President Joseph remarked to Elder 
Rigdon: This day is a millennium within these walls, for there is 
nothing but peace. 

To a remark of Elder Orson Pratt's, that a man's body changes 
every seven years, President Joseph Smith replied: There is no 
fundamental principle belonging to a human system that ever goes 
into another in this world or in the world to come; I care not what the 
theories of men are. We have the testimony that God will raise us up, 
and he has the power to do it. If any one supposes that any part of 
our bodies, that is, the fundamental parts thereof, ever goes into 
another body, he is mistaken. 

Singing by the choir. Prayer by Elder John Taylor. 

The ice, which had made a bridge across the river since 
last November, moved away in immense masses. 

Morning Session of the Conference, Saturday, April 8th, 1843. 

President Joseph Smith addressed the Saints. [The following 
synopsis was reported by Willard Richards and William Clayton:] 

President Joseph Smith called upon the choir to sing a hymn, and 
remarked that "tenor charms the ear, bass, the heart." After singing, 
he spoke as follows: 

I have three requests to make of the congregation: The first is, that 
all who have faith will exercise it and pray the Lord to calm the wind ; 
for as it blows now, I cannot speak long without seriously injuring my 
health; the next is that I may have your prayers that the Lord will 
strengthen my lungs, so that I may be able to make you all hear; and 
the third is, that you will pray for the Holy Ghost to rest upon me, so 
as to enable me to declare those things that are true. 

The Prophet Expounds the Scriptures. 
The subject I intend to speak upon this morning is one that I have 


seldom touched upon since I commenced my ministry in the Church. It 
is a subject of great speculation, as well amongst the elders of this 
Church, as amongst the divines of the day: it is in relation to the beasts 
spoken of by John the Revelator. I have seldom spoken from the 
revelations; but as my subject is a constant source of speculation 
amougst the elders, causing a division of seutiment and opinion in 
relation to it, I now do it in order that division and difference of opinion 
may be done away with, and not that correct knowledge on the subject 
is so much needed at the present time. 

It is not very essential for the elders to have knowledge in relation 
to the meaning of beasts, and heads and horns, and other figures made 
use of in the revelations; still, it may be necessary, to prevent 
contention and division and do away with suspense. If we get puffed 
up by thinking that we have much knowledge, we are apt to get a 
contentious spirit, and correct knowledge is necessary to cast out that 

The evil of being puffed up with correct (though useless) knowledge 
is not so great as the evil of contention. Knowledge does away with 
darkness, suspense and doubt; for these cannot exist where 
knowledge is. 

There is no pain so awful as that of suspense. This is the punishment 
of the wicked; their doubt, anxiety and suspense cause weeping, 
wailing and gnashing of teeth. 

In knowledge there is power. God has more power than all other 
beings, because he has greater knowledge; and hence he knows how 
to subject all other beings to Him. He has power over all. 

I will endeavor to instruct you in relation to the meaning of 
the beasts and figures spoken of. I should not have called up the 
subject had it not been for this circumstance. Elder Pelatiah Brown, 
one of the wisest old heads we have among us, and whom I now see 
before me, has been preaching concerning the beast which was full of 
eyes before and behind; and for this he was hauled up for trial before 
the High Council. 

I did not like the old man being called up for erring in doctrine. It 
looks too much like the Methodist, and not like the Latter-day Saints. 
Methodists have creeds which a man must believe or be asked out of 
their church. I want the liberty of thinking and believing as I please. 
It feels so good not to be trammelled. It does not prove that a man is 
not a good man because he errs in doctrine. 

The High Council undertook to censure and correct Elder Brown, 
because of his teachings in relation to the beasts. Whether they 
actually corrected him or not, I am a little doubtful, but don't care. 
Father Brown came to me to know what he should do about it. The 


subiect particularly referred to was the four beasts and four-and-twenty 
elders mentioned in Rev. 5: 8 — "And when he had taken the book, the 
four beasts and four-and-twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, 
having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odors, which 
are the prayers of saints." 

Father Brown has been to work and confounded all Christendom by 
making out that the four beasts represented the different kingdoms of 
God on the earth. The wise men of the dav could not do anything with 
him, and why should we find fault? Anything: to whip sectarianism, 
to put down priestcraft, and bring the human family to a knowledge of 
the truth. A club is better than no weapon for a poor man to fight 

Father Brown did whip sectarianism, and so far so good; but I could 
not help laughing at che idea of God making use of the figure of a 
beast to represent His kiugdom on the earth, consisting of men. when 
He could as well have used a far more noble and consistent figure. 
What! the Lord make use of the figure of a creature of the brute 
creation to represent that which is much more noble, glorious, and 
important — the glories and majesty of His kingdom? By taking a lesser 
figure to represent a greater, you missed it that time, old gentleman; 
but the sectarians did not know enough to detect you. 

When God made use of the figure of a beast in visions to the prophets 
He did it to represent those kingdoms which had degenerated and 
become corrupt, savage and beast-like in their dispositions, even the 
degenerate kingdoms of the wicked world; but He never made use of 
the figure of a beast nor any of the brute kind to represent His 

^Daniel says (ch. 7, v. 16) when he saw the vision of the four beasts, 
4 'I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth 
of all this," the angel interpreted the vision to Daniel; but we find, by 
the interpretation that the figures of beasts had no allusion to the 
kingdom of God. You there see that the beasts are spoken of to 
represent the kingdoms of the world] the inhabitants whereof were 
beastly and abominable characters; they were murderers, corrupt, 
carnivorous, and brutal in their dispositions. The lion, the bear, the 
leopard, (and the ten-horned beast represented the kingdoms of the 
world, says Daniel; for I refer to the prophets to qualify my 
observations which I make, so that the young elders who know so 
much, may not rise up like a flock of hornets and sting m£7 I want to 
keep out of such a wasp-nest. 

(There is a grand difference .and distinction between the visions and 
figures spoken of by the ancient prophets, and those spoken of in the 
revelations of John. The things which John saw had no allusion to the 


scenes of the days of Adam, Enoch, Abraham or Jesus, only so far as 
is plainly represented by John, and clearly set forth by him. John saw 
that only which was lying in futurity and which was shortly to come to 
passT} See Rev. i: 1-3, which is a key to the whole subject: "The 
revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto Him, to show unto 
his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and He sent and 
signified it by His angel unto His servant John: who bare record of the 
word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things 
that he saw. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words 
of this prophecy, and keep those things that are written therein: for the 
time is at hand." Also Rev. iv: 1. "After this I looked, and, behold* 
a door was opeued in heaven; and the first voice which I heard was as 
it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and 
I will show thee things which must be hereafter." 

The four beasts and twenty-four elders were out of every nation; for 
they sang a new song, saying,* 'Thou art worthy to take the book, and to 
open the seal thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God 
by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation." 
(See He v. 5: 9.) It would be great stuffing to crowd all nations into 
four beasts and twenty-four elders. 

Now, I make this declaration, that ]those things which John saw in 
heaven had no allusion to anything that had been^on the earth previous 
to that time, because they were the representation of "things which 
must shortly come to pass," and not of what has already transpired. 
John saw beasts that had to do with things on the earth, but not in past 
ages. The beasts which John saw had to devour the inhabitants of the 
earth in days to come. "And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the 
seals; and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four 
beasts saying, Come and see. And I saw, and beheld a white horse: and 
he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he 
went forth conquering, and to conquer. And when he had opened the 
second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see. And there 
went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that 
sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one 
another: and there was given unto him a great sword." (Rev. 6: 1, 2. 
3, 4.) The book of Revelation is one of the plainest books God ever 
caused to be written. 

The revelations do not give us to understand anything of the past in 
relation to the kingdom of God. What John saw and speaks of were 
things which he saw in heaven; those which Daniel saw were on and 
pertaining to the earth. 

Q am now going to take exceptions to the present translation of the 
Bible in relation to these matters. Our latitude and longitude can be 


determined in the original Hebrew with far greater accuracy than in 
the English version. There is a grand distinction between the actual 
meaning of the prophets and the present translation. The prophets do 
not declare that they saw a beast or beasts, but that they saw the image 
or figure of a beast. Daniel did not see an actual bear or a lion, but 
the images or figures of those beasts. The translation should have 
been rendered ' 'image'' instead of * "beast," in every instance where 
beasts are mentioned by the prophets. But John saw the actual beast 
in heaven, showing to John that beasts did actually exist there, and not 
to represent figures of things on the earth. When the prophets speak 
of seeing beasts in their visions, they mean that they saw the images, 
they being types to represent certain things. At the same time they 
received the interpretation as to what those images or types were 
designed to represent. 

I make this broad declaration, that whenever God gives a vision of an 
image, or beast, or figure of any kind, He always holds Him- 
self responsible to give a revelation or interpretation of the 
meaning thereof, otherwise we are not responsible or accountable 
for our belief in it. Don't be afraid of being damned for not knowing- 
the meaning of a vision or figure, if God has not given a revelation or 
interpretation of the subject.y 

John saw curious looking beasts in heaven; he saw every creature 
that was in heaven, — all the beasts, fowls and fish in heaven, — actually 
there, giving glory to God. How do you prove it*? (See Rev. 5: 13.) 
"And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under 
the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I 
saying, Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that 
sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.*' 

I suppose John saw beings there of a thousand forms, that had been 
saved from ten thousand times ten thousand earths like this, — strange 
beasts of which we have no conception: all might be seen in heaven. 
The grand secret was to show John what there was in heaven. John 
learned that God glorified Himself by saving all that His hands had 
made, whether beasts, fowls, fishes or men; and He will glorify Himself 
with them. 

Says one, "I cannot believe in the salvation of beasts." Any man who 
would tell you that this could not be,would tell you that the revelations 
are not true. John heard the words of the beasts giving glory to God, 
and understood them. God who made the beasts could understand 
every language spoken by them. The four beasts were four of the 
most noble animals that had filled the measure of their creation, and 
had been saved from other worlds, because they were perfect: they 
were like angels in their sphere. We are not told where they came 


from, and I do not know; but they were seen and heard by John 
praising and glorifying God. 

The popular religionists of the day tell us, forsooth, that the beasts 
spoken of in the Revelation represent kingdoms. Very well, on the 
same principle we can say that the twenty-four elders spoken of 
represent beasts; for they are all spoken of at the same time, and 
are represented as all uniting in the same acts of praise and devotion. 

This learned interpretation is all as flat as a pancake! "What do 
you use such vulgar expressions for, being a prophet?" Because the 
old women understand it — they make pancakes. Deacon Homespun 
said the earth was flat as a pancake, and ridicirled the science which 
proved to the contrary. The whole argument is flat, and I don't know 
of anything better to represent it. The world is full of technicalities 
and misrepresentation, which I calculate to overthrow, and speak of 
things as they actually exist. 

Again, there is no revelation to prove that things do not exist in 
heaven as I have set forth, nor yet to show that the beasts meant 
anything but beasts; and we never can comprehend the things of God 
and of heaven, but by revelation. We may spiritualize and express 
opinions to all eternity; but that is no authority. 

Oh ye elders of Israel, harken to my voice; and when you are sent 
into the world to preach, tell those things yon are sent to tell; preach 
and cry aloud, "Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand; 
repent and believe the Gospel." Declare the first principles, and let 
mysteries alone, lest ye be overthrown. Never meddle with the visions 
of beasts and subjects you do not understand. Elder Brown, when you 
go to Palmyra, say nothing about the four beasts, but preach those 
things the Lord has told you to preach about— repentance and baptism 
for the remission of sins. 

He then read Rev. 13: 1—8. John says, "And I saw one of his 
heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed; 
and all the world wondered after the beast." Some spiritualizers say 
the beast that received the wound was Nebuchadnezzar, some 
Constantine, some Mohammed, and others the Roman Catholic Church; 
but we will look at what John saw in relation to this beast. Now for 
the wasp's nest. The translators have used the term "dragon" for' 
devil. Now it was a beast that John saw in heaven, and he was then 
speaking of "things which must shortly come to pass;" and 
consequently the beast that" John saw could not be Nebuchadnezzar. 
The beast John saw was an actual beast, and an actual intelligent 
being gives him his power, and his seat, and great authority. It was 
not to represent a beast in heaven: it was an angel in heaven who has 
power in the last days to do a work. 


''All the world wondered after the beast," Nebuchadnezzar and 
Constantine the Great not excepted. And if the beast was all the world, 
how could the world wonder after the beast? It must have been a 
wonderful beast to cause all human beings to wonder after it; and I 
will venture to say that when God allows the old devil to give power to 
the beast to destroy the inhabitants of the earth, all will wonder. 
Verse 4 reads, "And they worshiped the dragon which gave power unto 
the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the 
beast? Who is able to make war with him? 

Some say it means the kingdom of the world. One thing is sure, 
it does not mean the kingdom of the Saints. Suppose we admit that 
it means the kingdoms of the world, what propriety would there be in 
saying, Who is able to make war with my great big self? If these 
spiritualized interpretations are true, the book contradicts itself in 
almost every verse. But they are not true. 

There is a mistranslation of the word dragon in the second verse. 
The original word signifies the devil, and not dragon, as translated. 
In chapter 12, verse 9, it reads, "That old serpent, called the devil," 
and it ought to be translated devil in this case, and not dragon. It is 
sometimes translated Apollyon. Everything that we have not a 
key-word to, we will take it as it reads. The beasts which John saw and 
speaks of as being in heaven, were actually living in heaven, and were 
actually to have power given to them over the inhabitants of the earth, 
precisely according to the plain reading of the revelations. I give this 
as a key to the elders of Israel. The independent beast is a beast that 
dwells in heaven, abstract [apart] from the human family. The beast that 
rose up out of the sea should be translated the image of a beast, as I 
have referred to it in Daniel's vision. 

I have said more than I ever did before, except once at Ramus, and 
then up starts the little fellow (Charles Thompson) and stuffed me like 
a cock-turkey with the prophesies of Daniel, and crammed it down my 
throat with his finger. 

At half-past eleven o'clock President Smith's lungs failed him, the 
wind blowing briskly at the time. 

Choir sung a hymn. 

Elder John Taylor rose and made a few remarks, among which were 
the following: "I have never said much about the beasts, &c, in my 
preaching. When I have done it, it has been to attract attention and 
keep the people from running after a greater fool than myself. 

Singing and prayer. 

Adjourned till two p. m. 

A strong west wind ; ice floating down the Mississippi 
seen from the stand. 


Afternoon Session, two p. m. 

Conference again opened; but the wind being too strong, the 
congregation made a temporary stand at the east end of the Temple 
walls, when Elder Taylor resumed his remarks on the kingdom of God 
being set up in the last days, which will be like the little stone cut out 
of the mountain. 

Elder Orson Hyde said it was three years since he met with the Saints 
and was set apart for his mission to Jerusalem. He had traveled in the 
four quarters of the globe and had been among people speaking 
fourteen or fifteen different languages, and they all agree that some 
great event is close at hand. 

Singing and prayer. 

Sunday, 9th. Conference opened by singing, "The Spirit of God like 
a fire is burning." 

Prayer and singing. In consequence of President Joseph Smith 
being afflicted in his lungs and breast, he was not able to preach, and 
called on Elder Joshua Grant to speak, who stated that he had just 
returned from a mission of three years. He had traveled through 
several states, and had, in company with his brother, Jedediah M. 
Grant, raised up a church of two hundred members. For synopsis of 
discourse, see Times and Seasons, vol. iv, page 236-7. 

Elder Amasa M. Lyman also preached an eloquent discourse on the 
Book of Mormon, resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment. See 
limes and Seasons, vol. iv, pages 218-20. 




Monday, April 10, 1843. — At 10 a. m. a special confer- 
ence of elders convened and continued by adjournment 
from time to time till the 12th. There were 

. A Special 

present of the quorum of the Twelve, Brigham conference 
Younsc, president; Heber C. Kimball, William 
Smith, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John 
Taylor, George A. Smith, and Willard Richards. 

The object of the conference was to ordain elders and 
send them forth into the vineyard to build up churches ; 
and the following appointments were made, with united 
voices by the conference, agreeable to requests which were 
made by individuals who were acquainted with the several 
places which they represented: — 

Names dnd Appointments of Elders. 

James M. Munroe and Truman Gillet, Aubuim, New York. 

Dominicus Carter, Lockport, Indiana. 

Joshua Holman and John Pierce, Madison, Indiana. 

Wandall Mace and Isaac C. Haight, Orange county, New York. 

William 0. Clark, Richardson Settlement, Iowa. 

Benjamin L. Clapp, John Blair, Wilkinson Hewitt, and Lyman 0. 
LiUlefield, Alabama. 

Alonzo Whitney and J. Goodale, Dublin, Ohio. 

William Eaton, Westfield, Sullivan county, New York. 

Zebedee Coltrin, Graham Coltrin, and James H. Flanigan, Smith and 
Tazwell counties, Virginia. 


Jonathan Dunham, Laurenceburgh, Indiana. 

Lewis Robbins and Jacob Gates have a roving commission in Mas- 
sachusetts, with leave to take their wives, but to keep out of the 

Stephen Mark ham and Truman Waite, Huron county, Ohio. 

John D. Chase and A. M. Hardiug, Pittsfield, Vermont. 

Amos B. Fuller and Cyrus H. Wheelock, Windham county, Ver- 

John S. Gleason and Henry C. Jacobs, west part of the State of New 

Marcellus L. Bates and Norman B. Shearer, Sackets Harbor, New 

Samuel Brown, Maryland. 

Lemuel Mallory and George Slater, Washtenau county, Michigan. 

Moses Wade, some county in New York, where there has not been 
any preaching by the Saints. 

Chillion Daniels and Ebenezar Robinson, St. Lawrence county, New 

William Brown and Daniel Cathcart, Pensacola, Florida. 

Eleazar Willis, go where he likes. 

John Zundall, St. Clair county, Illinois. 

Crandall Dunn, Michigan. 

George Middow, Waterloo, Canada. 

Samuel H. Rogers and Harvey Green, Cumberland, New Jersey. 

Daniel Spencer, Canada. 

Elias Harmar, Chenansro county, New York. 

Harvey Tate, Fort Wayne, Indiana; Robert D. Foster and Jonathan 
Allen, Tioga county, New York. 

William Wharton, of Philadelphia, Wilmington, Delaware. 

Leonard Soby, Peru, Indiana. 

Warner Hoops, York county, Pennsylvania. 

F. D. Wilson and George W. Brandon, Dyer and Montgomery coun- 
ties, Tennessee. 

Elisha H. Groves and George P. Dykes, from Terre Haute to Shaw- 
neetown and Cairo, on both sides of the Wabash. 

Perigrine Sessions, Oxford county, Maine. 

John L. Butler and David Lewis, Lexington, Kentucky. 

Charles C. Rich, Ottowa, Illinois. 

William W. Rust, Worcester county, Massachusetts. 

Aaron M. York, Maine. 

Asaph Rice, Pontiac, Michigan. 

Orson Spencer, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Lorin Farr, Connecticut. 


Stephen Perry, Amos B. Tomlinson, E. G. Terrill, Amos P. Rogers 
Joseph Outhouse, and William Bird, Connecticut. 

Francis Edwards and Charles Ryan, Jackson county, Tennessee. 

Benjamin Kempton, Wheeling to Mount Vernon, Ohio. 

Peter Hess, of Philadelphia, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

Noah Curtis and Luman H. Calkins, Wayne county, New York. 

Stratton Thornton and Sandfoid Porter, south-east part of Illinois 
and Indiana. 

Benjamin Leland and Eden Smith Erie county, Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Swarner, Orleans county, New York. 

Samuel Parker, York county, Maine. 

Jacob E. Terry and Err Terry, Niagara district, Upper Canada. 

Edward P. Duzette and Elisha Edwards, Loraine and Huron coun- 
ties, Ohio. 

Edwin Williams, Hunterdon county, New Jersey. 

Jacob G. Bigler, Lewis county, Virginia. 

Orlando Hovey, Franklin county, Indiana. 

William B. Brink, some place in the interior of Pennsylvania, where 
the elders have not been. 

F. B. Jaeaway and Samuel Rowland, Adams county, Ohio. 

Moses Tracy, Perry county Illinois. 

Alfred Brown, Chautauque county, New York. 

Noah Rogers, Peter Lemons, Joseph Mount, B. W. Wilson, Addison 
Pratt, and John Brown, Vermont. 

Samuel C. Brown to labor on the Temple. 

James Caroll, Henry county, Indiana. 

Levi Stewart and James Pace, Williamson and Gallatin counties, 

Edwin Clegg, Rock Island, Illinois. 

John Cams, Richmond, Indiana. 

Edward Bosley and Rodman Clark, Livingston county, New York. 

James Hutchins and Daniel Tyler, Natchez, Mississippi. 

George M. Chase, Geauga county, Ohio. 

John Royce, Sing Sing, New York. 

Lyman Whitney, Franklin county, Vermont. 

Charles Ryan, Jacob E. Terry, Henry Moore, Samuel P. Carter, Wil- 
liam Isherwood, Samuel Rowland, Dorr P. Curtis, Abraham S. Work- 
man, Jeremiah Hatch, James G. Culberston, Samuel Ferrin, Samuel 
Crane, David Moore, William Brown, Benjamin Barber, Oliver B. Hun- 
tington, Edward Clegg, Daniel McRae, William S. Covert, William B. 
Brink, James Long, and William Empy were ordained elders, with this 
express injuoction, that they quit the use of tobacco and keep the Word 
of Wisdom. 


Almon W. Babbitt was restored to fellowship by the conference. 

Elder Curtis Hodges (who has a wife in this place,) was cut off 
from the Church for his anti- Christian conduct in Warrick county, In- 

Elders James Allred, John Snider, and Aaron Johnson were ap- 
pointed to administer baptism for the dead in the river while the font 
could not be used. 

President Young instructed the elders not to go from church to 
church for the purpose of living themselves or begging for their families 
or for preaching, but to go to their places of destination, journeying 
among the world and preaching by the way as they have opportunity; 
and if they get anything for themselves, they must do it in those 
churches they shall build up or from the world, and not enter into other 
men's labors. 

Several elders have been presented to us having traveled extensively 
the past season, preaching but little or none, living on the brethren and 
begging for their own emolument. Such elders, be they where they may, 
far or near, are instructed to repair forthwith to Nauvoo and give an 
account of their stewardship, and report the amount of leg service 
performed by them, and on their return be sure to keep out of the 

It is wisdom for the elders to leave their families in this place when 
they have anything to leave with them; and let not the elders go on 
their missions until they have provided for their families. No man need 
say again, "I have a call to travel and preach,' ■ while he has not a 
comfortable house for his family, a lot fenced, and one year's provi- 
sions in store, or sufficient to last his family during his mission or means 
to provide it. 

The Lord will not condemn any man for following counsel and keep- 
ing the commandments; and a faithful man will have dreams about the 
work he is engaged in. If he is engaged in building the Temple, he 
will dream about it; and if in preaching, he will dream about that; and 
not, when he is laboring on the Temple, dream that it is his duty to run 
off preaching and leave his family to starve. Such dreams are not of 

When I was sick last winter, some of the sisters came and whispered 
in my ear, "I have nothing to eat." Where is your husband? "He is 
gone a preaching." "Who sent him?" said I; "for the Lord never sent 
him, to leave his family to starve." 

When the Twelve went to England, they went on a special mission, 
by special commandment, and they left their families sick and destitute, 
God having promised that they should be provided for. But God does 
not require the same thing of the elders now, neither does He promise 


to provide for their families when they leave them contrary to counsel. 
The elders must provide for their families. 

I wish to give a word of advice to the sisters, and I will give it to my 
wife, I have known elders who had by some means got in debt, but 
had provided well for their families during their contemplated mission; 
and after they had taken their departure, their creditors would teaze 
their wives for the pay due from their husbands, till they would give 
them the last provision they had left them, and they were obliged to 
subsist on charity or starve till their husbands returned. Such a course 
of conduct on the part of the creditor is anti-Christian and criminal; 
and I forbid my wife from paying one cent of my debts while I am ab- 
sent attending to the things of the kingdom; aud I want the sisters to 
act on the same principle. 

Elder Orson Hyde said, if there is an elder who does not provide for 
his family in the unrighteous mammon, shall we commit to him the true 
riches, the priesthood, missions, etc.? No! 

Elder Wilford Woodruff requested the elders to remember in their 
travels that there was a printing press in Nauvoo, and that it is in the 
hands of the Church, and wished the elders would procure subscribers 
for the papers, collect pay for the same, and forward it to the editor in 

Elder Heber C. Kimball instructed the elders that when they found a 
place where the people wanted preaching, they must stay themselves 
and preach, and not run away somewhere else and write to Nauvoo to 
have elders sent to the place they had left. 

Elders Wilford Woodruff and John Taylor requested that when the 
elders had built up a church, they would write a brief statement of 
facts, unencumbered with useless matter, and forward their communi- 
cation to the editor of the Times and Seasons post paid. 

The elders were reminded that they need not expect any attention 
would be given to unpaid letters directed to the Presidency. 

The elders were also reminded that although they were not sent out 
to be taught, but to teach, yet, if they would prosper in their missions, 
they must be careful to teach those things alone which would be profit- 
able to their hearers; that they must bear their testimony of the truth 
of the fullness of the gospel, and preach nothing but faith and repent- 
ance to this generation; and that if they presumed to teach to babes 
those things which belong to men, they might expect to return to Nau- 
voo as destitute as they went out; but if they adhered closely to the first 
principles, and taught the "Word of Wisdom'' more by example than 
by precept, walking before God and the world in all meekness and low- 
liness of heart, living by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth 
of the Lord, they might expect an abundant harvest; and as doves re- 

o52 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [&.!>. 1843 

turn to their windows in flocks when they see the storm approaching, 
so will multitudes, by listening to their voices, learn of the things which 
await the earth, and arise and flee, and return unto Mount Zion and 
her stakes with them who shall be seals of their ministry in the day of 
celestial light and glory. 

Brigham Young, President. 
W. Richards, Clerk. 

1 gave a letter of attorney to Benjamin F. Johnson to 
sell some of the Church property in Macedonia. 

A conference was held at Batavia, New York, on the 
6th and 7th of April ; Elder John P. Greene, president; 
. „ R. J. Coats, Clerk. Eleven branches, one 
York, confer- hundred sixty-seven members, one high priest, 
forty-eight elders, two priests, and three 
teachers were represented in good standing; a general 
spirit of enquiry prevailing. Seven elders were ordained. 
Elder Greene and others delivered addresses to the elders 
on the signs of the times, the mission of the Prophet, and 
the building of the Temple. 

A conference was also held in the House of the Lord at 
Kirtland, at which was passed a resolution for the removal 
Kirtiand Con- of all the Saints in that place to Nauvoo.